Saturday, November 9, 2019

Classical versus Quantum Photons

Einstein was the first to explain the electric impulses of the photoelectric effect as a quantum consequence of single photons in 1905. Although Planck had some years earlier in 1900 proposed the notion of a quantum of light to explain the nature of blackbody emission, it was Einstein who first recognized the quantum nature of light photons as particles in the photoelectric effect. Light made up of finite photon particles instead of the classical determinism of infinitely divisible light waves birthed the uncertainty of discrete quantum mechanics.

Classical physics had long accepted the notion of light as an infinitely divisible wave and then quickly adapted to the semiclassical notion of light as a large number of single photons or electromagnetic pulses in time and space. However, even such a semiclassical photon of light shows the uncertainty principle and so photons are not subject to classical determinism. Rather, a single quantum photon obeys the quantum uncertainty of superposition of many paths, polarizations, and energies. Specifically, while classical determinism argues that a classical single photon particle can only be on one path at a time with well-defined polarization, frequency, and location and all simultaneously knowable to arbitrary precision.

The single quantum photon exists instead with an uncertain outcome as a superposition of paths, polarizations, and frequencies. As a result, there is a well-defined limit to the precision of any simultaneous single photon measurement of path, polarization, and frequency. Nevertheless, many of the semiclassical notions of a photon survive and result in much quantum confusion that precludes determinate outcomes.

Photon exchange is the basic quantum glue that bonds all matter together and photon exchange is what bonds both charge and gravity matter. The outcome of a photon precursor is a quantum bonding state between emitter and absorber matter. While single photon exchange bonds charge matter by exchange and complementary ephoton mission, biphoton exchange bonds gravity matter by the complementary exchange and emission of biphotons.

A photon is an electromagnetic pulse that has a spectrum of frequencies in its Fourier transform. This fundamental relation between time and frequency is the foundation of the uncertainty principle. A short pulse of light is made up of a broad frequency spectrum and a long pulse of light is made up of a correspondingly very narrow spectrum. Thus a photon is a fundamentally quantum object that can nevertheless behave like a classical particle of matter under certain conditions. A classical particle of matter has a well defined path, mass, polarization, and location and a particle of matter can behave like a photon under certain conditions as well.

A charge bond is a photon exchange with complementary emitted photons since it is necessary to lose heat to bond charges. A gravity bond is a biphoton exchange that also has a complementary emitted biphoton since it is also necessary to lose heat to bond gravity matter. As a result of quantum gravity, atomic hydrogen can exist as a cold vacuum lattice cloud. As the cloud density grows with more and more cold hydrogen, eventually molecular hydrogen forms and the lattice spacing decreases until it nucleates. At this point, there is a transition from gravity to charge dispersion and nascent stellar binary nucleates condense with orthogonal spins. One-half of the cloud lattice collapses into one spin while the other half collapses into the orthogonal spin.

Quantum gravity bonds form and emit heat in a concerted spiral of condensation in the nuclei of molecular clouds. However, quantum gravity biphotons are 1e-39 less than quantum charge photon and so represent a virtual continuum of spiral states with orthogonal spins. While one spin condenses with like spins into one spiral, the orthogonal spin condenses with complementary spins into the complementary spiral of a stellar binary. It is important that the stellar nuclei continue to lose heat as the molecular cloud collapses with radial accretion. Heat loss occurs from hot axial jets that result from the cold radial accretion until fusion eventually ignites the stellar nuclei into nascent stars.

Once again, there is really no such thing as a classical photon because a photon is a pure quantum manifestation. Complementary to an atom as a discrete quantum of matter that is a superposition of electrons and protons, a photon is a discrete electromagnetic quantum that is a superposition of frequencies, polarizations, paths, and locations. However, there are various semiclassical simplifications for a photon that people find useful in certain contexts just as there are for atoms. For example, a simplified semiclassical photon may have a single frequency even though a quantum photon is always a spectrum of frequencies and never a single frequency.

A semiclassical single photon may have a single polarization state  even though a quantum photon is always in a superposition of polarizations. A polarized photon will pass an aligned polarizer, which then reflects other polarizations. In contrast, a single quantum photon always exists in a superposition of polarization states until interacting with a polarizer to form a probabilistic polarization for each single quantum photon. Thus a single quantum photon may not have a well-defined polarization state before it interacts with the electrons of a polarizer. Note that a linear polarized single quantum photon is still a superposition of right and left circular polarizations.

A semiclassical single photon has a well-defined pulse path and location and cannot be in two places at the same time. However, a quantum single photon exists as a probabilistic superposition of all locations in the universe. At any given moment, that single quantum photon can exist as any number of paths and locations with various probabilities.

A semiclassical single photon still has a well defined frequency distribution and phase called a spectrum. A semiclassical photon spectrum exists as a Fourier transform of its time pulse and so the photon spectrum relates the time pulse and frequency. A quantum single photon is a superposition of frequencies and phases that are its spectrum and the Fourier transform relates photon pulse and spectrum. The quantum photon spectrum and pulse relationship is the quantum uncertainty principle between time and frequency.

Classically, there is no limit to the precision of simultaneous measurement of a particle momentum and location. A photon, however, has a discrete quantum limit to the precision of simultaneous measurements of both photon frequency and location. As a result, the more localized the photon, the broader the frequency spectrum becomes and eventually, the light wavelength exceeds the apparatus size. At that point, the measurement becomes meaningless.

Likewise, a semiclassical photon may have a well defined average location in time, but a quantum photon is always a distribution of locations, never a single location. A semiclassical photon may have a well-defined single path, but a quantum photon always exists on a distribution of paths, never just a single path. Moreover, matter has the complementary quantum properties of light.

Matter has a well-defined average location in time and matter is stationary while light only moves at a constant speed. Matter also oscillates complementary to light with a distribution of frequencies and also has a distribution of locations about an average location. An atom of matter has an average mass or frequency, but matter is also a distribution of masses about that average mass. While there are fundamental particles with very well-defined rest masses, quantum particles really only have inertial mass complementary to light. Rest mass just represents a particle’s interaction with other matter, which photons of course mediate.

Finally, classical matter has a well-defined average path, but quantum particles exist on a distribution of paths. However, upon interaction with other matter, any such distribution decays very quickly into the one path that we call our rest frame reality.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Classical Versus Quantum Narratives

Classical versus quantum are really two very different but still related narratives that underpin physical reality. While our macroscopic reality is very classical, our microscopic reality is quantum and so the two narratives derive from the very different natures of our macroscopic versus microscopic realities. Classically, the visual, audio, touch, taste, and odor contrasts of matter motion through space and time define our macroscopic reality, while the quantum amplitude and phase of much higher resolution spectra refine our microscopic reality.

In particular, we only sense a very low resolution and limited visible light spectrum and do not sense the phase or polarization of that light at all and there are similar low resolution spectra for all of our other senses as well. These low resolution spectra contrast with the very high resolution spectra that science records from many different devices. Science measures light, sound, impulse, chemistry, and odor not only at other vastly different wavelengths, but also at much higher resolution that also include phase as well as wavelength in its spectra. While there is a great deal of overlap between our macroscopic and microscopic narratives, there are many dramatic differences as well.

In our macroscopic reality, matter does not appear to exist in the same exact place at one time nor does the same matter appear to exist in more than one place at a time, either. Classically there are knowable precursors for every outcome in spite of the fact that we might not know those precursors because they might be hidden or otherwise obscured by noise. In other words, there is no classical limit to the precision of our knowledge of classical precursors despite the noise.

In our microscopic reality, though, matter can exist in the same exact place and time as other matter and the same matter can also exist in more than one place at a time as well. This is simply a consequence of quantum superposition and entanglement and does not violate causality. Thus there are still quantum precursors for every quantum outcome, but we may not be able to precisely know or measure those quantum precursors. Unlike the unlimited precision of classical knowledge, there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision of our knowledge of quantum precursors.

In both classical and quantum narratives, a pulse of light exists with both an average frequency as well as an instantaneous amplitude versus time and amplitude versus frequency. In addition, a pulse of light also has a single classical polarization state, but always a quantum superposition of two orthogonal polarization states. While a classical light pulse exists with a single well-defined polarization state, a quantum light pulse exists in a superposition of two orthogonal polarization states.



Therefore a single quantum photon always exists as a superposition of polarizations in contrast to a single classical photon that only exists with a well-defined single polarization. It is not possible to reconcile the notions of non oscillating classical matter with the oscillation of classical light. This represents the irreducible conundrum of classical versus quantum narratives. While a pair of correlated oscillating quantum states can represent a classical state, there is no classical representation for a single quantum state.

The quantum gravity biphoton reconciles classical determinate gravity relativity with the discrete uncertainties of quantum charge. While the photon-matter exchange of charge is necessarily quantum, biphoton-matter exchange is classical because of the entanglement and symmetry of quantum phase. Unlike the microscopic single photon exchange of charge with uncertain outcomes, the macroscopic biphoton exchange of gravity occurs with the determinate outcomes of universe change. The uncertainties of quantum gravity only show up at the scale of the universe while the uncertainties of atomic charge show up at the atomic scale.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Fast Changes versus Slow Changes

There is a fundamental confusion between how different very fast changes are from very slow changes in the universe. Even though there are two very different clocks for slow versus fast changes, mainstream science believes that there is still only one time dimension. While the universe changes only very, very slowly, atoms and molecules literally change at the speed of light and even the atoms and molecules of rest matter undergo very fast and perpetual changes. What looks like quiescent matter is actually a cauldron of seething electrons, protons, and neutrons in perpetual motion and change and yet on the scale of the cosmos, we sometimes see no change at all.

Mainstream science believes that the very slow changes in the universe are simply manifestations of the very fast atomic changes of one time dimension. This is not correct. While atomic clocks show a very precise time for atoms and molecules, the dephasing of two atomic time clocks reveals a second time dimension of very slow universe time. Mainstream science believes the very slow changes in the universe today stem from the very fast changes of a big bang followed by another whole universe of very fast changes known as inflation. Finally, the very slow changes we see today just derive from the CMB (cosmic microwave background) creation.

However, there is no sense to what caused the big bang and there are over twenty fundamental particles and constants as well as their antimatter equivalents and those constants have existed since just after the very fast changes of the big bang and inflation. Thus, the patchwork belief of mainstream is a narrative of a very slow universe changes evolving from very fast matter action. In fact, mainstream science must believe in an origin along with a large number of particles, constants, and other leaps of faith to make sense out of the very slow changes that we see today in the universe.

Mattertime is an alternative belief that still makes sense out of the CMB creation and that there are actually two time dimensions; the very fast atom changes result in an atomic clock and the very slow universe changes of the dephasing of two atomic clocks . Mattertime is a very simple alternative belief that is also consistent with all observations and in fact, mattertime simply reinterprets many observations of matter decay and force growth that the mainstream attributes to other things or can't otherwise explain.

Mattertime expresses all change with just two quantum dimensions or conjugates of matter and action which along with quantum phase complete the trimal of quantum change.

There are just two mattertime constants and all other constants and particles emerge from just these two. Of course, the two mattertime constants, aether particle mass and action, are just simplifications of all spacetime constants and particles. All matter including even space and time and black holes emerges from the actions of aether particles and the fundamental quantum Schrödinger equation.

The Planck constant, h, is the action constant of light since it gives the energy of each photon of light from the light's oscillation frequency. Since photon exchange bonds all matter, h is  a part of all matter, not just light. Likewise, hae = h/c2 is the action constant of mattertime since it relates an equivalent mass to any action oscillation frequency. All quantum aether oscillates and the relative phases of matter's quantum oscillations are what either bonds or scatters matter with aether exchange. This means that each photon of light is actually a bound aether pair and the photon energy is equal to the strength of that bond.

The aether particle mass is the second mattertime constant and is simply the fraction of hydrogen atom action mass, hae/tB, due to gravity versus charge, forcecharge/forcegravity. The ratio of the Planck constant, hae, to Bohr hydrogen orbit period, tB, is the mass equivalent bonding energy of a hydrogen atom and so the aether particle mass is then the matter equivalent bonding energy of the universe to itself.

The incredible and complex universe emerges from the very simply building blocks of matter and action along with the quantum Schrödinger equation. The universe is really a causal set of precursors for every outcome and our own purpose and meaning emerge from that family relationship. However, since we ourselves are all causal sets embedded within the universe causal set, there are limits to what we can know about precursors of outcomes. This limitation is enshrined in something called the quantum uncertainty principle and is really a direct outcome of the nature of quantum phase.

Fundamentally, we are quantum beings with matter, action, and phase in a perpetual oscillation embedded in the quantum matter, action and phase of the universe. The fact that we cannot know our quantum phase limits how well we can know other quantum phase and that limits the precision of our knowledge of matter action. While we can predict matter action quite well, there is a fundamental mystery of matter action in which we must simply believe.

Mattertime is completely consistent with the matter-energy equivalence of gravity relativity since all energy is a form of aether in mattertime. In fact, the entire universe is made up of matter action and time and space and black holes all emerge from matter action and phase. Therefore, mattertime includes quantum gravity and gravitons become the biphotons of CMB creation. The dark biphotons of gravity waves are the glue that pulls the universe together and there is no need to invent dark matter or dark energy. The mattertime universe already makes sense as a pulse of matter and the fundamental gauge or measure of all action is the aether particle.

Tuesday, October 1, 2019

Single Photon Resonator

There are many questions about the nature of the universe that do not have precise answers, but people still ask and answer them anyway. Even very smart people ask about the location of a photon in beamsplitter device, but a single quantum photon exists in a superposition of locations with a superposition of frequencies inside any resonator. A single quantum photon is necessarily defined by both its locations and its frequency spectrum, which includes its phase or polarization. The more precisely you measure the photon location, the less precisely you can know the photon spectrum and vice versa.

A single classical photon exists as a pulse of light with both a location and a spectral superposition of frequencies and phases called a spectrum. A single quantum photon location in a beamsplitter device can be in a superposition of locations and any measurement will affect the single photon spectrum since the measurement becomes part of the device. Any simultaneous knowledge of both photon location and spectrum is necessarily limited by the uncertainty principle and the fact that it is a single photon.

Even very smart people can ask the absurd question about a quantum photon location in a beamsplitter resonator and location has no meaning since single photon has no classical meaning. A photon is a superposition of all frequencies and phases and all locations in the entire universe that happen to make up what we call a pulse of light that shows up on one path with one spectrum. This is how the universe works and yet, these same very smart people seem forever confused by the discrete nature of quantum matter and action.

Why is the universe full of things that happen? Why do things happen at all? Why do things happen to one person and not to someone else? These are questions that people ask and answer all the time, but there are no single precise answers to such questions. The things that happen to us are simply how the universe is and there is no further explanation needed, just belief in the way the universe is.

However, all things that happen are outcomes that have matter action causes and so we can find out a lot about the matter and action that causes something to happen, but we cannot know everything. Even though there are answers to all questions about the matter and action that causes something to happen within the universe, there are limits to the precision of any answer. Classically, there is no limit to the precision of knowledge but in quantum space and time, precise knowledge of both location and momentum is not possible. In fact, a more precise measurement of location results in more uncertainty in the spectrum of a photon. Thus, there is a discrete quantum limit to simultaneous knowledge of both the matter and action that causes something to happen.

Both double slit and beamsplitter resonators as well as any laser resonators are all examples of photon resonators and there are many ways to fabricate a single photon resonator at light wavelengths. Such a light resonator includes a source, confinement of some sort with mirrors and beamsplitters, lenses and apertures, and a detector. Depending on dephasing time and frequency of the source and detector, there are any number of semiclassical approximations or simplifications for the quantum phase superposition and entanglement that are a part of even a single photon resonator. However, since quantum superposition and entanglement of a single photon with itself has no completely classical meaning, and the many semiclassical questions will necessarily result in absurd semiclassical answers.

For example, a 1996 sciAm article reported a photon resonator that detects objects with a photon that never hits those objects. The underlying assumption is that it is only by photon absorption or emission that we detect objects, but of course this is not true. A shadow is a perfect example of detecting an object with the photons that do not hit the object instead of those that do. Since there are two or any number of paths in superposition within this single photon resonator, this resonator recorded an object shadow by blocking one path and thereby changing the photon output along the other path. Therefore, the photon that passed through the resonator recorded a change without ever hitting the object. The authors then implied that the photon was identical before and after, but that was really not true either. The photon spectrum did change and in particular, the phase and polarization of the photon changed and that recorded change showed the blockage of one path.

In other words, a single photon carries both frequency and phase information and so the photon did change even though it did not hit the inserted object. This single photon resonator is analogous to the hydrogen atom, since hydrogen is also a single photon resonator where photon exchange between the electron and proton binds the hydrogen orbits. Thus, a hydrogen atom resonator is an electron source, a proton detector, and photon confinement due to exchange. Note that a hydrogen atom is completely symmetric (actually, not quite because of spin polarization) and therefore also equivalent to a proton source and electron detector. Creation formed each hydrogen atom in the universe by emitting a photon of light complementary in frequency and phase to the photon exchange that binds hydrogen. In fact, this complementary photon pair is the biphoton that we call gravity force.
There are many semiclassical approximations for single photon resonators including the hydrogen atom and these approximations often result in semiclassical confusion. This confusion is due to the underlying quantum phase correlation, interference, and entanglement that have no classical meanings. A single photon, electron, or proton can actually interfere or entangle with itself while in relativistic gravity, there is no such self-energy of quantum phase coherence. A very common semiclassical approximation is to completely neglect of the role of quantum phase and in particular, to completely neglect the roles of source and detector phase entanglement.

Thus, just as there is no way to really explain the bonding of a hydrogen atom without quantum phase or to locate the photon being exchanged, there is likewise really no way to precisely locate a single photon in a quantum resonator, either. Hydrogen is made up of two opposite semiclassical charged particles, but what bonds the electron and proton of hydrogen is photon exchange, which makes no classical sense at all. The semiclassical observer can then imagine the photon as a free particle independent of its source and detector traveling independently in space and time. While this is often a very useful semiclassical approximation, the neglect of source and detector quantum phase entanglement can lead the observer to many absurd semiclassical conclusions.

One absurd conclusion is that a semiclassical electron falling into a proton eventually exceeds the speed of light. Another absurd conclusion is that since a semiclassical electron moves through space and time in its orbit around a proton, there is instantaneous communication across the diameter of the orbit. In fact, these same absurd semiclassical conclusions result from any single photon resonator given semiclassical approximations.

A second very common semiclassical approximation that a single photon behaves in a similar manner to a large collection of photons. However, while a large number of uncorrelated photons give a classical statistical average classical behavior, a single photon will necessarily show only a quantum outcome just as a large number of highly correlated photons become a laser. Therefore, a single photon does not have a single classical determinate outcome because even a single photon represents a quantum superposition of many possible outcomes and not just a single classical outcome like a classical cannonball.

Unlike a classical cannonball, which only has a semiclassical mass, a photon and indeed all quantum matter, even cannonballs, have both masses and a spectrum of frequencies and phases and so no two photons or particles are ever exactly alike. Even though two photons may come from the same source and end up at the same detector, they never have exactly the same spectrum. Therefore, ignoring quantum phase entanglement for any single photon resonator like a double slit or a beam splitter can lead to absurd semiclassical determinate answers instead of uncertain quantum answers.

Including quantum phase entanglement and decay in a single photon resonator resolves all of these semiclassical paradoxes with probabilistic quantum answers. Quantum nonlocality and action at a distance are both the direct outcomes of semiclassical and determinate assumptions that completely ignore quantum phase entanglement and decay. Classically, there is no limit to the precision of the simultaneous knowledge of the mass and action of a particle or body like a cannonball. However, there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision of the simultaneous knowledge of matter and action, the uncertainty principle, because quantum matter and action have quantum phase and entanglement.

A classical cannonball has a classical mass measurable to an arbitrary classical and relativistic precision as long as the cannonball is at rest. However, the electrons, protons, and neutrons of the quantum cannonball are never at rest since they are all in perpetual motion, even at absolute zero temperature. Therefore, the cannonball mass actually depends on its temperature as well as on the atmosphere it is in contact with and so on. Thus, there are a large number of semiclassical approximations that we make when we measure a classical cannonball rest mass. When we measure the quantum mass of a cannonball, its action is always a part of that quantum measurement and the relativistic rest mass is then just a semiclassical approximation that has no quantum meaning. And there is a semiclassical assumption that the universe does not change during the course of the measurement, but the universe does in fact change all the time and those changes do actually affect the measurement, if only very slightly.

Quantum phase entanglement and decay can lead to very complex analyses called two-dimensional photon spectroscopy. The more complex the photon resonator, the more complex the spectral analysis and even very smart people can end up with absurd semiclassical answers given semiclassical approximations. There are really two outcomes for source and detector phases and pure decay to heat is just one outcome while pure dephasing is a second outcome that results in no heat. Semiclassical approximations usually assume pure decay and completely neglect the pure dephasing of quantum phase, but many of the absurd semiclassical conclusions of the double slit and beamsplitter resonators result from the neglect of pure dephasing and entanglement.

Classically, atom excitation energy decays only to heat and results in a classical emission spectrum after quantum phase decay. However, it is possible for quantum phase to diffuse to other matter and couple source and detector even though the excitation energy does not decay to heat. Rather, quantum phase entanglement persists and the emission spectrum evolves and can result in photon echoes and other pure phase entanglements that have no classical meaning at all.

Thus there is no Wittgenstein sense to the many absurd questions about semiclassical single photon resonators. Single photons as well as large numbers of highly phase correlated photons in resonators have only quantum and not really classical answers. Thus, the determinism of gravity relativity is a very misleading semiclassical approximation for the biphoton phase correlation of quantum gravity. It is the biphoton phase entanglement and correlation of the emitted and exchanged photons of hydrogen and all matter in the universe that is gravity force. In other words, gravity force is due to a persistent biphoton quantum phase correlation and so gravity relativity is a very good approximation that neglects the fundamental role of phase for the biphoton of quantum gravity.

The penultimate photon resonator is a black hole where only photon phase exchange binds matter into a pure phase gravity photon resonator while the ultimate photon resonator is the universe itself. A black hole outcome represents a pure quantum phase matter action that really has no meaning in classical space and time. A black hole quantum phase or spin outcome preserves all of its precursor matter action information as both matter and pure phase and there is no meaning for black hole space and time. Our notions of space and time as well as black holes then all emerge from things that happen and really space and time and black holes do not therefore have meaning without things that happen. Space, time, and black holes all emerge from the causal set of the precursors and outcomes of discrete matter action.

Wednesday, September 4, 2019

Measuring Free Will

In a recent FQXi conference, Ian Durham proposed a measure of free will as the distance, zeta, in a Mahalanobis phase space of possible outcomes from a precursor to the outcome of a free choice. His argument was then that a free choice is somehow inevitable and therefore would be a shortest zeta path in the multidimensional decision space of all possible outcomes. However, if a choice is truly inevitable based on its zeta distance, then that choice would be determinate and not free after all.

One thing is very clear...it is even more difficult to define free will than it will ever be to measure free will and so it is important to first define free will in order to ever hope to measure free will. If it is not clear exactly how we make free choices versus not free choices in the first place, measuring free choice would then be undefined as well.

However, if there were a determinate measure of free will precursors to a choice like a scalar zeta, it is clear that that would not then be free choice since a predictable choice cannot be a free choice. There are only two ways out of the determinate conundrum of individual freedom versus social responsibility; the noise of classical chaos and noise of quantum phase. In particular, a free choice is one that we make based on gut feeling and so there may be any number of constraints on that free choice. Feelings derive from emotions and how exactly we feel about a choice can be impossible to truly know.

There are many things that we cannot ever truly know and neither the noise of classical chaos nor the noise of quantum phase have completely knowable precursors even though those precursors do exist for each in the causal universe. Unknowable precursors represent the mystery of consciousness and being and feeling and are things that we must simply accept. The universe is after all just the way that it is first of all. The precursors of free choice must be unknowable since free choice represents the balance between individual freedom and social responsibility and we achieve that balance by our feelings. The noise of classical chaos, Shannon noise, is what we call random action but the noise of classical chaos is actually not really random at all. In fact, classical chaos is in principle infinitely resolvable and therefore knowable with infinitely resolvable space and time. Therefore classical random noise is actually just a recognition of a practical limit of the knowable precursors precursors of random noise. However, the noise of a quantum superposition outcome has a well-defined discrete limit and yet will still not have completely knowable precursors even though quantum choices can be very likely.

While classical choices all have knowable precursors, quantum choices do not since they are superpositions of precursors and outcomes and do not have infinitely resolvable precursors. The decay of quantum phase results in a real outcome and so even a real outcome does not have any precisely knowable precursors, just more likely precursors. Quantum phase decay is a consequence of the very slow intrinsic change in the universe. Quantum outcomes do have more likely precursors and our individual freedom and social responsibility mean that we cannot know the precursors of free choice with infinitely resolvable precision even though those precursors do exist in a causal universe.

In other words, while we believe might that we are free and socially responsible, we cannot ever be completely certain about individual freedom or about social responsibility, we just have feelings about them. This means that there is a discrete quantum limit to the knowledge that we may have about our individual freedom and so there are fundamental mysteries about the universe that we must simply accept as the way that the universe is.

Thus, individual freedom exists in a balance with social responsibility as the fundamental duality of the free choice of the mystery of consciousness. Random choices are unpredictable just like free choices are unpredictable and so Durham argues along with many others that random choices are not free choices. Likewise, choices by instinct, Durham further argues, are also not free choices and so the classical reasoning of chaos imposes its infinitesimals and infinities upon our discrete causal quantum universe. Random action is just a convenient shortcut for the practical limit for knowledge of precursors and it is always ironic that in a causal universe things can ever happen for unknowable causes.

What classical physics really means by random is not that random things are fundamentally unknowable, but rather that random things are just practically unknowable. Classically, there is no limit to resolving uncertainty except just a practical limit since all action has infinitely divisible momentum along with infinitely divisible displacement. Thus random simply represents the practical limit to knowing the classical precursors of classical outcomes.

In fact, there is a classical practical limit to knowing Shannon noise, but that does not then mean that noise is truly random. In fact, computer algorithms simulate random noise to arbitrary precision quite well with determinate algorithms. Therefore, the universe really is not fundamentally random as Durham claims, but more like effectively random just like the determinate computer algorithms of noise are not fundamentally random. Classical Shannon noise is then what we call random but in a classical causal universe, each bit of Shannon noise does actually have knowable precursors in an infinity of divisibility.

Quantum phase noise is really very similar to classical Shannon noise, but quantum phase noise includes quantum phase and the phase decay of the universe. Quantum phase decay is the fundamental driver in the discrete causal universe and quantum phase decay is therefore not really random in the classical sense. Quantum phase noise is random in the quantum sense of superposition and correlation and the likelihood of Schumacher's qubits and von Neumann's density matrices. Unlike the unlimited divisibility and knowledge of Shannon's bits, qubits represent the discrete limit of knowledge in the quantum universe.

Free choice is of course an essential part of consciousness and we have a free choice between the selfishness of individual freedom and the compassion of social responsibility. The most direct measure of consciousness is how we act like other people and then how they act like we act. When we agree with other people about a conscious state, our subjective feeling becomes an objective shared feeling, but even very smart people like Durham can still disagree about the natures of consciousness and free will as well as individual freedom versus social responsibility.

Even more objective measures of consciousness are in the resonances of neural action potentials as EEG spectra. Although EEG resonances are objective measures of the conscious state, EEG’s do not necessarily measure the quality of any conscious state...at least not with present technology. In fact, every neural action potential network, even those of a mouse or even a house fly or indeed a pond hydra, show the resonances of some kind of limited neural consciousness. However, fundamental particles do not show neural resonances and therefore are not conscious. Measuring both waking and sleeping state EEG's of neural networks provides objective measures of awake conscious spectra versus the unconscious spectra of sleep as resonance frequencies and resonance widths.

The EEG spectrum delta mode is a fundamental resonance of human neural action potentials at 1.5 Hz with a full width of 1.5 Hz. The fundamental modes of consciousness are the overtone alpha modes at 11 Hz = 7x delta and beta modes at 21 Hz = 14x delta and represent the human conscious state, all with similar widths. These multiples are not accidents of nature but rather are a consequence of the neural structures of the hexagonal close-packing of the eye's retina and the sound octaves of the ear's cochlea. Thus humans have many of the same neural resonances as other sentient neural action potentials.



While the peaks and overtones of each neural spectrum represents the complexity of a moment of thought, the peak widths represent the phase decay from a precursor thought to an outcome thought. Thus, an objective measure of free choice is in the state-to-state neural transition of a precursor to an outcome spectrum as thoughts. It is then the phase decay of each moment of thought from one EEG spectrum to another that is the objective measure of free choice and not really an inevitability of some sort of determinism. Human choice is due to the primitive brain's amygdala, one of many organs of the primitive brain of subconscious thought versus the cerebral brain of conscious thought, and so the phase decay of choice is somehow due to the amygdala.


A classical determinate argument supposes that a precursor spectrum completely determines an outcome spectrum, but that is clearly not the case. Rather, there are a large but finite number of possible outcome spectra that exist in superposition with a precursor spectrum. Therefore free choice is not Durham's determinate scalar zeta but rather a complex zeta that includes phase and a phase decay along with uncertainty for our quantum choices. Since it is not possible to know our own quantum phase and all possible outcomes, it is also not possible to precisely know the precursors for choices that we make even though some outcomes are more likely than others. All of the possible outcomes affect free choice just as do all of the precursors for a moment of thought.

Our morality then arises from a the decay of a superposition of the spectra of choice between the many but finite possible spectra of individual freedom and social responsibility. These spectra are all Jungian archetypes, some intrinsic and some that we learn from persuasion and imitation of others as we grow up and mature. While we can change how we feel about a choice by learning new archetypes, it is simply not possible to always know precisely why we feel the way that we do feel and that is the uncertain nature of free choice.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Quantum Causal Asymmetry

Causal Asymmetry in a Quantum World

PHYSICAL REVIEW X 8, 031013 (2018)

Jayne Thompson, Andrew J. P. Garner, John R. Mahoney, James P. Crutchfield, Vlatko Vedral, and Mile Gu

Start excerpt...
...Consider a cannonball in free fall. To model its future trajectory classically, we need only its current position and velocity. This remains true even when we view the process in reverse time. This exemplifies causal symmetry. There is no difference in the amount of information we must track for prediction versus retrodiction.

However, this is not as obvious for more complex processes. Take a glass shattering upon impact with the floor. In one temporal direction, the future distribution of shards depends only on the glass’s current position, velocity, and orientation. In the opposite direction, we may need to track relevant information regarding each glass shard to infer the glass’s prior trajectory.
Does this require more or less information? This potential divergence is quantified in the theory of computational mechanics [6]...

[6] J. P. Crutchfield, Between Order, and Chaos , Nat. Phys. 8, 17 (2012).
End excerpt...

This paper shows a quantum causal asymmetry that does not exist classically and uses a cannonball as an example of classical time reversal symmetry of prediction and retrodiction. However, including the atmospheric friction around the cannonball trajectory results in the same classical versus quantum complexity dilemma as this actual cannonball trajectories as a painting in1628 by Diego Ufano shows.



Even the simplest actual classical cannonball trajectory involves much more classical than quantum information since the trajectory is continuous and infinitely divisible but chaotic due to atmospheric friction. However, the quantum trajectory involves discrete jumps or hops and quantum therefore ultimately limits the information needed for retrodiction. However, the price to pay for that quantum limit is in a limited uncertainty while classically, there is no limit to the uncertainty and therefore the information is unbounded.

The cannonball trajectory makes up a causal set of precursors and outcomes and are all predicated on atmospheric eddies at a higher resolution. Eventually, a discrete quantum limits the information for quantum retrodiction and so provides a kind of quantum arrow of time. Although not discussed in this paper, it is quantum phase decay that brings quantum and classical retrodiction together as one.

Saturday, August 10, 2019

Our Subconscious Free Will

It is now well established that we make decisions based on subconscious feeling and not based on conscious rational reasoning. Perhaps the most compelling evidence is that of the delay between when we are conscious of a choice and when that choice shows up in the brain MRI. However, it is not then true that we do not have free will or free choice despite the fact that our subconscious and not conscious mind determines choice. Many people argue that since subconscious decisions are based on feeling and not based on rational reasoning that we then do not have free will and our choices are all subject to a determinate universe.

However, how we feel about things and therefore make choices derives from a set of emotions that in turn arise from the subconscious archetypes of consciousness that are what we believe in and that affect our emotions and therefore feeling. Some of our subconscious archetypes are innate but others are by no means fixed and constant and constantly evolve in life as others persuade us to believe differently and so our beliefs evolve as a result of the persuasion of others and how they act. Instead of directly perceiving reality, our archetypes provide much of what we call perception and we respond to things that happen with emotions that then determine a singular feeling and it is by that singular feeling that we make free choices.

The technical reason that we have free will is that we actually cannot always know the reasons why we make the choices that we make even though those reasons do exist. What we do is first make a choice based on our subconscious feeling and then we rationalize that choice with conscious reasoning that may or may not have had anything to do with our choice. In very technical terms, we each live in our own quantum universe of matter, action, and phase and while matter and action are how things change, quantum phase is also a part of how things change and we also have quantum phase. In fact, the very nature of neural action potentials has to do with quantum phase so our quantum phase affects how we see matter action and then how we perceive reality.

Each moment of thought is power spectrum of neural resonances called an EEG and each choice represents an outcome spectrum. Every precursor spectrum of thought is a superposition with a large but finite number of outcome spectra and it is quantum phase decay that transitions from the precursor to outcome spectrum in what we call a choice. Although each choice is an outcome spectrum due to the collapse of precursor spectra superposition, it is not possible to predict the precise outcome of free choice from just the precursor spectra superposition even though it is possible to often predict the most likely choice. Therefore, there are no precisely certain outcomes given a known precursor and this is why we have free choice and free will.

Therefore it is also not possible for anyone to know all of the precursors for their choices even though those precursors do exist in a causal discrete set universe. Our free choices are free precisely because it is not possible for anyone to actually know all of the precursors for our choices. Since these choices are ours and ours alone, that is the very definition of free will...

One of the most important free choices we make for consciousness is that between the selfishness of individual freedom and the compassion of social responsibility. We actually need some selfishness to survive even though it leads to conflict as well as some compassion to bond with others, cooperate, mate, and have a family. Our subconscious archetypes are how we perceive the world as well as how we feel about what we perceive. Although some archetypes are innate, we learn most archetypes from the many narratives that we see, hear, and feel as well as in how we see others act, since we often then act like we see others act. This is all part of the mystery of consciousness.


Thursday, August 8, 2019

Inequalities in Education, Life Expectancy, and Income

We live in an age where our entire civilization benefits from the technological advances of the enlightenment. All of the measures of progress show a steady advance and in particular, the three key competencies of education, life expectancy, and income all show steady progress for individual freedom. However, there are still very large variations within each of these competencies and our social responsibility struggles with the distribution even though there is average or mean progress. In effect, the means of progress reflect the individual freedom of its individuals while the distribution of progress about those means reflects each individual’s social responsibility to reduce disparities in each competency.

The likelihoods of IQ, long life, and income all show distributions that peak in likelihood at about the same incomes. While long life tends to follow IQ, the likelihood for income crosses around the median income. Long life and IQ then do not increase at the same rate as increasing income. When you are $25,000 income, you gain 15% longer life for an $10,000 income increase, but at $150,000 income, you only gain 1.9% longer life for the same $10,000 income increase.


The basic dilemma of inequality is not really in progress, which is rapidly occurring in any event, but rather in how much social responsibility people have in reducing the inequalities of progress. Civilization has long struggled with the dilemma of inequality given the fundamental natural inequality in human ability across each competency. That is, individuals have their own education, life expectancy, and income, but individuals also have a social responsibility to others for reducing the inequalities of opportunity for education, long life, and income. These are all unequal outcomes but those inequalities can result from limited access to education, health care, and to free and fair markets for creating new wealth, i.e., equality of opportunity. Inequality that is largely a result of the large natural variations in individual quality of life, ability to learn, and of course, ability to create wealth is simply human.

There are 14 competencies that define people’s roles in civilization: education, health care, housing, transportation, food, energy, environment, tools, communication, security, leisure, risk, administration, and money. While education and health care both relate directly to progress, the progress for income and wealth distribute across all 14 competencies as money that people earn as income or spend on consumption. Money represents wealth and facilitates commerce among competencies and people make money by specializing in the products of a particular competency and then tend to distribute that wealth to a limited set of competency products. People consume some of the 14 competency products and this commerce is therefore the most important reason for innovation and progress in all competencies.

These 14 competencies make up the macro economy and each individual creates wealth in one competency and then distributes that wealth among the other 13 in order to survive. While the 14 competencies are a very rational description of the way civilization is, people basically do not really make rational decisions, people make decisions based on their feeling. Feeling is the root of consciousness and the result of a set of five emotion complements and subconscious archetypes. It is by feeling that we make our decisions and not by rational thought and so the archetypes that we learn early in life are what guides our lives.

Others persuade us into consciousness as we grow up by acting like we act and then persuading us to act like we see others act as well. By this persuasion, we acquire the grand narratives and archetypes of civilization as consciousness and free choice. The actions of consciousness and feeling either bonds us into cooperation with others or separates us from others with conflict. We adopt a set of unconscious archetypes that are then how we feel about others and feeling is how we make free choices.

Even though outcomes all have causal precursors, it is not possible to know all precursors even though they do exist. This is fundamentally because both the precursor and we have quantum phase and that phase limits what we can know. This means that fundamentally each choice that we make is for one of many possible outcomes and we can only know the precursors within some uncertainty. The outcomes that we choose are not then determinate and instead, there are many possible outcomes that are subject to quantum uncertainty.

This does not mean that outcomes are random, but rather means that outcomes simply have some unknowable precursors even though they can have fairly rational precursors. If you are hungry, it is certain that you will eventually eat or you will not survive very long. However, when, where, and what you will decide to eat are all free choices that really have unknowable precursors. If you are lonely, you will likely seek companionship, but with whom, when, and where are all free choices and not random at all.


Census.gov, Table A-2. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2017

life expectancy versus income in the United States
http://www.equality-of-opportunity.org/health/
IQ and Permanent Income: Sizing Up the “IQ Paradox”
https://humanvarieties.org/2016/01/31/iq-and-permanent-income-sizing-up-the-iq-paradox/

Friday, August 2, 2019

The Wonder and Glory of the Pulsed Universe

It is things that happen that make up the universe and most of all that means that it is the universe most of all that just happens. The very slow matter action of the universe pulse is a very slow action that happens very slowly. Although the very fast atom matter actions are what make up the universe, all very fast atom matter actions are still subject to very slow universe matter action as well. In effect, there are two dimensions of time and three dimensions of space that all emerge from matter action.

Time and space have meaning for everywhere in the universe of atoms except at certain boundaries called event horizons. The matter accretions known as black holes, exist beyond the time and space of the universe of atoms since there are no longer any atom matter actions for a black hole. Instead, each black hole exists as only a mass, a quantum phase, and a surface or event horizon and yet black holes are still subject to the overarching universe matter action. Thus the very slow change of the universe pulse still has meaning for a black hole very slow change. Black hole decay along with the universe decay then represents the destiny of all atom matter action as the universe matter-action pulse decays. The eventual decay of the universe into a single black hole outcome becomes the precursor to an expanding antiverse outcome.

The eventual universe precursor is then in a superposition with an antiverse outcome until a dephasing occurs and the antiverse expansion then begins from the black hole precursor. This antiverse expansion of antimatter the becomes the eventual precursor to another shrinking matter universe like the universe that we find ourselves inside of today.



We know that we are in a shrinking universe of growing force because of the many different measurements of matter decay along with force growth. The kilogram standard has decayed over 130 yrs, the earth day has decayed over 50 years, atomic clocks all dephase at characteristic rates per atom, and pulsars all show a limiting frequency decay.

We know that we are in a growing force universe because the Hubble galaxy red shifts occur despite the universe of shrinking matter. The further wonder is that all of science is completely convinced that the universe expands and does not shrink at all. Relativistic gravity is simply a manifestation of a shrinking universe of quantum matter.

The universe matter pulse complements the photon pulses that bind matter and result in quantum gravity as well. An exchange spin = 1 photon binds each electron and proton and has an emitted spin = 1 photon with complementary phase. These spin = 1 phase complements result in a spin = 2 biphoton or graviton whose exchange with other matter biphotons is quantum gravity. Since gravity biphoton exchange does not depend on quantum phase, gravity is always attractive and therefore unlike photon exchange, which depends on quantum phase.






Monday, July 29, 2019

ABC Time


This is a great review of the classical meanings of time given by many over the years. I am especially fond of McTaggart’s A, B, and C times, but have always been intrigued by his conclusion there was no coherent single answer. That always seemed odd...a philosopher without coherence?

Farr also mentions some physics, but he only just touches on relativity and quantum mechanics and he does not say anything about quantum phase at all. Farr states that the equations of relativity and quantum physics are fully reversible...but that is not true at all. Relativity represents all matter actions on irreversible determinate geodesics paths and those actions are not reversible in any sense and so there is never any causal confusion with relativity. In fact, the irreversible determinate paths of relativity are absolutely predictable to an unlimited classical precision. All precursors are prior to their outcomes and that is local cause and effect.


It is quantum action that shows a causal confusion of time in quantum reversibility. The quantum nature of matter action shows that quantum phase is very important but quantum phase does not play any role in gravity relativity. Reconciling microscopic quantum phase with the macroscopic irreversible reality of gravity relativity provides a nice understanding of time as emergent, not axiomatic.

Time is not an infinitely divisible and continuous flow of the paths of gravity relativity, rather the notion of continuous time emerges from a very large number of discrete and reversible quantum matter actions. All quantum action is reversible because even though a precursor occurs for every outcome, the precursor and outcome exist together as a superposition for some very brief dephasing time. Therefore, one dimension of time emerges from a characteristic dephasing time that comes from the very slow and inexorable change in the universe. A very precise measure of dephasing is the time it takes for two atomic clocks to dephase from each other.

Once two quantum clocks dephase, the outcome then becomes part of our irreversible macroscopic gravity relativity and given a very large number of outcomes, the dephasing ensemble is effectively irreversible. However, the inescapable quantum result is even though all outcomes have precursors, not all outcomes have precisely knowable precursors. In the quantum world there are just more likely and never certain precursors and so there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision you can know about an outcome.

The second time dimension is in the very rapid ticks of atomic clocks, which all run in the same very slow direction of dephasing, the first time dimension. Despite the microscopic reversibility of each pulse of light in an atomic clock, the macroscopic nature of an atomic clock results in dephasing and therefore, from dephasing emerges an irreversible flow of events.

Note that time only has two dimensions because there are two kinds of things that happen; slow universe changes and fast atom changes. First of all, the universe changes very slowly as a single gravity event and second, atom changes are very fast and very large in number of quantum events. The two dimensions of time simply emerge from the two very different kinds of things that happen in the universe and therefore the flow of time does not exist otherwise....I still like McTaggart’s times though...

Friday, July 26, 2019

Interpreting Quantum Surreality

The universe changes by quantum matter action and so quantum phase, matter, and action are all just the way the universe is and are therefore all useful archetypes for predicting outcomes from precursors. There really is no need to interpret the nature of quantum phase just as there is no need to interpret the natures of quantum matter or action. While people do not often ask about the interpretation of the very intuitive and causal realities of matter and action, people do still ask about the interpretation of the somewhat less intuitive and surreal quantum phase. People ask, how can a single particle exist in two different places. Are there particles or are there waves? In particular, people ask how is quantum phase surreality consistent with the more intuitive macroscopic reality of relativistic gravity matter action like cannonballs.

All matter vibrates or oscillates and so any two particles or bodies can be in phase or out of phase or anywhere in between. Two particles that are in phase can bond in a collision by emitting light or another particle and two particles that are out of phase will scatter and not bond. Of course, two people who like each other are also in phase and will bond while two people who do not like each other are out of phase and will conflict and therefore not bond. We don’t normally associate the intuitive feelings of bonding among people with quantum phase correlation, but quantum phase bonding is a perfect analog for human bonding. Of course, all of reality is made up of quantum phase bonds as well as conflicts and there also does seem to be phase interference and superposition in relations among people.

Quantum phase bonds and conflicts are a common part of our macroscopic reality and the pure quantum phase of light pulses make up the surreality of phase exchange bonds of matter. Quantum phase is also an important part of the universe matter pulse, but macroscopic gravity relativity on the cosmic scale does not include the bonding of quantum phase even though microscopic charge certainly does. Things happen when one discrete quantum state transitions to another discrete quantum state in a fully reversible process known as wavefunction collapse. This reversibility does create a causal confusion for time direction that irreversible macroscopic reality does not have. Macroscopic things always happen somehow irreversibly and seemingly without regard to quantum phase and in fact our notion of time emerges from the irreversible entropy that results from large numbers of matter actions.

The key to the irreversible nature of macroscopic reality is with the decoherence of any quantum phase entanglement. Phase decoherence collapses large numbers of reversible wavefunction superpositions into the effectively irreversible entropy of a large causal set of matter actions. The electron motion in a hydrogen atom is the result of a charge bond with negligible gravity. Nevertheless, two hydrogen atoms at 70 nm separation have their charge dipole-induced-dipole or dispersive attraction equal to their gravity attraction. At 70 nm separation, gravity and charge fluctuations are equal as a characteristic and continuous perturbation in both time and space.

Each hydrogen atom has a quantum phase correlated with the photon emission that formed that hydrogen atom. This means that the two (or more) photons of these two hydrogen atoms have persistent dispersive attractions that we call gravity. The phase correlation of this biphoton means that there will be slight differences in the gravities of atom particles due to each atom’s history. But the averaged gravity of large bodies of matter created together will be very similar.

The universe pulse gives a characteristic quantum gravity noise known as continuous spontaneous localization (CSL), which collapses wavefunctions and makes our macroscopic reality real by dephasing matter actions. Normally, gravity is too small to affect charge at a microscopic scale, but the very slow universe pulse fluctuation frequency of 0.255 ppb/yr at 70 nm is sufficient as the plot below shows.

This plot also shows that it will take another 2-3 orders of magnitude sensitivity with gravity wave detectors to finally confirm the mattertime decay of our universe pulse. However, mattertime decay does show up in a large number of other measurements, but those measurements are invariably complicated by classical noise. Note that it is the very slow quantum fluctuations in the universe pulse, 0.26 ppb/yr, that collapse wavefunctions at 70 nm, but the dephasing of quantum wavefunction collapse occurs everywhere in the universe.

Matter decay and force growth are everywhere and in everything that happens. Here is a plot of the mattertime decay versus frequency for a large number of periodic events. Pulsars are rotating neutron stars that show very characteristic pulsing as well as decay and pulsar decay follows the mattertime decay line. However, pulsars also decay by radiation of light and gravity and so this complicates the interpretation as a universal decay.
The Allan deviation of atomic clock synchronisation also follows the mattertime decay line as well as the earth spin decay and the moon-earth distance, as well as the approach of Andromeda galaxy. Of course, this could all be just a coincidence, but it does mean that the electron charge radius, re, does decay and therefore the electron spin period as well.

The next plot shows the decay of the kilogram standard, IPK, over 130 yrs relative to a number of secondary standards and the IPK decay is 0.51 ppb/yr or twice the mattertime decay. Thus far the IPK decay has no explanation and in mattertime, the frequent careful cleaning of the secondary standards actually adds mass to keep many of the secondary standards constant over time. The IPK cleaning only happened each of the three times it was measured.
The decay of earth’s day in the next plot includes a very much greater annual variation from 1963 to 2015. There are large annual fluctuations of several ms as well as a long term decay that is consistent with 0.26 ppb/yr. However, most of the variations are due to perturbations of the moon and planets along with tidal heating of earth’s oceans also occurs and this complicates the interpretation.
Thus the quantum dephasing decay of the universe pulse makes our macroscopic reality real and yet still consistent with our surreal quantum time confusion. Quantum phase does have macroscopic effects as light polarization and interference, but very large bodies have all dephased and therefore do not show quantum phase effects.

The universe pulse is after all the pilot wave that guides all light and matter action. Pilot wave or de Broglie-Bohm theory is a deterministic quantum mechanics that creates hidden variables as pilot waves to guide all matter particles, not wavefunctions. However, the universe pulse as a pilot wave and so does not introduce any hidden variables since that is just the way the universe is. Thus, the relativistic gravity Hamilton-Jacobi equation becomes the basic equation of motion as a quadratic and relativistic form of the quantum Schrödinger equation. The Klein-Gordon equation is also a quadratic and relativistic form of the Schrödinger equation and is the basis for quantum field theory and the standard model of particle physics.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Interviews of Carroll and Rovelli on FQXi.org

These FXQi interviews of Carroll and Rovelli are both quite interesting since they are two very smart people with related but very different narratives about the nature of physical reality. Measurement guide science and narratives without measurements are really what guide philosophy and such narratives have no role for science. Narratives without measurement guide philosophy and into perpetual discourse among many very smart philosophers about the nature of physical reality.

“Every philosopher disagrees with every other philosopher and so only one philosopher can ever actually be correct.” Paul Skokowski.

These narratives are really mostly philosophy wrapped in the technical jargon and methods of science and therefore these two narratives with and without measurements are a confused discourse. An outcome may be determinate or it may be uncertain, but it is not clear from these narratives which is determinate and which is certain. Carroll links cause and effect and entropy with his multiverses and avoids the conundrum of microscopic reversibility versus macroscopic entropy. Carroll does not suggest any measurements although his choice implies determinism. Classical causality means that both macroscopic and microscopic measured outcomes have precursors, while quantum causality means that you cannot precisely measure all precursors. Rovelli, in contrast, seems to believe in free choice and not in determinism and offers meaning for reality without multiverses.

In fact, observer quantum phase always affects a quantum measurement and it is not possible for an quantum observer to measure their own phase. For most macroscopic measurements, though, quantum phase plays no role in causality since the decay of quantum phase is so fast. However, when quantum phase decay is slow, the superposition of precursor and outcome results in causal confusion since the notion of symmetric time has no arrow.

There is a fundamental causal confusion in the symmetry of our quantum reality and yet there is no causal confusion in the changing universe of gravity relativity. Quantum phase obviously does play a role in quantum gravity but relativistic gravity seems inconsistent with quantum gravity. This is because superpositions of quantum gravity precursors and outcomes result in many possible paths and that seems inconsistent with the single paths of relativity’s determinate geodesics. Carroll suggests that multiverses explain the other possible paths of quantum gravity while Rovelli suggests that it is rather meaningful information that decides the single path from quantum gravity, not multiverses.

Neither Carroll nor Rovelli acknowledge the unknowable precursors that result from quantum phase correlation and superposition, but both accept the notions that the universe changes and that outcomes all have precursors. However, they do not discuss the two very different kinds of changes that make up things that happen: First there is the very slow change of the universe due to gravity and the universe pulse dephasing; Second, there are the very fast changes of atoms due to charge.

Mainstream science argues that atoms and forces at rest are constant for all time and so atoms and forces do not change with the slow expansion of the universe under gravity from the big bang. Despite gravity and charge being attractive, the expanding universe therefore only changes space, not matter or action. However, the equivalence of matter and energy in relativity means that mass does increase with motion, and matter-energy equivalence then means that time slows just as matter increases with increasing velocity.

The mattertime universe pulse decay supposes instead that the universe pulse of matter decays very slowly in concert with its very slow growth of the action of force. Not unlike a photon pulse of light. the combination of decaying matter and increasing force give the illusion that the universe slowly expands from a big bang. Universe pulse decay is then consistent with gravity relativity just as gravity force slowly grows. This complementary matter decay and gravity increase gives the illusion that gravity stays constant over time.

The universe pulse illusions of constant atoms, constant force, and expanding space are all very strong and dominate science. Very few in science acknowledge that it is even possible for the very slow decay of universe matter to complement a very slow growth of force, which then gives the arrow of time and is still consistent with mass increasing with motion just like relativity. This very slow mass decay and force growth is what I call mattertime and also means that time and space emerge from change and that entropy of atoms is different from the entropy of the universe pulse. Atom entropy derives from the very fast changes of atom states while universe entropy derives from the very slow changes of universe states, which include atom entropy.

Black holes are endpoints of time and space, but black holes are still subject to the slow changes of matter and action. In mattertime, the universe pulse destiny is a single black hole and that destiny births the next antiverse/universe pulse. The first half pulse is the antiverse expansion that grows with antimatter precursors then the universe second half pulse matter decay outcomes.

In mainstream science, matter condenses first by charge and then by gravity into stars, black holes, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and large-scale structures and those bodies all decay by charge and gravity radiation. All of this decay seems inconsistent with an ever-expanding universe, but all of this observed matter decay is completely consistent with the universe pulse of mattertime decay. In fact, mattertime decay results in a gravitization vector force that couples moving stars and is analogous to the magnetization vector force that couples moving charges. Gravitization is a large scale vector force that, along with gravity, bonds stars into galaxies, galaxies into clusters, and clusters into large-scale structures.

In any case, these two philosophers each believe they are correct and disagree with each other. The last artifact of standards is the kilogram standard and the IPK has decayed by 0.51 ppb/yr over the last 130 yrs, exactly twice the matter decay of 0.26 ppb/yr from the ratio of hydrogen gravity and charge forces times the hydrogen orbit frequency, GmH2/(q2c2 10-7) (c/rB). This is the plot that shows the IPK decay relative to the secondary standards, which average to a constant due to weight gain as a result of their frequent cleaning process.




Mattertime 6: Axioms of Mattertime

Mattertime 6 is the latest in the mattertime series and introduces the basic axioms of matter action...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kns4WS7Q9qE

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Mattertime 5: Two Big Rabbit Holes to Avoid...

Understanding physical reality means avoiding two very deep rabbit holes of mainstream science.

mattertime5

• First rabbit hole is the notion of infinitely divisible time and space, Zeno’s paradox
    −time and space both emerge from discrete causal sets and so infinitely divisible time and space are illusions of our discrete reality.

• Second rabbit hole is the notion of relativity without any quantum phase, Schrödinger’s phase decay paradox
    −quantum phase decay plays no role in gravity relativity
    −quantum gravity emerges from discrete causal sets with quantum phase decay limiting entanglement and correlation

Zeno's paradox is quite well known and has many different versions that all amount to the impossibility of infinitely dividing space and time.

Schrodinger's phase decay paradox is known at the superposition of cat alive and dead at the same time and place according to quantum theory. Fundamentally, the decay of quantum phase completely resolves this paradox, which completely ignores the role of quantum phase decay in superposition states. Even though there is indeed a very short time where the cat's microscopic states are in a large number of quantum superpositions, quantum phase decay limits quantum superposition for all macroscopic objects.

There are scientists who spend their entire career in either or both of these rabbit holes and even make money from their book sales.

Wednesday, July 3, 2019

Mattertime 2...The Gifts of Father Time and Mother Earth

Although there are one hundred some odd elements as well as electrons, protons, and neutrons as well as charge and gravity forces, there is also a simpler and ancient way of breaking down reality.

The gifts of Father Time are the universe, galaxy, sun, life, and civilization while those of Mother Earth are air, water, soil, stone, and fire. While technical people need the higher resolution detail, most people do not and can function well with the simple elements of our Father and Mother.

Gifts of Father Time and Mother Earth

Sunday, June 30, 2019

Matter Time 1...Things That Happen...

This is the first video in a series that will introduce matter time, which is a very different interpretation of reality from time and space. Instead of time and space existing as a blank slate for continuous and infinitely divisible matter action, discrete matter and action exist first of all. Time and space emerge from discrete matter and action and the universe exists because things happen and not because of time and space.

Matter Time 1


Tuesday, June 25, 2019

Maudlin's Problem With Quantum Theory

The Problem With Quantum Theory

Institute of art and ideas interviewed Tim Maudlin about his problem with quantum theory.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hC3ckLqsL5M

Very nice interview shows the philosophical approach of Maudlin as opposed to the technical approach of physical science. While Maudlin argues that philosophy is very confused about the nature of physical reality even after 100 years of the very successful technical predictions of quantum science, science simply accepts quantum because it works really well. Science accepts quantum because it works while philosophy asks what quantum means and gets confused by both the question and the answer. Philosophy is, after all, really a discipline that asks questions without objective and testable answers, then answers them all the while arguing endlessly with other philosophers about the answers and about the nature of physical reality.

Maudlin argues that the axioms of infinitely divisible and determinate time and space are fundamentally incompatible with the discrete uncertainty of quantum knowledge. While this is true, Maudlin does not consider it possible to have a universe without first of all time and space, but that is exactly the quantum matter action universe that we have.

Philosophy is very useful for asking important questions but philosophy will never answer questions that have no answers. Why are we here? Why are we here right now? Why is it us and not someone else that is right here right now? What is the meaning of life? What is the meaning of quantum mechanics? Why is the universe the way that it is? 

These are all questions that have no answers, but are nevertheless useful questions to ask and discuss because that is what consciousness does. After all, it is not always clear which questions we might find out how to answer with new knowledge. "What is consciousness?" is just such a question that does not have an answer but might with better knowledge. Consciousness is therefore always asking questions without answers and then continuing to find meaning either in discovering the answers or in the endless discourse that follows uncertainty. This is basically because we cannot always know the limits of what we can know even though we know there are limits to what we can know. We do need to keep asking and answering unanswerable questions in order to find the horizon of answers where we just lack knowledge.

The inherent uncertainty of quantum phase means that there are outcomes that have precursors that will always be unknowable. Since we ourselves have quantum phase, we can only know matter phase of an action relative to our own matter phase. This fundamental quantum uncertainty limit shows that the world is not deterministic and that every free choice that we make affects the outcomes of the entire universe. Besides quantum uncertainty, there is also uncertainty from the chaos of determinate actions. Given a very large number of determinate actions, chaos means that it is not possible to predict motion better than some uncertainty of matter action.

The Hasse diagram shows precursors and outcomes of the universe at low resolution starting with the CMB creation precursor to hydrogen, stars, and then galaxies. Higher resolution Hasse diagrams will show more and more detail until the resolution limitations of classical chaos called noise. However, the infinite divisibility of space and time in a determinate universe means that there is no limit to the precision of determinate knowledge.
But, unlike classical knowledge, quantum knowledge is not infinitely knowable and there is a discrete uncertainty limit for quantum knowledge. In the discrete actions of discrete matter, there is a quantum uncertainty between action and matter that represents our unknowable quantum phase. Unlike the infinitely knowable classical chaos of infinitely divisible time and space, quantum phase represents a finite precision for knowledge that we can know. This is because we are made up of the same quantum phase and amplitude as are all outcomes and we cannot ever know our own absolute quantum phase. We only ever know the quantum phase of an outcome relative to our own quantum phase and so that represents the limits of what we can know.



Sunday, June 23, 2019

Cosmic Now

Cosmic Now
Okay...so we can't really know that there is now or present time in the universe since all we can ever sense are things that happen in the past. In other words, all we know are outcomes and we presume those outcomes all have precursors and so we assume that there is a whole universe of precursors that we call now.

https://aeon.co/essays/is-that-leaf-falling-here-and-now-cosmic-koans-on-time

Anthony Aguirre starts with the popular fine-tuning statement that grabs one of the 65 or so physical constants and supposes that any small variation in just that one constant would mean that life could not exist. This is not a good place to start any argument about the universe since as long as you change constants together there are a large number of possible universes. Do we really need koans?

In fact, changing constants in concerted ways is how the universe actually works and is the fundamental principle of mattertime. Mattertime starts with just two constants for matter and action and results in a pulsed universe with shrinking matter and growing force. Thus, Aguirre's example of proton charge variation makes no sense without electron charge variation. Given electron and proton charge growth along with matter decay is the basis the universe and explains everything. Instead of a big bang, the universe begins as the antiverse ends with the chaos of aethertime.

So the question of a cosmic now in an infinitely divisible time makes no sense in the universe causal set of precursors and outcomes. Very similar questions come up about the meaning of the infinitely divisible nothing of empty space. Space and time both emerge from the discrete things that happen in discrete aether and there really are only two constants that determine all others. The total universe matter and its decay are the two constants that determine all others and so yes, there are a large number of possible universes.

We simply must accept that this is the universe that we have...