Monday, April 22, 2019

Quantum Action Causal Set

One thing is for sure...it is things that happen that make up the universe and a causal set is full of the precursors and outcomes of things that happen. Quantum causal sets give a discrete and finite perspective for our physical reality. A quantum causal set is very different from thinking that things happen in a void of continuous space and time. Things first of all happen as outcomes because of precursors in a casual set and the notions of continuous space and time then emerge from precursor and outcome actions.

Here is a very low resolution causal set Hasse diagram showing the precursor creation of CMB hydrogen result in the outcomes of stars and then galaxies. Of course, there would be much more detail in a higher resolution Hasse diagram.
We grow into consciousness memories when our childhood precursor memories lead to the outcomes of our adolescence and then those memories become the precursors to adult outcomes and then further memories with more experience. Time in this sense is simply the decay of precursor to outcome memories as the Hasse diagram shows.

Fast time emerges from counting a very large number of outcomes into a second, day, and year from cesium-133 atom precursor resonances of an atomic clock.
Likewise, the emergence of space involves the timing of the speed of light in some fraction of a second.
Direction, though, emerges from the relative quantum phases of matter and action. The 90 degrees of Euclid's right angle emerges from the relative matter action phase for bound actions. Direction then emerges from the relative phase of matter and action for motion.
Even though direction angles seem continuous and infinitely divisible, they are fundamentally discrete with the same granularity as discrete aether. After all, direction really emerges fundamentally from time as the rotation of earth makes the day.
Instead of an expanding space with constant mass and force, our universe emerges from a very slow collapse of matter and growth of force. Instead of time and space with position and momentum and constant matter and action, matter action precursors and outcomes shrink matter and grow force and this is how the universe really works. 

Friday, April 19, 2019

Many Possible Outcomes Collapse into One Polar Choice

We make decisions by first of all collapsing a large number of possible outcomes into a single polar and binary choice that then becomes the outcome of a free choice. After all, this is the same way politics among people allocates otherwise public resources by making more or less transparent decisions. When governments first form, there are many initial choices that can be quite contentious, but eventually a government of one sort or another does form or there is another government and the process begins again. Likewise, people first learn how to choose from many possible outcomes by this same process of collapse of possible outcomes.

After a government forms, it matures and develops to limit individual freedom in lieu of social responsibility and choices become more and more trade offs and compromises with near equal benefits to polar factions. With near-equal trade offs, though, there are invariably very vocal factions on both sides of each polar choice. People argue that it is necessary for there to be transparency in the decision-making process to inform people who must accept the inevitable compromises. Political decisions invariably mean that there are two or more different precursor actions for the same outcome and so the polar factions must compromise or stalemate.

However, transparency in a highly informed culture necessarily results in incremental collapse from the chaos of many possible choices into the order of increasingly polar factions for any choices collapsing into a binary decision point. People naturally make decisions by incremental collapse from the chaos of many possible outcomes into the order of a binary choice of action or inhibition. The initial chaos of many possible choices about an issue eventually condenses into a binary decision to incite or inhibit some action.

The electronics of our information age allow people to participate in many more of the incremental compromises than in the past that are all part of each polar decision. As a result of these incremental choices, people tend to end up in one of two polar extremes associated with each decision.


While issue polarization is then a necessary part of any decision making process, the information age has exponentially increased the number of people entangled in political decisions. We share our consciousness by bonding or conflicting with others in the dynamic of civilization. We will not always agree with other narratives and we may propose a narrative of our own or we may adopt another person's narrative. More likely, we simply acquiesce to another narrative despite our not agreeing with that decision.

However, when one faction includes a virtue signal in their narrative, the outcome many degenerate into fanaticism instead of free discourse. Although a virtue signal can be appropriate, virtue signals are more often used as weapons against any free discourse. Virtue signals without free discourse can then degenerate into fanaticism, conflict, rebellion, and even civil war. In the Civil War, the South's virtue signal was a for profit benevolent servitude and that virtue signal resulted in 620,000 soldier deaths, 10,000 civilian deaths, $22B cost, 15% decline in GDP, and countless years of reconstruction...all to preserve this Southern virtue of a profitable servitude.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Individual Freedom versus Social Responsibility

Some people value the chaos of individual freedom more than the order of social responsibility and others value the order of social responsibility more than the chaos of individual freedom. Social responsibility allows large numbers of otherwise anonymous people to live in the order of a cooperative and yet still competitive civilization. However, excessive social responsibility has very well known undesirable outcomes as tyranny and political suppression.

In particular, many previous regimes have used social responsibility to justify tyranny and policies that harmed or even killed some people as long as many more people benefit overall. Mao’s famine killed over 30 million people in 1958-1961 ostensibly to benefit the much larger population as part of Mao’s great leap forward in the name of Marxism. The Nazi death camps killed 6 million Jews and others in order to purify a much larger Aryan race in the name of eugenics. Both used social responsibility to justify their malevolence and are examples of how bad people can be.

Therefore, there is a third very necessary archetype besides individual freedom and social responsibility. This third archetype is the realization of how bad people can be and that all people are capable of malevolence, including you. Civilization tells and retells a large number of stories with many different themes, but a recurring theme is how bad people can be since we are all prone to malevolence.

Two people on individual Cartesian paths exchange shine of compassion with each other and that exchange can bind those two into a relationship. Cartesian bonds, like gravity bonds, result in more determinate action with outcomes that have clear precursors.

Each person has as part of human nature both the capacity for social responsibility as bonding to an individual or group as well as the potential for malevolence, which conflicts with people. In other words, people have a certain amount of empathy shine for others and their needs as well as certain amount of selfish needs of their own to satisfy, which leads to conflict and negotiation. A person’s selfishness might not benefit and might even harm someone else’s needs or wealth and even might injure them or even take their lives. However, there are many stories about how people compete for resources with others and yet still cooperate and compromise with the overall outcome of more wealth for all.

Even though two people might not ever have equal wealth or even equal benefit from every competitive or cooperative transaction, they can still both benefit and live longer and learn more to compete for wealth as well as to cooperate and compromise. A group of people bonds with the relational shine of compassion despite the Cartesian conflicts of selfish competition. Relational bonds, like quantum bonds, result in more probabilistic action with outcomes that often have no clear precursors, only more likely ones.

It is part of human nature to compete with others for resources, but that competition must first of all involve cooperation and compromise and must therefore be fair even though the outcomes do not always have to be equal. Some people are naturally more talented than others in any given competency and so people are naturally diverse in their abilities. For example, there are only a very few people who are really very good at creating music and art and this means that, given individual freedom, a limited number of people can end up owning a large share of a population’s music and art. As a result, people can often feel envious and jealous even if the competition was fair. Further, if people acquire wealth by force or coercion and not by fair competition, those who suffer will inevitably feel deep resentment. Such deep resentment results in criminal and even rebellious outcomes and the response is incarceration of those people.

In fact, given the potential malevolence of human nature, it is literally impossible for any population to completely avoid some criminal incarceration. Incarceration is necessary to limit individual freedom just as politics is necessary to limit social responsibility. Populations with large disparities of wealth along with diverse race, ethnicity, language, and religion also have large incarceration rates as well as lots of politics to promote and limit social responsibility. All that people can ever hope to do is maintain a fair competition for resources given individual freedom and limited social responsibility to permit competitive and free prosperity while also limiting the unfair outcomes of criminality and rebellion.

Religions satisfy a basic human need for meaning and purpose and people therefore submit to the order of a particular social responsibility. Religions give meaning and purpose by retelling the many ancient stories of malevolence and thereby teach a religious cosmic order of social responsibility from a seemingly meaningless quantum chaos of individual freedom. The bonding of people into religions always involves their giving up some individual freedom for the benefit of learning the archetypes, stories, and rituals of that religion's social responsibility. In fact, all people must learn the archetypes of compassion and shame to live in a cooperative and yet still competitive civilization and religion provides those archetypes for social responsibility along with stories about human malevolence.

Today there has been a remarkable reduction in global poverty along with increases in life expectancy and education. These successes seem to have been largely driven by the rise of individual freedom along with the proliferation of social responsibility in competitive and fair markets. Although competitive markets varies widely among different politics, the one consistent factor is the incentive and pricing of a competitive market. Even countries with particularly high wealth disparities like Namibia show that competitive markets still reduce poverty while increasing both life expectancy and education.

Ever since China and India have adopted social responsibility that allows more individual freedom with incentives for competitive free markets, those economies have grown and will continue to grow and prosper. The growth of competitive markets repeats in Africa where even the most impoverished countries continue to show people with longer lives, more education, and less poverty.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Theory of Everything

If a person and the earth were both growing in size and gravity was shrinking at the same rate, the person could not tell since what they say and felt would not change. Growing matter and shrinking gravity would then explain gravity as long as gravity decreased at the same rate. The force of shrinking gravity in direct proportion to matter growing would mean that universe is made up of both growing matter and shrinking force.

There is a cosmology that unifies charge and gravity based on the exact opposite, which would be a universe of shrinking matter and commensurate growing force. In fact, a famous quantum physicist Paul Dirac first proposed the Dirac large numbers hypothesis in 1937, which set the ratio of the size of the universe to the size of the atom to the ratio of charge to gravity force.
In the large number hypothesis, many constants change slowly in time and that distant galaxy light red shifts do not mean universe expansion but simply that precursor forces and matter were both different from ours. Since spectral line splittings of distant galaxy light do not change from ours, mainstream science long since rejected the large numbers hypothesis as did Dirac himself. That is, while the red shift of distant galaxy light indicated universe expansion, the spectral splittings seemed to show that forces did not change with any precursor galaxies, only red shift.

However...if outcome matter shrinks and forces grow, this would explain why precursor galaxies are red-shifted and explain why distant galaxy spectral line splittings do not change. In fact, it means that our reality is actually changing very, very slowly and it takes literally hundreds of years to measure the change...or much greater precision than current measurements provide. However, very soon high precision measurements will be able to measure these changes. Such measurements will show neither string theory nor quantum loop gravity nor supersymmetry nor multiverses are valid. In fact, string theory can never be disproven because it can explain anything...therefore string theory has no predictive value.

The notions of outcome matter shrinking and force growing are consistent with quantum cause and effect of the precursors and outcomes of both gravity and charge and so does represent a unified theory of everything. However, the universe is then first of all a quantum causal set where there are many possible outcomes to any given precursor. A quantum causal set universe is not then determinate, unlike Einstein’s relativistic gravity in macroscopic time and space.

While we normally think of time and space as a preexisting backdrop for matter and action, in a quantum causal set, matter action outcomes are the result of precursors without time and space. In fact, time and space both then emerge from the family relationships of precursors and outcomes along with the extra entanglement of quantum phase. Both matter and action have relative quantum phases that are also important for determining outcomes from precursors.

Time then emerges from electron spin period and space emerges from electron charge radius and electrons, protons, and neutrons and the entire universe is made up of discrete quantum aether particles. There are then only two constants from which all other constants emerge; the mass of a discrete aether particle and the action of that same discrete quantum aether as the matter-time Planck constant.

The Planck constant is the proportionality between light’s frequency and its energy and is the basis of our physical reality. Max Planck derived light’s quantum to explain why microscopic charged matter of electrons and protons did not behave like macroscopic charged matter. The matter-time Planck constant is likewise the proportionality between aether frequency and its mass as energy. In matter time, just as in Einstein’s relativity, energy is proportional to mass times the speed of light squared, E = mc².

With matter action, time and space emerge from aether action: time from aether spin period and space from aether radius. This makes discrete aether action consistent with both gravity relativity as well as quantum charge, but now as a discrete aether quantum causal set. All other particles emerge as aether condensate outcomes and constants as aether precursors and in particular, the cosmic microwave background surrounds us with the light of creation precursors. Creation was the condensation of a certain very small fraction of precursor aether into the 2.7 K microwave, electron, proton, and neutron outcomes of all of our atoms today. Each atom today exists as a result of the emission and action of light at the CMB creation.

Gravity emerges from the collapse of aether at the scale of the universe and charge emerges from the collapse of aether at the scale of the atom. An electron has a spin magnetism that couples with its orbit magnetism in each atom to give a spectral splitting. Even though electron mass shrinks, its spin increases just as the electron orbit spin also increases.

Surreality of Time and Space

There has not yet been a single math foundation of our reality, rather there have been two rather incompatible maths and yet both depend on the realities of continuous space and time. The math of relativistic gravity shows the direction and velocity of discrete macroscopic objects as they move through continuous space and time in one determinate direction. The math of quantum charge, in contrast, shows the direction and velocity of discrete microscopic objects jump in many directions and even forward and back in time, ostensively through that same continuous space and time. Whereas a gravity outcome is determinate and certain, a quantum outcome is probabilistic and uncertain. While gravity outcomes are determinate and not subject to free choice, quantum outcomes are subject to free choice.

A gravity clock always ticks forward, but a quantum clock can tick in either or both forward and reverse. Each quantum moment is then a superposition of the past along with many possible future moments. The discrete moments in quantum time superposition eventually phase decay into the reality that agrees with gravity time, but before that, quantum time represents a fundamental confusion between gravity past and gravity future.
For a determinate gravity path in space, there is a determinate path from precursor to outcome that has some chaotic noise along the way. Every infinitely divisible step on the path is determinate and so there is no free choice since there is no quantum phase decay despite an infinity of steps. Precursors completely determine each outcome and there is no entanglement of the quantum phases of any other outcomes. This means there is a shortest path called a geodesic whose outcome does not change unless there are outside forces that act. A Hamilton-Jacobi equation then predicts any action by using the difference in kinetic and potential energies, called the Lagrangian.

A probabilistic quantum path does not follow a single determinate geodesic path, but rather each step of a quantum walk is a result not only of precursors, but also a superposition of the quantum phase of many possible discrete outcomes. The steps in a quantum path are limited by the fundamental granularity of the universe. Each step therefore involves a free choice that entangles those many outcomes and so the path is always probabilistic and never determinate. A quantum outcome is not only determined by its precursors, but also by the phase entanglement of other outcomes.

There is actually no way to predict gravity and charge with a single equation in continuous time and space. While the Hamilton-Jacobi equation determines each gravity path according to the difference in kinetic and potential energy, the quantum Hamiltonian Schrödinger equation determines each quantum path according to a total energy (i.e. relativistic mass) and includes quantum phase. Unlike the energy difference that determines gravity paths, the total quantum energy includes quantum phase entanglement. This means that the quantum phase of the mass of an action is orthogonal to the quantum phase of the action itself.

The entanglement of quantum phase between two two gravity bodies means that the precursors of continuous time and space determine gravity outcomes. The math foundation of our reality is actually based on the discrete matter action of outcomes from precursors. Instead of the two notions of gravity and charge based on continuous space and time, the notions of time and space actually emerge from our primitive reality of quantum matter and action. For discrete quantum charge, it is easy to show how discrete outcomes are the progeny of discrete matter and action precursors. The archetypes of continuous time and space then emerge from discrete matter action outcomes of quantum single photon charge. Time emerges from electron spin period while space emerges from electron charge radius and the Hamiltonian Schrödinger equation and the total energy is the math, but quantum phase links matter and action.
For discrete quantum gravity, the archetypes of continuous time and space emerge from the quantum charge as electron spin period and radius. While single photon exchange bonds charges, photon pairs as biphoton exchanges determine the outcomes of quantum gravity. This means that instead of just the Hamiltonian and the total energy of single photon exchange, it is the action Hamiltonian-Jacobi equation of the kinetic and potential energies difference of biphoton exchange that is the math of quantum gravity.

The kinetic and potential energy difference of that biphoton exchange then determines a unique direction in time and space for each outcome. For example, if KE=PE, the difference or action is zero and the direction is then unchanged for biphoton exchange just as for classical relativity, but a quantum action can spontaneously emit a photon and then change direction since it is a single photon exchange.