## Sunday, February 23, 2014

### What is Action?

Action completes the trimal of matter and time and action’s simplest and really only true definition is as a product of matter and time. Although we associate action with the integration of object motion through space, object motion through space is simply the way that we imagine action in the universe. The universe is full of an equivalence of matter objects that are gaining and losing mass relative to the universe outside of that object. We call a change in matter from some rest frame motion and we see comoving and countermoving objects as increases in the mass of each object as its relative motion increases towards or away from a given frame of reference. We assign that change in mass to the kinetic energy of the object in motion through space because of the equivalence of energy and mass.

But we can equivalently describe relative motion as a change in an object mass and then project that mass change into a motion through space. In fact, all objects in the universe are shrinking and comoving at the speed of light and that action is equivalent to each object’s proper mass. Thus objects get their proper masses from the primal action of the shrinking universe and objects alter their motion by changing their mass. There is no inaction in the universe since all action drives all matter.

The rate of change of the universe mass in time is the primal action constant, mdot, and that matter decay that determines all force. The potential energy of an object that is subject to a force is equivalent to an object’s change in mass over time. In other words, while kinetic energy or relative motion is a step change of an object’s mass, potential energy or force or acceleration represents a continuous change in object mass over time, and it is the integration of matter over time that is the definition of action.

We associate action with motion through space but it is only with both step and continuous changes in matter that we can project that space. Motion necessarily involves both kinetic and potential energies. Since matter, by definition, is never without gravity force, the change in matter that is gravity is always present in the universe. Objects are always exchanging radiation and atoms with other objects, but the primal dimensions of matter, time, and action are what determine motion and motion is how we project a Cartesian space all around us.

We do not really need the a priori empty void of space to journey from one object to another. It is clear that a journey from one object to another does take time and that time can be no shorter than speed of light. The speed of light is how we can think of time as a means to separate objects in our mind. Even though time only has one dimension while space has three, there are two other primitive dimensions of matter time, matter and phase, that project Cartesian displacement.

In a universe of two counterrotating hydrogens, there is only one world time line and that world line is then equivalent to time. The two objects are trapped in a perpetual ballet of gravity and charge and ionization and recombination and photon absorption and emission. We only need to consider other world lines once there are other objects in our universe, for example, the universe itself. We assign a gaechron amplitude from the matter spectrum of a world line to a dimension orthogonal to time, m, and we further associate a phase, θ, to describe the rotation of m around t, the phase relationship between matter and time. Now with these three dimensions of matter, time, and phase, we have a basis for projecting all three Cartesian dimensions from the primal dimensions of matter, time, and action.

So unlike the approach of relativity, which begins with the axiom of three Cartesian dimensions and adds a time axiom as a fourth spatial dimension, matter time begins with the three primitive dimensions of matter, time, and phase from which matter time projects the three Cartesian displacements. The approach of matter time still means that time dilation occurs with velocity and so spatial dilation also occurs and mass increases with velocity as well, all in accord with relativity and Lorentz invariance.

As opposed to the relativity of space time, space is a result of action in matter time that is a very convenient and useful projection of our minds from a primitive quantum reality. All action derives from matter and its change in time and the proportionality between an object’s change in matter with time to the object’s matter is the Schrödinger equation. Both charge and gravity force derive from the exchange of gaechron and the action of gaechron is what we project as space. It is important to note that gaechron action does not fill space because there is actually no space to fill. Space is a projection of matter action and is not independently necessary for predicting matter action.

Space is therefore very much a timelike projection of our mind's mathematical models and time is the differential of action with matter. Correspondingly, there is a matter and an action that defines space as well, such as the footsteps that are the action of a journey. We imagine objects separated by the empty void of space, but that void has a distance as an integration of matter over time just as objects separated in time have both the matter of a moment and an integration of those matter moments as action. We do not think of time as moments separated by timelessness and so we should not think of space as an empty void between objects.

In other words, there is always a time distance between objects even though those times might be very long and even cosmic. There is always a matter exchange among objects and no object is truly isolated or constant. And all objects are under action and there is no true inaction in the universe.

Time is axiomatic and is the differential of action with matter while space is just a projection of time as the differential of action with matter. Dividing the action of a journey by the matter of a footstep gives us a distance in time. Dividing the action of a journey with the moment of a footstep gives us a distance as matter, which we interpret as Cartesian distance. We project an empty void of space between two objects as a convenient way to separate objects in time but we do not project an empty void of time, a timeless eternity, between two moments of time.

As Einstein showed with his relativity, time is a spatial dimension and that allowed us to better understand the universe. What Einstein did not show, though, was that there was a simpler reality that projects space as a result of action. Since space is a projection of matter action in time, convolving time with space results in the very complex mathematics of general relativity for gravitational force that has thus far resisted any unification with quantum mechanics or with charge force.

Nevertheless, the principles of general relativity are perfectly useful given the limited realm of their application just as are the principles of quantum mechanics useful in their limited realm. But general relativity does not provide a complete description of action for the universe. In particular, dark matter and dark energy are straightforward manifestations of a quantum gravity. A quantum exchange coupling among the matter decays of stars and galaxies and the decay of the universe  provides an additional term to the gravitational virial equation.

The coupling of the matter decay of a star with the decay of its space results in a force. These forces among stars are part of the fabric of the universe and result in resonances called matter waves that are concerted and cyclic variations in gravity and charge forces as well as in the masses of objects. By changing the density and polarizability of matter, matter waves also affect the convection of gravitationally compressed plasma in stars and magma in planets and matter waves also affect the nuclear weak force as well. The cycles of matter waves in our local star neighborhood seem to determine solar cycles as well as cycles of earth’s magmatic activity while our sun’s journey through galaxy matter waves determine the cycles of ice ages as well as other geologic ages.

### What is Matter?

We easily describe what matter is like since matter is just the stuff that makes up all objects and so each object has a single dimension of mass. Objects are made of matter and that matter is finitely divisible into the atoms, electrons, protons, and neutrons of our microscopic universe. Unlike the equally intuitive notion of space, though, matter does not suffer from being infinitely divisible. The hard stop for matter is the electron, which is indivisible, and the quark pair, since a quark pair along with its gluon particle exchange would take the energy of the universe to separate.

Both protons and neutrons are made of three quarks, or really two quark pairs and bonding gluons, that is it as far as matter is concerned. In matter time, the universe is mostly boson matter and the smallest boson particle is the gaechron and gaechron are very much smaller than other matter particles. But even atoms are very small and their numbers are very large. A kilogram of hydrogen is 6e26 atoms and matter is therefore a virtual infinity of particles.

Although we experience matter as the single dimension of intensity or amplitude squared, objects actually exist as matter wave amplitudes that have both phase and oscillation of their amplitude. This means that a particle can exist as matter wave amplitude among any number of world timelines along that matter wave, but that particle will only be realized as intensity on one particular timeline. Our universe is mostly space with only a relatively small amount of fermionic matter, like hydrogen, on the order of one atom of hydrogen per cubic meter of space. However, in matter time most of the matter in the universe is bosonic and is not in the form of fermions. In fact, there is about eleven million times more bosonic than fermionic matter in the universe and so it turns out that shrinking bosonic matter largely drives force and action and force and action are how the universe evolves.

The small amount of baryonic matter, the protons and neutrons of fermionic matter, stands in contrast to the overwhelming amount of bosonic matter. So where are the bosons hiding? In plain sight of course, or maybe plainly out of sight. Although it is tempting to imagine that space is filled with a quantum boson foam from which fermions seethe into and out of existence, that implies that space has an existence independent of the action of matter in time. It is much better to assume space is a projection of matter action and that there is a universal matter spectrum that describes all of the possibilities of objects as matter waves.

Our universe is both a pulse of matter in time as well as a spectrum of the possibilities of matter waves, which is the Fourier transform of the universe matter pulse. However, our universe is not actually made up of the empty void of nothing that we call space. Rather that empty void of nothing that we call space is just a projection of the actions of objects in time and it is matter action that actually separates objects.

Each of time and matter are complex amplitudes with a common phase, but matter and time are also related to each other by the Schrödinger equation. This relationship imposes a quantum phase differential between matter and time, π/2, that is the basis for orthogonality between matter and time as well as the basis of the right angle of Euclidean geometry that matter time projects as space. The conjugate coordinates {m, t} along with the action of the Schrödinger equation provide the basic dimensions of reality that then project a Cartesian displacement that is the right angle of Euclidean geometry.

In the early universe, forces were vanishingly small and matter was an equilibrium of bosons and fermions since there was not yet enough force to condense or freeze bosons into fermions. As the universe pulse collapsed, forces increased and when matter’s rate of change, force, reached a threshold of mp/me, the ratio of proton and electron masses, a fraction of matter froze out from the boson sea as the light elements of hydrogen, deuterium, helium, and other isotopes. Each boson condensate formed into fermions as pairs of atoms with complementary angular momentum.

The same charge force that bound rotating electrons and protons also bound their rotating neutral atoms to themselves with gravity, but in the folded universe, gravity forces were very much smaller than charge forces. The very much weaker gravity force condensed rotating hydrogen atoms into rotating planets and stars that fused hydrogen into heavier elements up to iron. Photon and neutrino radiation not only provides the light and warmth of the heavens, but that radiation also results in star matter decay over and above the decay of space. The coupling of star decay with spatial decay then provides an extra force that transfers angular momentum from inner to outer stars in a galaxy.

Rotating stars cluster into rotating elliptical and spiral disks called galaxies, which are fueled both by the fire of the stars as well as by the angular momentum of the atom. Ever more massive accumulations of matter yield the heavier elements as well as neutron stars, magnetars, and finally, massive rotating boson stars known as supermassive black holes. Boson stars represent the ultimate destiny of all matter in the shrinking universe with an ultimate dephasing of all matter.