**Abstract**

Although continuous space and time seem to be fundamental to our
universe along with matter and action, space
and time actually emerge from the fundamental discrete actions of a finite and discrete aether. The universe of discrete quantum aether turns space and time inside out since quantum decoherence
is what really drives the emergence of the order of space and time. Although mainstream science believes that both space and time expand in universe, quantum decoherence shows that space and matter shrink while time and action expand into increasing order.

**Discrete Action of Discrete Aether**

Discrete aether and
action are the fundamental two dimensions from which all other dimensions
of the shrinking universe of expanding force then emerge. Although typical source observers use the
continuous time and space of an expanding universe to keep track of source
actions, enlightened source observers use the discrete action of discrete matter to keep track of changing sources. It is from the discrete actions of discrete matter that the increasing order of a shrinking progeny arises.

Both time and space then emerge from a causal set of the increasing order of source actions for a shrinking universe. The term aether refers to the actual fundamental particle of all granulated matter and light. It is discrete aether that is what actually makes up the granulated universe, not really space and time and both space and time emerge from an entangled causal set of aether action. For example, atomic clock actions define time with collections of discrete actions that are causal-set progeny and observers then simply believe that there exists an infinitely divisible time that has meaning in between the discrete actions of that causal-set progeny. Thus it is the belief that continuous time exists outside of the discrete actions of discrete atomic action that then defines time and observers who believe in continuous time then interpolate between those discrete events to infer a continuous time.

Both time and space then emerge from a causal set of the increasing order of source actions for a shrinking universe. The term aether refers to the actual fundamental particle of all granulated matter and light. It is discrete aether that is what actually makes up the granulated universe, not really space and time and both space and time emerge from an entangled causal set of aether action. For example, atomic clock actions define time with collections of discrete actions that are causal-set progeny and observers then simply believe that there exists an infinitely divisible time that has meaning in between the discrete actions of that causal-set progeny. Thus it is the belief that continuous time exists outside of the discrete actions of discrete atomic action that then defines time and observers who believe in continuous time then interpolate between those discrete events to infer a continuous time.

Although classical knowledge about the way the world works is necessary for wisdom, there are things about the way the world works that are not knowable but rather intuitive and yet intuition is still part of wisdom. People cannot know anything more about matter and action other than to simply believe that they are the way that they are. In other words, people cannot know why matter and action are the way that they are, people can only believe that matter and action are the way that they are.

Likewise people cannot know why they are here, why they are right here right now, or why it is they and not someone else who are right here right now. Our quantum intuition is a bridge between what we can know and what we cannot ever know, the quantum unknowable.

Discrete particles along with causal-set discrete actions make up the granulated universe and
observers infer that there exists both continuous space and time in between the progeny of discrete actions. The
universe does not exist first of all as a continuous flow of time and and a mostly
empty continuous expanding space filled with just a small amount of matter on determinate gravity paths. Rather the universe exists first of all as a very large causal set of discrete aether with
a small amount of aether condensed at the CMB creation into the progeny of matter and
light of sources we now observe. The shrinking granulated universe is then a pulse of discrete aether
and action as shown above and it is from the action of decoherence that emerges
one of the two dimensions of a continuous time.

Although
action normally integrates a kinetic and potential energy difference over continuous time and space for an unbound
source, quantum action is inherent in the matter-scaled Planck constant without
regard to continuous space and time. The matter-scaled Planck constant integrates
the energy of a timeless aether photon and it is from the decay of that aether photon
that time and space emerge from the discrete action of aether. Therefore all
constants of the universe emerge from just the two simple ones of aether
particle mass,

*m*, and the matter-scaled Planck constant,_{ae}*h*. The velocity of an electron spin,_{ae}= h/c^{2}*c/**α*, is constant, and it is from that radius and spin period that both space and time emerge as c and*α*that both*actually vary slowly in cosmic time.*It is a fundamental aether decoherence that drives both charge and gravity forces in the shrinking universe. Thus this notion is subject to measurement and falsification although the decoherence rate of 8.1e-18 s

^{-1}is still beyond current precision of science as the plot shows. This decoherence rate is simply the ratio of gravity to charge forces times the orbit period of any matter. For hydrogen, decoherence rate =

*Gm*. As measurement precision increases more and more, science will eventually measure and therefore discover the fundamental decay and shrinkage that the figure shows…or science will show that it is some other decay or that decay does not exist at all. The fundamental decay time and distance of aether appear to center within the current experimental bounds of continuous spontaneous localization, CSL, as the figure shows. The difference between CSL and aether decay is that aether decay and distance are constants derived from the fundamental properties of a shrinking universe and not some arbitrary CSL parameters (see Carlesso et. al, 2017).

_{H}^{2}/(q^{2}c^{2}1e-7) c/r_{B}
It is the causal set of discrete actions of discrete matter that define sources for an observer and so space and time merely emerge from the causal set of discrete
action of matter from electron spin. Source matter oscillates with the action of
exchange just as discrete source action oscillates and decays by exchange of discrete
matter. The oscillations of matter and action mean that there are corresponding
amplitudes and phases for the matter exchanges of matter actions. There is a
further phase relationship between the oscillations of matter and action that
then defines a quantum uncertainty principle in the traditional manner except
with action and matter instead of displacement and momentum. This means that
there is a limit to the precision of measuring both matter and action and so
the conjugate variables of matter and action conform to the notions of quantum
field theory.

While
quantum field theory entangles matter sources to each other with an infinity of
vacuum oscillators, quantum aether action entangles the same matter sources
together with a very large but finite number of aether action oscillators. Thus
the spacetime quantum fields that entangle sources with each other in an expanding
universe emerge from the simpler notions of the discrete aether exchange of a
shrinking universe.

General
relativity unites continuous space and time into gravity action that results in
determinate and infinitely divisible spacetime geodesics with no inherent uncertainty. As a result, quantum uncertainty and oscillation
and phase have no meaning for the determinate and continuous geodesic paths of relativity. However,
the oscillations and phases of matter action represent gravity as a series of discrete
events for a very weak gravity force.

General
relativity therefore unites discrete matter and action into quantum gravity
action. Quantum relativity then also results in determinate geodesic paths but now it is discrete
matter and action along those determinate paths that makes them discrete. The
emergence of continuous space and time from collections of discrete matter
actions means that sources do actually follow determinate geodesics in space and time. This is because space and time actually emerge from the collections of discrete actions that define those paths. There is still a quantum uncertainty of the collection of discrete matter and action and that uncertainty necessarily limits
knowledge of mass and action along those otherwise determinate geodesic paths. Thus
while a source path follows the determinate geodesic of general relativity,
there are still inherent uncertainties about the matter and action along that
now discrete geodesic path.

Each atom of
matter at the CMB creation entangles its emitted photon and that light shines on us today and these two entangled photons make up the biphoton resonance of quantum gravity
exchange. The photons of the ancient light created not only matter, but also the
biphoton quantum gravity from the determinate geodesic paths of the cosmic
microwave background.

In summary,
for matter and action to be the fundamental things from which all else emerges,
the granulated universe must be made up of a very large but finite causal set of particles called aether. Instead of aether existing in continuous space and time,
though, continuous space and time both emerge as progeny from the causal set of discrete actions and discrete
aether. Since both gravity and charge derive from the decoherence of quantum
aether, they become in effect scaled versions of each other and the discrete
action of aether provides a fundamental causal set for a rational universe.

References

*Experimental bounds on collapse models from gravitational wave detectors*

M. Carlesso,
A. Bassi, P. Falferi, A. Vinante

Here are a
series of blogs with more descriptive words for the nontechnical.

Here are a
series of technical papers only for those who understand the math.