## Sunday, December 15, 2013

### Why Does Grand Unification Seem So Simple?

A rather simple set of three axioms; discrete matter, time delay, and action, close the universe with a shrinking decoherence of matter where gravity and charge are simply scaled versions of each other as the figure below shows. Instead of a higher dimensional string theory or a supersymmetry or a quantum loop embedded into a continuous space and time, the three axioms of discrete matter, time delay, and action augment the more limited notions of continuous space and time. Discrete matter and time delay incorporate a matter-scaled Schrödinger’s equation for action and since discrete matter and time are based on quantum mechanics, a quantum gravity results. Since action in matter time is based on mass-energy equivalence, matter time is also consistent with all of the principles of Lorentz invariance as well.

Along with the three axioms, there are just two fundamental constants in matter time: the aether particle mass, mae, and the matter-scaled Planck constant, hae= h/c2, along with Schrödinger’s equation. The only fundamental particle in matter time is the aether particle, a boson that makes up all matter and all force and aether decoherence time, determines is what determines both gravity and charge forces. Gravity is nicely quantized in aethertime and the fundamental exchange particle of gravity is the aether particle while the fundamental exchange particle of charge is the aether pair, which is a photon. Photons, in effect, are a bound state of aether excitation and photons therefore aether carries both charge and gravity forces. Single photons  as aether pairs carry charge polarization and so it is complementary photon pairs that are the aether of gravity.
Aether decoherence is the intrinsic shrinkage of space with the time period of hae/mae and decoherence couples the radiative decay of stars to each other as matter waves. There is an extra quantum exchange force of gravitational matter waves that couples star motions to a spatial decoherence that stabilizes galaxies, in effect representing the force now called dark matter. Gravitational matter waves are a kind of exchange force that slow galaxy inner stars and speed up galaxy outer stars more than simple gravity action predicts by relativity. Stars in effect surf on galaxy matter waves and in principle, it should be possible for future spacecraft to also surf galaxy matter waves. It is possible to derive angular momentum from galaxy rotation instead of just impulse and that would allow prolonged periods of either acceleration or deceleration within a galaxy.

A fundamental property of matter time is that the universe shrinks with decoherence and does not expand as in the mainstream science of space time. Galaxies in the early aethertime universe are red shifted not because they are moving away from us due to expansion of the universe, but rather galaxies are red shifted because their spectra come from an early universe where values for the “constants” c, h, and α were all smaller in a concerted manner. In fact, the motion of decoherence of the universe blue-shifts the early galaxy spectra and it is the combination of red-shifted galaxies from the early universe along with their blue-shifts due to decoherence that we actually observe as a Hubble constant.

It is not clear why no one has yet discovered this rather simple unification scheme, but there are a number of approaches that are similar. Dirac’s large number hypothesis, for example, and more recently, Christof Wetterich of Heidelberg University has shown how a shrinking universe with uniformly varying physical constants is still consistent with the Hubble red shift. Matter time is just such a shrinking universe.

Both the velocity of light, c, and the fine structure constant, α, and Planck’s constant h all vary together in the early universe and that concerted variation confuses science. Not only was charge force much weaker in the early universe, but gravity force was also much weaker, although ironically, matter was heavier in the early universe in exactly the proportion that gravity was lower in some cases. Once again, even though gravity is weaker in the early universe, the apparent structures of distant galaxies does not change since hydrogen and other atoms are proportionately heavier in the early universe.

This apparent conspiracy of the concerted variation of space-time constants is simply a straightforward consequence of the simple axioms of that describe the decoherence of aethertime. Some local constants vary on a cosmic scale and their variation is very, very small, 0.255 ppb/yr. Although the current precision of time measurement is much greater than this, there is no correspondingly precise measure of mass. In fact, the IPK, the international standard for the kilogram, has decayed over the last 110 yrs by 0.53+/- 0.11 /yr, in agreement with to 0.52 ppb/yr that predicted by matter time within that measurement uncertainty as the figure shows. Mass appears to decrease at twice its true decay of 0.255 ppb/yr because of the assumption of constant atomic time. In matter time, atomic time increases its tick rate exactly complementary to the decay of matter.

The rotation of the earth defines the solar day and measuremnents over that last 60 years or so show a great deal of variability in the solar day. As the figure below shows, the measure of each day changes over a year by a millisecond or so and by several milliseconds over the last 60 years. Earth's rotation is slowing and the two reports show that rate along with the universal decoherence rate of 0.26 ppb/yr. Once again the assumption of constant atomic time leads to the measurement of an apparent slowing of earth's day but it is actually due to the increasing tick rate of the atomic clock.

Both charge and gravity forces have a rather simple and intuitive common explanation in aethertime. The fundamental decoherence of the universe onto itself is the origin of both gravity and charge forces. Charge force acts on the dimension of the hydrogen atom radius while gravity force acts on the dimension of the folded radius of the universe, some ten to the thirty-ninth power different in strength. In effect, the cross section of gravity force is charge force that has folded back onto itself by the folding of the universe back on itself.

Matter time actually unifies more than gravity and charge force since the fundamental action, the decoherence of the universe, is what drives all forces and all actions. Matter time incorporates the same quantum principles of action into both gravity and charge force and so the Klein-Gordon quantum equation that relates charge force to strong and weak nuclear forces still applies. Since time is a spatial dimension in matter time, the broad principles of time dilation in general relativity still apply, but spatial dilation has a much different interpretation.

Decoherence has far ranging consequences. In effect, an object like a star whose matter decays by hydrogen fusion and neutrino and photon radiation couples to the decoherence decay of space as well as to the decay of other stars. Such a coupling adds another term to the virial equation, which is a fundamental relationship between kinetic and potential energies and adds an extra force on the scale of a galaxy normally associated with dark matter. These extra forces result in matter waves that alter charge and gravity forces in concerted ways. Matter waves result in the exchange of angular momentum from the inner to the outer stars, slowing inner stars down while speeding outer stars up.

Why has mother nature waited so long to reveal these fundamental axioms of the universe?

The answer to this question is in the way we imagine space, the absolute nothing that is most of what we believe is all around us. The notion of a lonely dark empty Cartesian space has been and will continue to be very useful to help us predict the actions of objects. However, space has a much different interpretation in matter time compared with space time. We imagine space as an empty object that separates the objects that we see with our eyes and yet that space is an empty three-dimensional Cartesian void.

The absolute nothing that we imagine as empty space is the darkness between the stars and other objects as we gaze into the cosmos. We are often more certain of the absolute nothing of empty space that we cannot see or sense than we are of objects that we can see. There is no question that there is something that separates objects in our world, but is it really a lonely dark void of empty space?

In matter time, it is not space but rather it is time that separates objects, which is the way we think about time. Time is therefore a more fundamental dimension of separation than space and we can imagine that it is time that separates objects and not Cartesian space. Imagining time instead of space for separation gets at the fundamental axioms of the human consciousness as well as to the axioms of matter time.

When we define or name an object or concept, we describe what that thing is like, since that is how we relate objects to each other. Although there are many things that are like the axiom time, there is not any single thing that time is like. Rather, we can only define the time axiom in terms of other axioms, matter and action. Time is then both an action such as a clock tick along with the accumulation of those ticks as matter, the clock hands as a record of action.

Space seems to be a rather simple distance metric that shows object separation as three dimensions of forward and backward, up and down, left and right. All of these Cartesian distances, though, are each equivalent to a time as well, so Cartesian space is really just a projection of time.

Cartesian space is a time-like projection of the underlying reality of matter, time, and action. Our projection of Cartesian space on earth’s surface, for example, is a simplification of the complexity of the action of earth’s gravity, earth’s rotation about its axis, its motion around the sun, and through the galaxy and cosmos. We do know about the complexity of absolute motion in the cosmos and simplify our projection of space with a comoving inertial frame of reference that permits us to project our location and predict action.

Although we are very comfortable with both time and matter as a single dimensions since we measure time by the ticks of an atomic clock and measure the mass of an object. However, there is also a coherent phase amplitude for both time and matter and the amplitude of the aether particle oscillation in a matter spectrum is proportional to the displacement of that action. Although we imagine a volume of space that is filled with the matter of an object, that Cartesian volume is a representation of the time and matter spectra that make up an action.

Actions can be either collision or capture or a mixture of both collision and capture of two or more bodies. Two bodies exchange matter with each other, one gaining mass and the other losing mass, and alter their trajectories as a result. As the two bodies interact, their matter spectra become highly mixed and are no longer distinct. The matter spectrum for this action is a very good basis for predicting the future of that action, but the Cartesian time trajectories are likewise important.