The nothing of empty space seems to be what makes up most of the universe and is the single most important common intuition of mainstream science. Sources move around in the emptiness of space over time and observers keep track of those sources and predict their futures in space and time. However, making the nothing of empty space into an source in effect creates something out of nothing and so there are well-recognized limitations for notions of continuous space and time.

Space simply does not include all sources in the universe and the notions of space and time do not apply to ether very large or very small sources. The space inside of a black hole, for example, has no meaning despite a black hole occupying a well determined volume in the universe. Likewise the microscopic space called the Planck volume at the center of all particles likewise has no meaning either. The space inside of an electron likewise has no meaning.

Mainstream science describes the universe from the foundational notions of mass, empty space, and time and science defines these fundamental quantities or axioms only by the rules for their measurement. A one kg bar of an iridium platinum alloy defines mass and the wavelength and frequency of light defines both length and time. Thus science defines its axioms as continuous and infinitely divisible even though science knows that quantum reality is discrete.

Therefore there is a simpler way of describing the universe beginning from discrete matter and discrete action instead of continuous matter, space, and time. The discrete nature of matter and action in the universe finally includes the notion of quantum phase and thereby unifies charge, gravity, and consciousness into one single foundation. But there science must significantly change its foundation principles of physical reality and in particular, continuous matter, space, and time all emerge from discrete matter and action.

Mainstream science has not yet succeeded in unifying charge and gravity due to the limitations of the notions of continuous space, motion, and time. Furthermore, the nature of consciousness is a fundamental part of objective reality since it is by subjective notions of reality by many observers that science comes to agree on an objective reality of sources.

Given a proportionality between matter and action, dimensionless ratios of either discrete time delay or discrete space emerge. Time and space both emerge as ways for observers to keep track of sources and predict their futures and discrete time and space naturally emerge from discrete matter and action. All spatial separations are equivalent to time delays and all motion is equivalent to changes in mass by the matter-energy equivalence principle. The alternate coordinates of discrete aether and discrete action augment the standard notions of continuous space, motion, and time in the aethertime scheme that finally unites charge and gravity forces as a common aether decoherence rate. The now compatible forces are both part of the universal quantum force of aether decoherence. Discrete aether and action keeps track of the objects of physical reality and augment the more limited notions of continuous space and motion and time for tracking those same objects.

Instead of the four dimensions of spacetime for Einstein's general relativity, a discrete aether universe has two dimensions for each of matter and action; amplitude and phase. For quantum action there are many possible paths for an object while there is only one possible future for GR action along its geodesic. Within the limitations of continuous space and motion, the actions of objects represent spatial displacements as well as moments of time. But what is not very clear is that a spatial displacement along the dimension of motion and time evolution are both essentially identical with the discrete aether dimension of action.

Space simply does not include all sources in the universe and the notions of space and time do not apply to ether very large or very small sources. The space inside of a black hole, for example, has no meaning despite a black hole occupying a well determined volume in the universe. Likewise the microscopic space called the Planck volume at the center of all particles likewise has no meaning either. The space inside of an electron likewise has no meaning.

Mainstream science describes the universe from the foundational notions of mass, empty space, and time and science defines these fundamental quantities or axioms only by the rules for their measurement. A one kg bar of an iridium platinum alloy defines mass and the wavelength and frequency of light defines both length and time. Thus science defines its axioms as continuous and infinitely divisible even though science knows that quantum reality is discrete.

Therefore there is a simpler way of describing the universe beginning from discrete matter and discrete action instead of continuous matter, space, and time. The discrete nature of matter and action in the universe finally includes the notion of quantum phase and thereby unifies charge, gravity, and consciousness into one single foundation. But there science must significantly change its foundation principles of physical reality and in particular, continuous matter, space, and time all emerge from discrete matter and action.

Mainstream science has not yet succeeded in unifying charge and gravity due to the limitations of the notions of continuous space, motion, and time. Furthermore, the nature of consciousness is a fundamental part of objective reality since it is by subjective notions of reality by many observers that science comes to agree on an objective reality of sources.

Given a proportionality between matter and action, dimensionless ratios of either discrete time delay or discrete space emerge. Time and space both emerge as ways for observers to keep track of sources and predict their futures and discrete time and space naturally emerge from discrete matter and action. All spatial separations are equivalent to time delays and all motion is equivalent to changes in mass by the matter-energy equivalence principle. The alternate coordinates of discrete aether and discrete action augment the standard notions of continuous space, motion, and time in the aethertime scheme that finally unites charge and gravity forces as a common aether decoherence rate. The now compatible forces are both part of the universal quantum force of aether decoherence. Discrete aether and action keeps track of the objects of physical reality and augment the more limited notions of continuous space and motion and time for tracking those same objects.

Instead of the four dimensions of spacetime for Einstein's general relativity, a discrete aether universe has two dimensions for each of matter and action; amplitude and phase. For quantum action there are many possible paths for an object while there is only one possible future for GR action along its geodesic. Within the limitations of continuous space and motion, the actions of objects represent spatial displacements as well as moments of time. But what is not very clear is that a spatial displacement along the dimension of motion and time evolution are both essentially identical with the discrete aether dimension of action.

The equivalence of time and space as proportional displacements means that the continuous time and space of spacetime emerge from the discrete action of aether. Although quantum action is usually based on the conjugates of continuous space and momentum, the corresponding aethertime conjugates are discrete aether and action. Discrete aethertime provides a common quantum basis for both charge and gravity forces even while aethertime is consistent with the principles of both relativity and quantum action.

Aethertime therefore unifies gravity with quantum action by using that second time dimension, the aether decoherence time that we already know exists outside of the atomic time of our mind. This involves time and matter that augments space or alternatively, space and matter as emergent time. Even though our intuition as well as mainstream science use the whiteboard of spacetime for predicting action, predicting the future of an object based on just matter and action is also possible. It is very difficult to imagine that space and time are a result of action of matter and action instead of spacetime as a place for action to occur. The key to a quantum gravity is in the realization that continuous time and space are just two different representations for the same reality of discrete aether and action.

Aethertime therefore unifies gravity with quantum action by using that second time dimension, the aether decoherence time that we already know exists outside of the atomic time of our mind. This involves time and matter that augments space or alternatively, space and matter as emergent time. Even though our intuition as well as mainstream science use the whiteboard of spacetime for predicting action, predicting the future of an object based on just matter and action is also possible. It is very difficult to imagine that space and time are a result of action of matter and action instead of spacetime as a place for action to occur. The key to a quantum gravity is in the realization that continuous time and space are just two different representations for the same reality of discrete aether and action.

Space and time emerge from the discrete actions of objects and therefore space and time are all mixed up with discrete aether and action. In the common parlance of mainstream science, space and time emerge from the actions that occur with discrete aether and continuous time emerges from the discrete time delays of objects. Given the fact of a constant speed of light, time dilation and matter changes that occur depend on the frame of reference. Projecting spatial displacements from discrete changes in time delay and matter results in the dilation of space as well. Since all prediction of relativistic action occurs with discrete matter and time delay, the 4-space for predictions of GR remain valid within the limits of continuous space and time.

In aethertime, photon and other matter exchange explains all force and the primal force is aether decoherence. A dipole photon exchange particle binds electrons to protons together into atoms and molecules and a mono-quadrupole biphoton exchange particle binds neutral atoms to each other in the universe as gravity force. This notion, in a nutshell, describes the way that discrete aether and quantum action unify charge and gravity forces.

Light is a rather unusual matter wave made up of photons created at the CMB entangled with the photon exchange particle that binds charges together as well. An exchange of a photon between an electron and nucleus represents the charge force that stabilizes an atom, which is the basis of quantum electrodynamics and is well accepted by science. The entanglement of bonding photons with those emitted photon at CMB creation is the entangled biphoton that is gravity.

In discrete aethertime, it is actually coherent mono-quadrupoles of biphotons that are the exchange particles for gravity force and that is certainly not yet a common understanding in science. Most ideas of quantum gravity in science invent a new exchange particle called a graviton, but gravitons or any other gravity particle simply cannot exist in the current conundrum of continuous space and time. In contrast, the simple notion of biphoton discrete exchange determines gravity force with a really appealing symmetry that a complementary photon pair exchange that binds atoms to each other in the universe.

The figure shows two hydrogen atoms that are each bound by a photon exchange between their respective electron and proton. In the process, each atom must lose that equivalent photon energy as a photon to the universe. This emitted photon is really both a wave and a particle and is in an exchange that binds each atom to the boson matter of the universe.

In order for an atom to form from an electron and proton, it must radiate its binding energy as a complementary photon and that emitted photon is equivalent to the atom’s binding energy, which is the Rydberg energy for hydrogen. There actually can be and are many photon emissions and absorptions of various energies and so this description just simplifies the more complex chaos of many events into one single entangled event.

The Rydberg photons emitted from a pair of hydrogens exchange with the universe and that exchange force is part of what binds each hydrogen atom to the matter of the universe with an orbit that is coherent with the orbit of the electron around the proton. The photon exchange from two such atoms binds each atom to the universe mass and the shrinkage of the universe about those atom’s center of mass represents what we interpret as the binding force of gravity between these two particles.

The two emitted photons represent coherent polarization phases between the two atoms. Charge polarization still dominates the forces between two atoms and it is only when a large matter accretion reaches about 1e39 atoms that gravity force is equivalent to charge force for two bodies. Two such bodies exchange large amounts of light with the universe and with each other as well and that exchange results in what we call gravity action.

Since there are two complementary spin = 1 photons, each gravity state is a multiplet of spin = {0, +/-2}. Although the gravity of general relativity dilates space and time, there is still just one future for the determinate paths of gravity action under general relativity, and this causality is consistent with our intuition. There are many strange results of general relativity having to do with simultaneity and frame of reference, but objects far away from a gravity action still do not affect a local action very much.

The phase coherence of quantum gravity provides many more possible futures as compared to the determinate geodesic paths for the gravity action of general relativity. Quantum electrodynamics fills space with an infinity of vacuum oscillators as a means of moving charge and light around. Therefore a key step called renormalization ratios out that infinity and focuses only on those futures that are most likely. Aethertime's quantum gravity is based on a very large, but finite, number of boson particles in the universe and so also depends on a kind of renormalization to focus on those futures of quantum gravity action that are most likely.

Of course, this schematic is a gross oversimplification of the difference between charge and gravity forces. There are quantum exchange and phase effects between two hydrogen atoms that actually forms a molecular bond that is very much stronger than gravity force. Then, hydrogen molecules bond to each other as a liquid or solid with dipole-induced dipoles, higher multipoles, including further quantum exchange forces. Once an object of hydrogen has accreted sufficient mass through all of this charge force bonding, the center of the accretion begins to show the effects of gravitational compression of biphoton exchange and the concomitant heating.

The heat generated by gravitational compression is equivalent to the gravitational binding states of that object as well as its charge binding states. The light emitted as a result of the object's gravitational heat represents the gravity bonding states of the object and correspondingly the gravity force between that object and other objects. All of the photon pairs emitted by an object contribute to the quadrupole that we call gravity force.

What this all means is that gravity force and charge force are both due to the same decoherence rate of universe matter. Charge force represents the inner decoherence of dipole force on the dimensions of the atom and electron while gravity force represents the outer decay and the dimensions of the folded quadrupole universe and its fundamental boson, the gaechron,

*m*. Just like all of the theories of quantum gravity, there is a smallest scale of matter or energy called the Planck scale and the gaechron mass is just the result of the matter spectrum from a Fourier transform of the universe time pulse.

_{ae}