**A**ction completes the trimal of matter and time and action’s simplest and really only true definition is as a product of matter and time. Although we associate action with the integration of object motion through space, object motion through space is simply the way that we imagine action in the universe. The universe is full of an equivalence of matter objects that are gaining and losing mass relative to the universe outside of that object. We call a change in matter from some rest frame

*motion*and we see comoving and countermoving objects as increases in the mass of each object as its relative motion increases towards or away from a given frame of reference. We assign that change in mass to the kinetic energy of the object in motion through space because of the equivalence of energy and mass.

But we can
equivalently describe relative motion as a change in an object mass and then
project that mass change into a motion through space. In fact, all objects
in the universe are shrinking and comoving at the speed of light and that action is
equivalent to each object’s proper mass. Thus objects get their proper masses
from the primal action of the shrinking universe and objects alter their motion by changing
their mass. There is no inaction in the universe since all action drives all matter.

The rate of
change of the universe mass in time is the primal action constant,

*m*, and that matter decay that determines all force. The potential energy of an object that is subject to a force is equivalent to an object’s change in mass over time. In other words, while kinetic energy or relative motion is a step change of an object’s mass, potential energy or force or acceleration represents a continuous change in object mass over time, and it is the integration of matter over time that is the definition of action._{dot}
We associate
action with motion through space but it is only with both step and continuous
changes in matter that we can project that space. Motion necessarily involves both kinetic and potential energies. Since
matter, by definition, is never without gravity force, the change in matter
that is gravity is always present in the universe. Objects are always exchanging radiation and atoms with other objects, but the primal dimensions of
matter, time, and action are what determine motion and motion is how we project
a Cartesian space all around us.

We do
not really need the

*a priori*empty void of space to journey from one object to another. It is clear that a journey from one object to another does take time and that time can be no shorter than speed of light. The speed of light is how we can think of time as a means to separate objects in our mind. Even though time only has one dimension while space has three, there are two other primitive dimensions of matter time, matter and phase, that project Cartesian displacement.
In a
universe of two counterrotating hydrogens, there is only one world time line
and that world line is then equivalent to time. The two objects are trapped in
a perpetual ballet of gravity and charge and ionization and recombination and
photon absorption and emission. We only need to consider other world lines once there are
other objects in our universe, for example, the universe itself. We assign a
gaechron amplitude from the matter spectrum of a world line to a dimension
orthogonal to time,

*m*, and we further associate a phase,*θ*, to describe the rotation of*m*around*t*, the phase relationship between matter and time. Now with these three dimensions of matter, time, and phase, we have a basis for projecting all three Cartesian dimensions from the primal dimensions of matter, time, and action.
So unlike
the approach of relativity, which begins with the axiom of three Cartesian
dimensions and adds a time axiom as a fourth spatial dimension, matter time begins with the three primitive dimensions of matter, time, and phase from which matter time projects the three Cartesian displacements. The approach of matter time still means that time
dilation occurs with velocity and so spatial dilation also occurs and mass
increases with velocity as well, all in accord with relativity and Lorentz
invariance.

As opposed
to the relativity of space time, space is a result of action in matter
time that is a very convenient and useful projection of our
minds from a primitive quantum reality. All action derives from matter and its
change in time and the proportionality between an object’s change in matter
with time to the object’s matter is the Schrödinger equation. Both charge and
gravity force derive from the exchange of gaechron and the action of gaechron
is what we project as space. It is important to note that gaechron action does
not fill space because there is actually no space to fill. Space is a
projection of matter action and is not independently necessary for predicting matter action.

Space is
therefore very much a timelike projection of our mind's mathematical models and
time is the differential of action with matter. Correspondingly, there is a matter
and an action that defines space as well, such as the footsteps that are the
action of a journey. We imagine objects separated by the empty void of space, but
that void has a distance as an integration of matter over time just as objects
separated in time have both the matter of a moment and an integration of those
matter moments as action. We do not think of time as moments separated by
timelessness and so we should not think of space as an empty void between
objects.

In other words, there is always a time distance between objects even though those times might be very long and even cosmic. There is always a matter exchange among objects and no object is truly isolated or constant. And all objects are under action and there is no true inaction in the universe.

In other words, there is always a time distance between objects even though those times might be very long and even cosmic. There is always a matter exchange among objects and no object is truly isolated or constant. And all objects are under action and there is no true inaction in the universe.

Time is
axiomatic and is the differential of action with matter while space is just a
projection of time as the differential of action with matter. Dividing the
action of a journey by the matter of a footstep gives us a distance in time.
Dividing the action of a journey with the moment of a footstep gives us a
distance as matter, which we interpret as Cartesian distance. We project an
empty void of space between two objects as a convenient way to separate objects
in time but we do not project an empty void of time, a timeless eternity,
between two moments of time.

As Einstein
showed with his relativity, time is a spatial dimension and that allowed us to
better understand the universe. What Einstein did not show, though, was that there
was a simpler reality that projects space as a result of action. Since space is a projection of matter action in time, convolving time with space
results in the very complex mathematics of general relativity for gravitational
force that has thus far resisted any unification with quantum mechanics or with
charge force.

Nevertheless,
the principles of general relativity are perfectly useful given the limited
realm of their application just as are the principles of quantum mechanics
useful in their limited realm. But general relativity does not provide a complete
description of action for the universe. In particular, dark matter and dark
energy are straightforward manifestations of a quantum gravity. A quantum exchange coupling among the matter
decays of stars and galaxies and the decay of the universe provides an additional term to the gravitational virial equation.

The coupling
of the matter decay of a star with the decay of its space results in a force.
These forces among stars are part of the fabric of the universe and result in
resonances called matter waves that are concerted and cyclic variations in
gravity and charge forces as well as in the masses of objects. By changing the
density and polarizability of matter, matter waves also affect the convection
of gravitationally compressed plasma in stars and magma in planets and matter
waves also affect the nuclear weak force as well. The cycles of matter waves in
our local star neighborhood seem to determine solar cycles as well as cycles of
earth’s magmatic activity while our sun’s journey through galaxy matter waves
determine the cycles of ice ages as well as other geologic ages.