Search This Blog

Saturday, August 5, 2023

Quantum Gravity Biphotons

Another way to look at quantum gravity biphotons is to first consider the single photon transfer from an excited source to excite a phase-matched absorber ground state. As long as the source and absorber are close enough given the dephasing lifetime, a superposition forms between source and absorber. This superposition will collapse by dephasing the source and leaving the absorber excited or by dephasing the absorber and leaving the source excited. The superposition can also result in a chemical bond between the source and absorber and a new molecular ground state.

Although gravity appears to be an attraction between two bodies, quadrupole quantum gravity is a result the bonding of each of the bodies to the collapsing universe, not to each other. Quadrupole quantum gravity involves a complementary pair of photons, a biphoton, that bond each of the two bodies to the universe by a phase match that emits each photon. The gravity shadows between the two bodies is the scalar and vector gravity of quadrupole quantum gravity. Essentially, gravity is the pure collapse of the universe that shows up as bodies shadow each other's bonds to the universe.
The quantum gravity between each of the two stars of a binary involves not only scalar gravity, the only gravity of GR, but also vector quantum gravity. Binary stars therefore execute out-of-plane rosette orbits as a result of the combination of scalar and vector gravity unlike the planar orbits of GR binary stars.

Sunday, June 4, 2023

Quantum Gravity Spin and Phase

Quantum gravity has scalar attraction but also both spin and phase and so quantum gravity differs from relativistic gravity, which has only scalar attraction and neither quantum spin nor quantum phase. Quantum electromagnetism (EM) has both spin and phase and so quantum EM has both scalar attraction or repulsion of static charges as well as the vector forces of moving charges. Quantum gravity then has the scalar attraction of bodies as well as the vector forces of moving bodies.

The collapsing quantum aether universe drives both quantum gravity and quantum EM and while it is the oscillation of quantum aether that drives EM, it is the collapse of quantum aether that drives quantum gravity. All bodies in the collapsing universe lose mass by dephasing and radiation and so stars that lose mass by radiation have even more vector gravity than cooler bodies. Star radiation leads to coupling of star motions around their centers of mass that contributes to scalar gravity and so vector gravity is not apparent with a simple binary star. However, star clusters and galaxies show the added velocities of vector gravity that Science now associates with dark matter.

Like neutron spin and phase, the spin and phase of the universe does not really depend on the motion of charges. However, the universe spin phase does couple with the spin phase of local matter and so there is a slight asymmetry to all universe matter spin phases.

It is quantum gravity that results in the asymmetry of universe spin phase and shows up as a quadrupole asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background. The Mollweide diagram shows the entire sky with the Milky Way along the axis, giving our ecliptic motion as an "s" shape.

Monday, May 8, 2023

Five Great Issues of Science

 Five Great Issues of Science

The five great issues of Science represent the purest Science driven by our curiosity, often termed basic research. These great issues represent the collective curiosity of humanity for all of recorded history and the economic sector Knowledge represents these great issues. In fact, the five great issues of Science are perpetual issues that Science will never completely resolve.

There are two great motions of the five issues of matter, action, life, free choice, and cosmos. The figure shows the motion of quantum phase coherence orders the complementary chaotic motion of classical entropy from the cosmic microwave background to the blackhole destiny. Matter is what makes up the universe while action is how the universe changes matter. Life is an evolution from the chaos of the disordered CMB matter to the ordered life of quantum coherence that gives us the feeling of free choice. We wonder about the origin of the cosmos since the chaos of entropy as well as the coherence of quantum phase make up the universe as complementary matter and action.

There are also many great problems of Science, that Science will eventually solve and so differ from the perpetual nature of the five great issues. The problems of Science are called applied Science, but some are also called basic Science. Among the problems of Science are:

1) Treating Cancer (Health);
2) Treating Heart Disease (Health);
3) Treating other Diseases (Health);
4) Placing People into Space (Knowledge);
5) Reducing Energy Costs (Energy);
6) Improving Transportation (Transportation);
7) Cleaning Up Defense Wastes (Security);
8) Maintaining Economic Stability (Money);
9) Reducing Human Environmental Impact (Environment);
10) Stabilizing Population Growth (Environment);
11) Maintaining World Peace (Security);
12) Maintaining National Defense (Security);
13) Harnessing Nuclear Energy (Energy);
14) Reducing Crime and Faction Conflicts (Security).

Civilization addresses the five issues and many problems of Science for innovation that improves wellbeing. After all, wellbeing includes the habitats of environment as well as the comforts of civilization.

Tuesday, April 18, 2023

Inflation from Printing Money Pays Debts

When the government prints money, inflation results 6 mos later as the figure shows and that inflation pays down government debt due to spending in excess of taxes. However, when you spend more than you make, inflation also helps you pay your debts to purchase things that benefit your future. A mortgage for a house or a loan for a car are both examples of debt financed purchases that benefit your future as long as your income less expenses is enough to make the loan payments. When your debt payments exceed income less expenses, you then become bankrupt and need to sell your house and car in order to survive. If you take on even more debt to remain solvent, that can only be a temporary solution since you would increasing total debt by using the new debt to repay the old debt.

A government collects taxes and other revenues to pay for its spending and borrows money to pay for its big projects. A government prints money and loans that money to banks for a small interest payment that then pays for printing and distributing the money. Banks then use that money for loans that the Banks charge interest and withdrawals that the banks pay interest. When a government spends more than its revenues, it must borrow money just to pay for  that excessive spending. The government prints money called bonds with a promise to pay interest in the future despite the extra cost of debt interest payments, which the government pays for with taxes and inflation. Roads, bridges, dams, and government buildings are all examples of debt purchases that benefit the future as long as taxes less expenses represents tolerable inflation. When government debt payments exceed taxation, government can then raise taxes or take on new debt to repay the old debt. A government takes on debt by simply printing money because the government bond debt is actually equivalent to printing money.

Banks need government printed money as cash to support consumer buying and selling and so banks must take on government debt just to support a producer-consumer economy. The cost of that government debt is in the interest payments for its bonds as well as in the inflation of consumer goods and services. In other words, in the absence of government taxation, inflation is how the producer consumer pays for government spending.

Both government taxes and inflation pay for government spending and so money is just the same promise to pay as are government bonds. While an investor must hold a bond until it matures before reclaiming it as cash, cash is then simply a government bond as money that a consumer can immediately reclaim as goods and services less inflation. The government withholds taxes on every paycheck and so holds that cash for the year.

When debt is inexpensive, producers and consumers borrow more and are therefore willing to pay more for goods and services and that increases inflation. However, producer borrowing more also increases economic growth just as consumer spending more also increases economic growth.

When debt cost is expensive, producers and consumers borrow less and so have less to spend for goods and services and that decreases inflation.

When the government prints money for spending in excess of revenues, inflation occurs as a government tax on producers and consumers to pay for that excessive government spending. A government printing more money than its economic growth will cause excess inflation until the government prints just enough money to sustain growth with acceptable inflation.

Acceptable inflation occurs when the economy is growing and producers and consumers believe the government is not printing money in excess of economic growth.

When the government spends more than its revenues, the government prints more money to pay for that excessive spending and that increases inflation, which then pays for that excessive spending.

When the government spends less than revenues, the government prints less money and that decreases inflation.

When government increases its interest rate, that makes consumer debt more expensive and so decreases inflation.

When government lowers its overnight interest rate, that makes producer and consumer debt less expensive and so increases inflation, but also growth.

Acceptable inflation occurs when the economy is growing and consumers believe the government can repay its debt. Inflation then is just enough to pay for the cost of money and to allow enough excess money for economic growth.

Saturday, February 25, 2023

Update on discrete aether sunspot number prediction... beating NOAA like a rug...


The reported cycle 25 sunspot number agrees very well with the discrete aether prediction. The 11.4 lyr distances of Procyon and 61Cygni from the sun are responsible for the 11.4 yr convection cycle of sunspot activity that has been tracked since 1600.

The well-known dearth of sunspots at the Maunder Minimum in 1680 coincided with a very cold period known as the little ice age. The discrete aether model shows that the Maunder Minimum was due to a particular alignment of the 61Cygni double star orbit.

Saturday, February 18, 2023

Variation of Fine-Structure Constant over Cosmic Time

In a collapsing universe, cosmic time is different from an atom time since atom time is never at rest given the evolution of collapse rate from zero at the cmb creation to the speed of light at the final blackhole destiny. The red shifts of galaxy look-back spectra in the collapsing universe, unlike an expanding universe, are then due to both galaxy cosmic age as well as the velocity of universe collapse. Blackhole horizons in the collapsing universe are no longer singularities even though they still stop atom time and still exist in the flow of cosmic time of collapse.

In the expanding universe of contemporary Science, cosmic time is the same as atom time at rest with a constant expansion, but atom time does depend on relative velocity and acceleration. According to Science, the red shifts of galaxy spectra are then due to increasing galaxy velocities with look-back time in the expanding universe. Blackhole singularity horizons, though, do stop atom time and yet still exist in the flow of cosmic time expansion.

While some constants of Science are constants in the collapsing universe, the fine-structure constant as well as the speed of light do vary with universe collapse, but the fine-structure splittings of distant galaxies still remain proportional to contemporary splittings. Many argue against universe collapse since the fine-structure splittings of distant galaxies are proportional to contemporary fine-structure splittings. However, the fine-structure splittings are proportional to ratio of transition energy and relativistic electron energy, En/(mec2), and this ratio is constant in the collapsing universe [see Griffiths and Schroeter, Introduction to QM, 2018, 7.3.2]. This is because while Eand c both increase in the collapsing universe, mdecreases over cosmic time.

The collapsing universe is Lorentz invariant and maintains the equivalence of mass and energy just as does the expanding universe relativity. But the speed of light varies in the collapsing universe since the speed of light reflects the universe collapse rate for each epoch and not for all epochs as in the expanding universe. The classical electron spin rate, c/α, in the collapsing universe is constant and so α the fine-structure constant varies in the same way as does c.