Just like the amplitude and phase coherence that are the two dimensions of matter, time likewise has two dimensions of amplitude and phase coherence. There is a long history from ancient Greece that defines two different kinds of time; Kronos as a kind of absolute time and Kairos as a kind of relative feeling of time. These two dimensions of time along with the two dimensions of matter provide realities for quantum charge and gravity that relate time and matter with the Planck action constant, h, in units of kg s. An objective atomic Kronos time is an interval dimension while a subjective decoherence Kairos action is the second time dimension.
While we think of sources as existing without change in one place in space until something happens, sources are always oscillating out of and back into existence including even the universe itself. Sources therefore change and move and evolve, albeit sometimes very slowly at the limit of 0.26 ppb/yr and time emerges from the action of that change. While we imagine inaction as the complement to action, it is only action that exists as less or more action and so an evolving universe is always matter in action. In a quantum universe, there is never really complete inaction and inaction simply means that a source matches our own action or motion. Inaction means that a source evolves just like time and just like matter and so there is never really inaction, just less or more action.
Figure 1 shows Cartesian interval time as a line of either infinitely divisible moments or finite moments running from past to present to future. Time in this sense is just like a Cartesian displacement in space and this Cartesian view of time is part of general relativity where there is a continuous time with a determinate future. Block time is very similar except time is now made up of finite moments or intervals that run like the frames of a movie camera from past to future. The future for block time can be determinate and just waiting for the present to catch up or there can be many futures.
Relational source action time is an alternate view that tells time by the way that a source is put together as Fig. 2, which is a more primitive relational observer action time. This fossil view of time means that moments of matter come together with past actions and form a source of the present moment from any number of paths. By sensing the source with a matter spectrometer like our consciousness and knowing about the source’s fossil past, an observer can then tell time with any source. There are then a large number of possible futures associated with that present source, but there is no determinate future since all bonding is subject to quantum uncertainty.
Sources with very highly structured and periodic actions tell time as clocks in Fig. 3 as relational source action time. Clocks show very regular action and therefore keep a very precise interval time with moments of matter as long as the moments are very short and periodic. However, source actions are reversible since they are built by quantum bonds and it is therefore necessary to impose an overall decoherence action time in order to point the arrow of interval time. This decoherence or action time can be thermal as in a clock power source running down or a person aging, or indeed the decoherence can be intrinsic and the whole clock shrinks. A universal decoherence points an action time direction as well as a universal quantum force from both gravity and charge.
Axioms really defy further definition by any single term and so axioms are self-evident characteristics of the universe. Time emerges from the two axioms of matter and action and the trimal of matter, time, and action closes our universe. Matter is then a naturally more static dimension while action is a naturally more dynamic dimension and time emerges as the differential of action with matter, dS/dm.
On the one hand, we think of interval time as a single static dimension of the past, since the past is like the frozen hands of a clock and does not seem to change except in the interval of a present moment. On the other hand, we also think of action time as a dynamic dimension that is all about the present moment, which changes and evolves into any number of possible futures. Just as we watch the second hand intervals of a clock evolve into as seemingly determinate future, we also imagine time in our experience of action that involves many possible futures.
Our past is a series of moments or intervals like the frames of a video camera, but the present is a action without a determinate future or fate awaiting us in predetermined future frames. But is a moment of interval time accumulating as a past memory or a moment of action time counting down into a possible future?
Roughly speaking, action time represents the aether decoherence of past, present, and future while interval time represents the dynamic and immediate atomic time for an action in the present. Although we think of matter as largely static, just like time, all matter has both a slowly changing as well as a rapidly changing dimension. Our concept of matter as a single dimension of mass comes from the measurement of the gravity mass for a source, but the mass of a source is also in constant evolution as it exchanges matter with other sources. This second dimension for matter is a more dynamic dimension that is how sources exchange matter with each other.
Matter as an axiom, you see, is ultimately defined only by both time and action.
Dipole light is an oscillation of charge and light's color and polarization oscillate orthogonal to its propagation direction. Light is therefore a matter wave spectrum that is the dynamic exchange that bonds sources to observers in the universe. When light propagates, there is a complementary quadrupole biphoton exchange that bonds the matter left behind. Propagating light always has an entangled complementary photon and that biphoton quadrupole is in exchange with the boson matter from which space emerges. When an observer absorbs light from a source, that exchange bonds observer to source for some period of time.
Pairs of light photons called biphotons also represent a coherent quadrupole of neutral oscillation. The quadrupoles of biphoton light represent the propagation of matter amplitude as neutral gravity force. Each source also exists as a matter wave, both as a propagation of matter amplitude and an oscillation of that amplitude in time orthogonal to its propagation. The oscillations of matter waves from sources are extremely high frequency and therefore do not often impact our prediction of action. We like to think of a source that is not moving as stationary, but even stationary sources are comoving with an inertial frame of reference and undergo constant exchange and action with the boson matter of the universe.
Our notion of static time makes it seem like the future is also also frozen into moments that just wait to be played like a movie already recorded in Kronos time. This is the karma or fate of a determinate universe. Our notion of dynamic time, however, makes it seem like there exist an infinity of infinitely divisible present moments from which emerges an infinity of possible futures. The universe of discrete aether has two dimensions of time that emerge from both memories of past actions along with the emergence from the present moment of a large but finite number of possible futures. A two dimensional A-B time emerges from the discrete action of discrete aether as just a possibility from each moment.