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Sunday, February 23, 2014

What is Action?

Action completes the trimal of matter and time and action’s simplest and really only true definition is as a product of matter and time. Although we associate action with the integration of object motion through space, object motion through space is simply the way that we imagine action in the universe. The universe is full of an equivalence of matter objects that are gaining and losing mass relative to the universe outside of that object. We call a change in matter from some rest frame motion and we see comoving and countermoving objects as increases in the mass of each object as its relative motion increases towards or away from a given frame of reference. We assign that change in mass to the kinetic energy of the object in motion through space because of the equivalence of energy and mass.

But we can equivalently describe relative motion as a change in an object mass and then project that mass change into a motion through space. In fact, all objects in the universe are shrinking and comoving at the speed of light and that action is equivalent to each object’s proper mass. Thus objects get their proper masses from the primal action of the shrinking universe and objects alter their motion by changing their mass. There is no inaction in the universe since all action drives all matter.

The rate of change of the universe mass in time is the primal action constant, mdot, and that matter decay that determines all force. The potential energy of an object that is subject to a force is equivalent to an object’s change in mass over time. In other words, while kinetic energy or relative motion is a step change of an object’s mass, potential energy or force or acceleration represents a continuous change in object mass over time, and it is the integration of matter over time that is the definition of action.

We associate action with motion through space but it is only with both step and continuous changes in matter that we can project that space. Motion necessarily involves both kinetic and potential energies. Since matter, by definition, is never without gravity force, the change in matter that is gravity is always present in the universe. Objects are always exchanging radiation and atoms with other objects, but the primal dimensions of matter, time, and action are what determine motion and motion is how we project a Cartesian space all around us.

We do not really need the a priori empty void of space to journey from one object to another. It is clear that a journey from one object to another does take time and that time can be no shorter than speed of light. The speed of light is how we can think of time as a means to separate objects in our mind. Even though time only has one dimension while space has three, there are two other primitive dimensions of matter time, matter and phase, that project Cartesian displacement.

In a universe of two counterrotating hydrogens, there is only one world time line and that world line is then equivalent to time. The two objects are trapped in a perpetual ballet of gravity and charge and ionization and recombination and photon absorption and emission. We only need to consider other world lines once there are other objects in our universe, for example, the universe itself. We assign a gaechron amplitude from the matter spectrum of a world line to a dimension orthogonal to time, m, and we further associate a phase, θ, to describe the rotation of m around t, the phase relationship between matter and time. Now with these three dimensions of matter, time, and phase, we have a basis for projecting all three Cartesian dimensions from the primal dimensions of matter, time, and action.

So unlike the approach of relativity, which begins with the axiom of three Cartesian dimensions and adds a time axiom as a fourth spatial dimension, matter time begins with the three primitive dimensions of matter, time, and phase from which matter time projects the three Cartesian displacements. The approach of matter time still means that time dilation occurs with velocity and so spatial dilation also occurs and mass increases with velocity as well, all in accord with relativity and Lorentz invariance.

As opposed to the relativity of space time, space is a result of action in matter time that is a very convenient and useful projection of our minds from a primitive quantum reality. All action derives from matter and its change in time and the proportionality between an object’s change in matter with time to the object’s matter is the Schrödinger equation. Both charge and gravity force derive from the exchange of gaechron and the action of gaechron is what we project as space. It is important to note that gaechron action does not fill space because there is actually no space to fill. Space is a projection of matter action and is not independently necessary for predicting matter action.

Space is therefore very much a timelike projection of our mind's mathematical models and time is the differential of action with matter. Correspondingly, there is a matter and an action that defines space as well, such as the footsteps that are the action of a journey. We imagine objects separated by the empty void of space, but that void has a distance as an integration of matter over time just as objects separated in time have both the matter of a moment and an integration of those matter moments as action. We do not think of time as moments separated by timelessness and so we should not think of space as an empty void between objects.

In other words, there is always a time distance between objects even though those times might be very long and even cosmic. There is always a matter exchange among objects and no object is truly isolated or constant. And all objects are under action and there is no true inaction in the universe.

Time is axiomatic and is the differential of action with matter while space is just a projection of time as the differential of action with matter. Dividing the action of a journey by the matter of a footstep gives us a distance in time. Dividing the action of a journey with the moment of a footstep gives us a distance as matter, which we interpret as Cartesian distance. We project an empty void of space between two objects as a convenient way to separate objects in time but we do not project an empty void of time, a timeless eternity, between two moments of time.

As Einstein showed with his relativity, time is a spatial dimension and that allowed us to better understand the universe. What Einstein did not show, though, was that there was a simpler reality that projects space as a result of action. Since space is a projection of matter action in time, convolving time with space results in the very complex mathematics of general relativity for gravitational force that has thus far resisted any unification with quantum mechanics or with charge force.

Nevertheless, the principles of general relativity are perfectly useful given the limited realm of their application just as are the principles of quantum mechanics useful in their limited realm. But general relativity does not provide a complete description of action for the universe. In particular, dark matter and dark energy are straightforward manifestations of a quantum gravity. A quantum exchange coupling among the matter decays of stars and galaxies and the decay of the universe  provides an additional term to the gravitational virial equation.

The coupling of the matter decay of a star with the decay of its space results in a force. These forces among stars are part of the fabric of the universe and result in resonances called matter waves that are concerted and cyclic variations in gravity and charge forces as well as in the masses of objects. By changing the density and polarizability of matter, matter waves also affect the convection of gravitationally compressed plasma in stars and magma in planets and matter waves also affect the nuclear weak force as well. The cycles of matter waves in our local star neighborhood seem to determine solar cycles as well as cycles of earth’s magmatic activity while our sun’s journey through galaxy matter waves determine the cycles of ice ages as well as other geologic ages.

What is Matter?

We easily describe what matter is like since matter is just the stuff that makes up all objects and so each object has a single dimension of mass. Objects are made of matter and that matter is finitely divisible into the atoms, electrons, protons, and neutrons of our microscopic universe. Unlike the equally intuitive notion of space, though, matter does not suffer from being infinitely divisible. The hard stop for matter is the electron, which is indivisible, and the quark pair, since a quark pair along with its gluon particle exchange would take the energy of the universe to separate.

Both protons and neutrons are made of three quarks, or really two quark pairs and bonding gluons, that is it as far as matter is concerned. In matter time, the universe is mostly boson matter and the smallest boson particle is the gaechron and gaechron are very much smaller than other matter particles. But even atoms are very small and their numbers are very large. A kilogram of hydrogen is 6e26 atoms and matter is therefore a virtual infinity of particles.

Although we experience matter as the single dimension of intensity or amplitude squared, objects actually exist as matter wave amplitudes that have both phase and oscillation of their amplitude. This means that a particle can exist as matter wave amplitude among any number of world timelines along that matter wave, but that particle will only be realized as intensity on one particular timeline. Our universe is mostly space with only a relatively small amount of fermionic matter, like hydrogen, on the order of one atom of hydrogen per cubic meter of space. However, in matter time most of the matter in the universe is bosonic and is not in the form of fermions. In fact, there is about eleven million times more bosonic than fermionic matter in the universe and so it turns out that shrinking bosonic matter largely drives force and action and force and action are how the universe evolves.

The small amount of baryonic matter, the protons and neutrons of fermionic matter, stands in contrast to the overwhelming amount of bosonic matter. So where are the bosons hiding? In plain sight of course, or maybe plainly out of sight. Although it is tempting to imagine that space is filled with a quantum boson foam from which fermions seethe into and out of existence, that implies that space has an existence independent of the action of matter in time. It is much better to assume space is a projection of matter action and that there is a universal matter spectrum that describes all of the possibilities of objects as matter waves.

Our universe is both a pulse of matter in time as well as a spectrum of the possibilities of matter waves, which is the Fourier transform of the universe matter pulse. However, our universe is not actually made up of the empty void of nothing that we call space. Rather that empty void of nothing that we call space is just a projection of the actions of objects in time and it is matter action that actually separates objects.

Each of time and matter are complex amplitudes with a common phase, but matter and time are also related to each other by the Schrödinger equation. This relationship imposes a quantum phase differential between matter and time, π/2, that is the basis for orthogonality between matter and time as well as the basis of the right angle of Euclidean geometry that matter time projects as space. The conjugate coordinates {m, t} along with the action of the Schrödinger equation provide the basic dimensions of reality that then project a Cartesian displacement that is the right angle of Euclidean geometry.

In the early universe, forces were vanishingly small and matter was an equilibrium of bosons and fermions since there was not yet enough force to condense or freeze bosons into fermions. As the universe pulse collapsed, forces increased and when matter’s rate of change, force, reached a threshold of mp/me, the ratio of proton and electron masses, a fraction of matter froze out from the boson sea as the light elements of hydrogen, deuterium, helium, and other isotopes. Each boson condensate formed into fermions as pairs of atoms with complementary angular momentum.

The same charge force that bound rotating electrons and protons also bound their rotating neutral atoms to themselves with gravity, but in the folded universe, gravity forces were very much smaller than charge forces. The very much weaker gravity force condensed rotating hydrogen atoms into rotating planets and stars that fused hydrogen into heavier elements up to iron. Photon and neutrino radiation not only provides the light and warmth of the heavens, but that radiation also results in star matter decay over and above the decay of space. The coupling of star decay with spatial decay then provides an extra force that transfers angular momentum from inner to outer stars in a galaxy.

Rotating stars cluster into rotating elliptical and spiral disks called galaxies, which are fueled both by the fire of the stars as well as by the angular momentum of the atom. Ever more massive accumulations of matter yield the heavier elements as well as neutron stars, magnetars, and finally, massive rotating boson stars known as supermassive black holes. Boson stars represent the ultimate destiny of all matter in the shrinking universe with an ultimate dephasing of all matter.

Saturday, February 22, 2014

What Is Spacetime?

The current science paradigm, known as space time, is a very useful and essential part of our perception of physical reality. Science takes the gravity of Newton along with the relativity of Einstein to predict the futures of macroscopic objects like people and planets. Science also takes quantum mechanics to predict the futures of charged microscopic objects like electrons and quarks, which is a realm where gravity force has little impact.

However, this patchwork of theorets is far from complete and is not a self-consistent representation of the universe. That does not mean that precepts of space time are not useful, but it does mean that space time cannot explain some key mysteries and it simply is not very pretty. Instead of some very simple and straightforward basic theory of the universe with a few simple principles, the principles of space time are actually quite difficult to even simply describe. Space time has a large number of axioms, dimensions, particles, and constants, along with a long list of exceptions and mysteries and it is quite a chore simply to list them all and to keep them straight.

First of all, space time has five axioms as matter, time, space, quantum action, and gravity action. There is one matter dimension as amplitude or mass and for quantum force, there is one additional matter dimension as phase, one time dimension except for inside of black holes, three Cartesian dimensions of space except for inside of black holes, and two different action equations, one quantum action except for inside of black holes and one gravity action for a total of eight dimensions. The two dimensions of matter actually have six fundamental particles simplified as two baryonic quarks for protons and neutrons, two leptons as electrons and neutrinos, and two bosons as binding particles, photons and gluons.

There are all total some 61 fundamental particles or dimensions to matter…at least so far, but many of these particles are related by symmetry like antimatter. Of course, that symmetry is only for quantum action and has no meaning for gravity action. And then there are two fundamental forces for matter action, and gravity force does not have an exchange particle and charge force has the photon and gluon as exchange particles. This means that there are 61 dimensions of matter, with the mediating exchange of bosons includes nuclear strong and weak forces as well as charge force.

The patchwork that is space time then has its five axioms and some eight dimensions along with 2 different action equations and along with some 61 particles and 26 fundamental constants…so far…and there are also a number of unresolved mysteries such as dark matter and dark energy as well as the mystery of the inner workings of black hole singularities. And of course the awkward patchwork of gravity and charge forces results in a space time with an elaborate, perplexing, and sometimes inconsistent patchwork of different models and theories that leave the gaps in space time as its imperfections.

With the model of the universe in such a disarray of gaps and singularities and mysteries, it should not at all be surprising that we can't figure consciousness out. There are very few people who even understand the house of mud bricks that science has built and it is a chore for them just keeping the mud bricks patched up after the occasional downpour of alternate ideas.

The Machine of Consciousness

The figure adapts Steve Lehar’s cartoon with a homuncular recursion and other factors that describe the circular recursion of thought and cognition. The homunculus is the little person inside of our minds with whom it feels like we are always speaking. The homunculus is also a part of the physical brain that maps the topology of motor function.

The homuncular recursion is often called absurd because it does in principle go to infinity, since each homunculus has its own homunculus inside that head and so on. But there is absolutely nothing wrong with a homuncular recursion or any recursion as long as it converges in a reasonable number of recursions. When a homuncular recursion converges, it results in a resonance wave of neural action called a thought. Thoughts make sense out of the outer world and are the resonances of inner relational waves shown plotted in time for a deep meditative delta wave. Most thought, of course, is much more complex than the singular thought of a deep meditation or sleeping delta resonance.

There are many math series and computer do-loops that show convergence even though they could also go to infinity in principle and such series make sense as long as they converge to a useful result with a useful precision within a useful time. Recursions are part of the solution of consciousness and fundamentally, neural recursion is that reason that we often end up with circular definitions in our discourse and thought.

There are many important details about consciousness that this figure sketches in, like the role of Cartesian versus relational thought and the important role of memory for consciousness and perception. Memory is our lifetime of objects related to the experience of the moment. However, this assumes that cognition works somehow and jumps right into feeling and consciousness. This figure also does not include the very important roles of emotion and the primitive mind in feeling and choice of action.

Our brains exchange matter with the objects in the world that we perceive and while the typical matter that we exchange is made up of photons of light (i.e. visual images), sensation can also be sound, taste, touch, or smell as well. Don't forget that our body shines on the same object whose light then shines on us as well. The EEG spectra (see also) of the brain show the amplitudes of neural recursion waves associated with thought according to the various states of the mind. The EEG amplitudes are the relational waves of recursions of electrical activity among neurons present in our brains.

These EEG spectra include the thought spectrum from a single frequency resonance that represents deep meditation as well as sleeping delta waves. From the relational neural waves that are connected to objects, our Cartesian machine resonates with the possibility of an object but that projection only exists in our mind as a possibility of our particle-like Cartesian reality. The mathematics of this information extraction are straightforward as we go from neural pulse time relational amplitudes to matter (or frequency) spectra of thoughts. 

In principle, each resonance of an EEG spectrum represents the recursion of a single thought, but our conscious mind is able to keep the resonances of each thought separate from each other. In order to decode the resonances of a single thought needs the phase information as well as the amplitudes. The often neglected phase information of EEG resonances, which is the relative firing of the neural impulses, permits the deconvolution of EEG’s into distinct thoughts out of the power spectrum, i.e., make sense out of the superposition of all of the thoughts of each day. A desirable feeling or thought could be either a peak or a valley in an EEG spectrum and any reasonable experience would be a superposition of a large number of thoughts. 

The deep meditation EEG shows that the single thought peak at 0.70 (1.4 Hz) represents a time wave with a recursion of about 0.70 s, which is close to the period of a heartbeat. Human reaction times are about 0.1 s or so and the brain is typically flooded with neural waves as the beta wave plot shows with recursive waves as fast as ~0.002 s or 500 Hz.

There does appear to be a recursion in the deep meditation spectrum at ~1.4 Hz, although that recursion is only one of many. Synchronized with the heartbeat, though, this peak may be the singular state of awareness that deep meditation feels like and this deep thought may also be the fundamental action of our brain’s clock, which is the heartbeat. 

Assuming a neural action potential energy is 1.6e-30 kg (120 mV at 200 Mohms for 2 ms), the minimum energy needed for recursion would be two neural actions at a matter equivalent energy of 3.2e-30 kg. That would result in an action of 2.3e-30 kg s at 1.4 Hz and this neural action is the exchange matter (or binding energy) for a single neural quantum of thought just as Planck's constant gives the energy from a single photon of light.

This model of the mind as neural resonances would then be very much like that of a laser with neural action waves in place of light waves. Without coherence, the modes of a laser cavity are random and chaotic, and so the resonances of thought only make sense with coherence. Thus the missing piece for being able to deconvolve our mind's relational waves may be a measure of the phase coherence among the recurring thoughts as neural waves that are the EEG. The phase of the delta wave is the key to unlocking the time wave phase coherence of the human mind.

For completion, this last figure shows the EEG waves of various states including our final eternal thought...

Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain
Lulu Xie1,*, Hongyi Kang1,*, Qiwu Xu1, Michael J. Chen1, Yonghong Liao1, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan1, John O’Donnell1, Daniel J. Christensen1, Charles Nicholson2, Jeffrey J. Iliff1, Takahiro Takano1, Rashid Deane1, Maiken Nedergaard1
Science 18 October 2013:
Vol. 342 no. 6156 pp. 373-377
DOI: 10.1126/science.1241224

This paper shows the different states of the mouse mind, awake, asleep, and anesthesized. Especially nice were the delta and alpha wave measurements that correlated the brain cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) infusion that occurs during sleep. Neural proteins like Abeta build up while awake and dissipate during sleep. Brain cells expand while awake and shrink during sleep, thereby drawing CSF in during sleep and pushing CSF out upon awakening.

Saturday, February 15, 2014

What Is Free Choice?

It would seem like the theories of physics and the structure of the universe would have little to do with the theories of the mind and free choice. Even with a valid quantum theory of gravity to complement our quantum theory of charge, it is not clear how that would have anything to do with how our minds work.

Usually, when it comes to free choice, science throws up its hands. These are hard questions that have no answers, it would seem, and of course, philosophy and religion are both perpetual discourses about hard questions that have no answers. Philosophy and religion both feel compelled to ask the questions nevertheless and try to answer them as well, which generates more questions, and so on. Just because matter time unites charge and gravity forces, it would not seem likely that that unification had much of anything to do with free choice.

One theory reasons that free choice is simply what happens when we are awake...okay. Another theory of free choice ties it to the microtubules of the brain, where some kind of coupling with space occurs...okay. But in any event, there is no easy way to define free choice.

Similarly, there is no easy way to define time and space and the three propositions of free choice, time, and space all seem to bedevil our imaginations. Nevertheless, free choice does seem very timelike and it would seem that free choice is more like time and space than it is like either matter or action.

Unfortunately, philosophical discourses often begin without a description of the axioms that anchor the universe. With ill-stated assumptions that are usually implicit as some combination of matter and time and space and energy and so on, such discourses become confused. When the people involved have different beliefs and axioms that anchor their realities, they really can only discuss their different beliefs and their consistency, not any other discourse.

All objects are made of matter, but since energy is also matter by E = mc2, objects are then both matter as well as energy. Assuming that the universe is made up of only matter and time, that then means that there is additional matter beyond that of the objects we sense. Space is usually an object as well, an empty object that we do not sense, and so objects really are matter, energy, and space. Before you know it, there are both sensed objects and objects that consist of nothing but the empty voids between sensed objects. Space is an object that has dimension, but space has nothing in it…except many quantum particles jumping into and out of existence. Now there are different kinds of matter showing up here, there, and everywhere.

Current science bases the universe on a set of axioms that are notably incomplete and full of gaps in understanding.The basic difficulty that we have in describing free choice has more to do with the patchwork of axioms in science than in any intrinsic complexity of the mind. A simpler, self-consistent description of reality seems to show a simpler, self-consistent description of free choice as well.

Philosophers get into trouble very quickly by launching into discourses about the nature of the universe before carefully defining their axioms and beliefs for a universe. This is especially a problem since science does not yet provide a completely consistent set of axioms and beliefs in the first place. What is a property and what is a material? What is time and what is the action principle? Can matter exist as both amplitude with a phase and intensity devoid of phase? Does time have one or two dimensions? The projection of Cartesian space in our minds, for example, is a powerful and innate means for predicting action, but that projection of Cartesian space can blind us to the underlying simpler reality of matter time.

The properties of time and action are axioms and not objects of matter in our universe and so with matter time, our axioms end up defining each other as they should. Matter exists as objects by the differential of action with time and an action of the universe divided by a time moment is what results in matter. Although we think of matter as motionless and without action, all matter is in motion.

Time is the trickiest axiom to think about since our minds are very time-like and that makes free choice just as tricky. Using our time-like thought to think about time is in some sense circular. As we think of time in the present moment, that moment includes the action of our thought about the present moment and we are somehow confused between time as the memory of action and time as the action of thought. As we think of time as a memory of action, we use the action of thought to imagine time as the actions of memory.

But memories and thought are both part of the matter of our brain and maybe we are confused between time as the matter of our memory and time as the matter of our thought. The fact that we obviously think as time passes fundamentally confuses us about thinking of time. Thought seems like time and time seems like thought, so the only way out of this conundrum is to use time's definition to also define free choice.

Time is the differential of action with matter and our free choice is similarly the differential of the action of thought with the matter of memory. The very way that we think is time-like, but our minds can either be experiencing a present action, remembering a precursor, or imagining an outcome.

When we experience an immediate action with sensation-feeling-action, free choice is the action of thought with the matter of memory. When we remember or imagine action, we derive action from the matter of our brain and free choice becomes the action of memory or imagination with the matter of thought. Time is an accumulation of matter moments as action divided by a matter moment where a moment of matter is like a clock tick or a neural moment. Action is the integration of matter objects in time and action is the basic result and cause of force of the universe.

So you can see now why a theory of the universe will also therefore be a theory of the mind. Our free choice has all of the attributes of our reality and that free choice is therefore a mechanism of our brain just like language is a mechanism of our brain. Although free choice is innate to the mind, just like we learn language, we must also learn our innate free choice by observing and imitating others.

Free choice as learned behavior is analogous to language in the sense that even though the ability of language is innate to our mind and physiology, we still must learn a particular language by observing and imitating others in order to communicate. By the age three or four we acquire or learn a simple language and by the age of five or six, we further acquire or learn a simple free choice as well. Just like language is how we use words to share stories, free choice is how we act out those stories with other people.

Just like language allows us to communicate with each other, free choice allows us to act with others and communicate and bond with each other and to have feelings of compassion for and selfishness of each other. In effect, free choice is an evolutionary mechanism of our minds where people freely choose to bond with other people and what we call rational thought is how we learn that we came from some origin, have a purpose beyond that of the primitive mind, and some kind of a destiny. With free choice, we share a Cartesian reality of an outer life and a relational reality or an inner life and bond with other people, animals, and objects in a cooperative civilization that enhances our survival.

Our life and our free choices are both prerequisites for and therefore depend on the primal beliefs that anchor that free choice. There are primal beliefs that anchor free choice just like there are languages that anchor communication, and so we all do need some kind of primal beliefs to anchor our free choice. After all, we can only be alive and conscious if we both think and accumulate memories of experiences, which are the neural recursions of sensation, feeling, and action. Free choice depends on both the action of thought and the static memory of experience and this combination of primal beliefs means that free choice is time-like.

The theories of the mind are many and varied, but cognitive development occurs in certain key stages. By the age of about two, the primary anchors of Cartesian belief are that objects are permanent matter, that time is a sequence of actions, that space is a projection of time, and that prediction of action is the product of objects and time. These primary Cartesian anchors of matter, time, and action then permit learning relational anchors by age of about six that objects all have an origin, a destiny, and a purpose. Once a child learns the Cartesian and relational anchors of belief, the memory of action as experience begins a nascent free choice.

Thus the basic axioms of matter time show up as they should as the basic Cartesian and relational beliefs that anchor free choice.

Sunday, February 2, 2014

Space as an Empty Dark Lonely Nothing

Space is a very convenient way to keep track of objects and time, but our discovery of the meaning of the nothing of empty space reveals a perpetual journey to understanding everything. We must be able to believe in nothing as the something that the background universe is before we can ever hope to discover the way the world works, and it is that discovery that gives us purpose and gives our life meaning.

There is a long history of conundrums that the concept of space generates and magicians very skillfully use the illusions of space to effectively fool us about objects. Infinitely divisible and filled with nothing, the characteristics of space are a recipe for illusion and paradoxes even though empty space is what we discover most of the universe to be. We never seem to doubt the existence of the singular nothing that is an empty void space, which is an absence of sensation, even though we might doubt the existence of an object that we actually do sense. Space, after all, is everywhere the same nothing and has an intuitive and innate feeling of nothing about it in spite of our natural anxiety about the void of empty space.

We do not really experience continuous space and motion in space, we experience changes in discrete objects in discrete time. Because we do not really directly experience space, there is no end to space and motion much like there is no end to or stopping time. We are naturally very anxious about the void of empty space since with nothing to eat or drink and with no shelter or clothing, we would not survive very long. While we do not sense the nothing of empty space and only sense discrete objects and their discrete time delays, we presume that continuous space is an empty void of infinitely divisible nothing that separates objects from each other.

Likewise there are many empty moments of continuous time that we call inaction between the occasional actions of our lives, but we keep the action of continuous time connected between moments that we sense of objects. That is, we do not imagine a timeless eternity of inaction between the actions of our lives.

We often define things by stating what they are like, and continuous space is very much like continuous time. In other words, time and space are in some sense just different representations of the same metric of action. We can only define an axiom in terms of other axioms and so if both space and time are like each other, space and time are just different versions of the same axiom of time delay.

Discrete matter and time delay predict object action in time and the prediction of a Cartesian location or motion or force field results in continuous space and motion emerging from discrete matter, time, and action. In order to understand reality, we must first understand the axioms that define that reality and although the dark void of empty space is a very intuitive and innate concept, we only know if it is an axiom by describing what space is like. It would appear that instead of space being uniquely axiomatic, space and motion both emerge from the actions of objects in time. Space and motion allow us to keep track of separate Cartesian objects with our minds. While space and motion helps us keep track of objects and predict action, space does not exist independent of or orthogonal to discrete time delay.

There is the obvious something that separates objects from each other and therefore objects seem to need the continuum of empty space to move around just like objects need continuous time to prevent everything from happening at once. Given the axiom of action, which is the product of matter and time, where once again action as an axiom is defined by the product of two other axioms, time and matter. We can also define action as the product of matter and displacement, which further suggests that time and space are simply complementary metrics for action.

Since they are complementary, we define space just like we define time; with an action like a footstep or a meter and an accumulation of those moments as action. Although we think of distance in space as a length, the metric of that length is also a part of distance. A separation, then, has both an integration of matter as action and the moment of that action, such as a footstep or a meter.

The discrete time delays that we sense from objects imply that there is a continuous time space and since we move both forward and backward in space, we should also move forward and backward in time. In fact, we only predict objects into a future space based on our memory of them in the space of our past. We have a fading memory or knowledge of the past locations and motions of objects that permits us to predict their futures and so memory is an accumulation of past actions as experience. While we sense past locations and motions for objects, those sensations are simply a memory while the projections of objects' locations and motions in the future are only about the possibilities for our future and not necessarily about which future will occur.

Continuous space and time emerge from action as discrete time delays of objects and it is possible to project continuous time from motion in space and vice versa. The way that objects move is by changing their inertial mass over time and that change in inertial mass tells us about their motion and the way the the universe matter changes around an object tells us about an objects relations with other objects. The electromagnetic or gravitational fields that affect an object are equivalent to changes in decay or shrinkage of the universe and it is the shrinking universe that is the source of all force and motion.