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Thursday, June 17, 2021

Quantum Gravity Black Holes

Quantum matter action results in a causal set universe where space and time emerge from a sprinkle of random quantum photon resonant paths. The quantum gravity of matter action is Lorentz invariant and therefore completely consistent with the measurements of Science. However, matter-action interpretations of those measurements are quite different from spacetime interpretations.

This is especially true for the gravity black hole singularity of Science since gravity black hole singularities do not have a basis in quantum gravity until now. This is largely due to the nature of the black-hole singularity and the sprinkled photon resonances from which spacetime emerges do not have any singularities.

Gravity relativity is a body centered force in spacetime that curves or warps spacetime around that body. Thus, bodies follow the straight-line geodesics in warped spacetime and so there is no spacetime gravity force, just gravity warping of spacetime.

In matter action, quantum gravity is a result of the random photon geodesic resonances that complement the quantum geodesic resonances that bind charge matter. The matter-action causal set shows not only the photon geodesic resonances that bind quantum charge, matter action also shows those photon geodesic resonances that bind each body to the universe. Instead of gravity relativity warping spacetime, quantum gravity is the result of bodies shadowing each other's universe geodesic bonds. Thus quantum gravity force occurs along body centerlines and so quantum gravity is then a center-of-mass force and not actually a body-centered force. 

A quantum black hole is then consistent with all measurements of black holes, but a quantum black hole is much more interesting than the singularity of a spacetime black hole. Photon geodesic resonances deflect around black holes because of the gravitational red shift and constant speed of light. However, there are still quantum resonances that occur between a black hole and an emitter and absorber of light. 

A quantum black hole still has the very slow decay of cosmic time as a spiral decay, which has no meaning in spacetime relativity. The spiral decay in cosmic time of a quantum black hole is very reminiscent of the interpretation of a black hole as an eternal collapsing object without an event horizon. Thus, quantum black holes are the natural outcome of a all collapsing matter in the matter-action universe.

The quantum black hole is really not black at all and, just like any quantum body, not only absorbs light as heat, but also reflects and transmits light to emitters as well as other black holes. The Ricci tensor of relativity shows the effect of matter on spacetime, but the random red shifts of photon geodesic resonances sprinkled into spacetime correspondingly reveal the presence of matter. Photon resonance geodesics are simply causal links between bodies that are the underlying structure of matter action from which space and time emerge as gravity relativity.

The quantum causal set of a black hole incorporates the same causal set emitter pair geodesics as does all of reality. Of course, the emitter superposition only decays with quantum black hole absorption and it is only then that there is an arrow of time.

Quantum black holes, just like all matter, have both reversible quantum resonances as well as irreversible quantum decays. While reversible quantum resonances represent superpositions that are the basis of reversible atomic events without time's arrow, irreversible quantum decay is the basis for the very slow cosmic time arrow for universe decay. Black holes absorption are a universal heat sink that ultimately determines the irreversible atomic time arrow for each photon geodesic.

Tuesday, June 15, 2021

A Universe from Sprinkled Random Photon Geodesics

Causal set theory involves partially ordered causal sets that represent the discrete structure of universe with just matter, action, and quantum phase. Space and time then emerge by sprinkling the geneology of random photon geodesics from causal matter, action, and phase into the manifold of space and time. Space and time then emerge from that sprinkling of random quantum photon geodesics across the universe and the sprinkled Poisson distribution preserves Lorentz invariance, which is the foundation of gravity relativity. 

However, it is the quantum action of light that gives matter action and links quantum gravity to quantum charge and so sprinkling these random photon geodesics is what makes quantum reality real. Without the action of light, there would be no changes to matter and so it is light that gives matter its action. 

The matter-action quantum gravity causal Hasse diagram shows the resonant photon geodesics of both quantum gravity and quantum charge. Quantum gravity bonds results from the bonding of particles of matter like hydrogen to the universe as the diagram shows. Quantum charge bonds result when hydrogens are sufficiently close and overwhelm the quantum gravity bond.

While both quantum gravity and quantum charge are reversible resonant photon geodesics, there are also irreversible nonresonant photon geodesics as heat from blackbodies. Blackbodies absorb resonant photons and then randomize photon phases and frequencies, eventually reemitting heat photons as a quantum blackbody after some time delay. Quantum blackbodies then represent the irreversible arrow of time for gravity relativity with the chaos of a large number of resonant photon geodesics.

In matter action there are 1.5e118 aether particles to begin with that make up the causal set matter-action universe with 1.5e118 as condensed into 7.6e76 electrons, protons, and Rydberg photons that make up the dim light of the CMB. Electrons, protons, and photons make up configurations or manifolds within matter action as various quantum particles that photon exchange bond with each other. While single photon exchange is the basic glue for quantum charge, it is quadrupole biphoton exchange that is the basic glue for quantum gravity.

Photon geodesics are what make reality real and we see images as manifolds of sprinkled random photon geodesics from matter to our retinal neurons. An emitter populates a quantum photon state that includes an absorber in resonance with the emitter as shown in the upper figure below for quantum particles. Each emitter, though, also populates a quantum photon state with the universe in resonance with the CMB and there are two photon states, a biphoton, that bond the two emitters as quantum gravity as the lower figure below. Thus, unlike quantum charge, the quantum gravity biphoton exchanges are actually resonances between the universe and each emitter and not resonances between the emitters.

Although both charge and gravity involve matter-action exchanges of resonant quantum photons, space and time emerge from the random sprinkling of those resonant photon geodesics around the universe. There are very, very large numbers of resonant photon events for gravity and so sprinkled gravity biphoton geodesics are effectively random over the 4𝜋 steradian volume of the universe, but centered on the emitter-universe center of mass. Typical two body quantum gravity is confined to just the sprinkling of random geodesics in an orbital plane over 360°, like the sun and moon. This very large number of quantum paths means that body centers have very small quantum uncertainties. Therefore, the centers follow determinate geodesics of quantum gravity relativity without the uncertainty of quantum charge.

Quantum charge photon geodesics, in contrast to quantum gravity geodesics, are sprinkled randomly over a 4𝜋 steradians of volume local to the emitter and absorber center of mass. This means that the electron and proton jumps do not follow geodesics like quantum gravity but rather fill all of space with different geodesic probabilities. Outside of a well-defined local volume, quantum photon geodesics have very small probabilities.
Quantum charge photon geodesics, in contrast to quantum gravity geodesics, are sprinkled randomly over a 4𝜋 steradians of volume local to the emitter and absorber center of mass. This means that the electron and proton jumps do not follow quantum gravity 
geodesics but rather fill all of space with different geodesic probabilities. Outside of a well-defined local volume, quantum photon geodesics have very small probabilities.

A random  sprinkling of photon geodesic resonances bind bodies to the universe as quantum gravity. In effect, it is the photon geodesic shadows that determine the scalar force of gravity and space and time emerge from the matter, action, and phase of photon geodesics.

A gravitational lens focuses source photon geodesics onto a line of Einstein rings of increasing diameter as the figure below shows. The random sprinkling of photon geodesics are the matter-action geodesics that define space and time. A photon geodesic is a quantum function of matter, action, and phase that maps one-to-one onto a function of space and time as f(m,s,𝜃) → f(x,y,t). The causal set of random sprinkled photon geodesics defines the resonances that bind each body to the universe as gravity.

The relative motion of the source and lens perpendicular to the line of action results in the Einstein ring images as shown. Such relative motion of the source and lens perpendicular to the line of action also gives vector gravitization about the center of mass as shown. As opposed to scalar gravity, vector gravitization is force perpendicular to scalar gravity line of action as a rotation about the center of mass, CofM. Vector gravitization is analogous to vector magnetization as a result of moving charge. Vector gravitization is the force now associated with cold dark matter and is the vector force that stabilizes galaxy and galaxy cluster rotations.

Dowker, F. Causal Sets and the Deep Structure of Spacetime, arxiv :gr-qc/0508109v1, 2005.

Sorkin, R.D. Quantum Dynamics without the Wave Function, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 : 3207-3221, 2007.

Sorkin, Dowker, Surya  Causal Set Approach to Quantum Gravity, 2018

Surya, Sumati  The Causal Set Approach to Quantum Gravity, arXiv:1903.11544v2 [gr-qc] 28 Aug 2019.

Sunday, June 6, 2021

Photon Double Slit Diffraction

The quantum photon represents a fundamental quantum mystery because although a quantum photon is a particle of light, all quantum particles also have the properties of bound waves called wavepackets. Of course, since all quantum particles have this particle-wave duality, the mystery of quantum photons is actually rather the basis of our quantum reality and so not really a mystery at all. The mystery is why the classical reality that we experience shows mostly particles and only shows the bound waves of photons in rainbows and edge and slit diffraction.

Planck in 1901 first proposed the notion of a quantum of light to limit the energy of light of an atom but it was Einstein in 1905 who made the connection between the Planck quantum and photons of light. Einstein connected Planck's quanta of light from measurements of the photoelectric effect, where illumination of a vacuum diode resulted in the detection of single electrons emitted by single photons when the light frequency exceeded a certain threshold. It was somewhat later in 1926 that G.N. Lewis coined the name photon.

The propagation of a photon wavepacket from an emitter through space to an absorber along with its spectrum defines the nature of each photon. Although each photon has a characteristic energy and mass from its frequency as E = hn, m = hn/c2, the quantum phase of the photon spectrum also reflects the nature of each matter action emitter and absorber as well as their lifetimes. The emitter-absorber resonance gives a photon its matter and phase spectrum and a matter-action of that excited resonance can spontaneously decay into heat at either the absorber or emitter. However, by definition, the absorber decays to heat faster than the emitter and this is what gives the arrow of time.

The emitter-absorber excited state is really emitter-absorber matter action that defines the photon spectrum and includes any in-between phase shifts due to things like slits and so each photon spectrum is rather unique.

For the classic two-slit experiment, supposedly there is a mystery about which of the two slits the single quantum photon goes through as shown below. But, a single photon exists in a superposition of both slits just as that quantum photon exists as a superposition of emitter and absorber as well. In fact, the photon is a superposition of two polarizations as well. Thus, a quantum particle carries information as both frequency amplitude and phase and so even a "free" photon is a superposition of oscillating electric and magnetic fields as well as two oscillating polarizations or spins. 

In the double slit experiment, the electric field amplitude of a 500 nm single photon is in a superposition between the two slits as shown below. Although the frequency of the photon does not change, the phase of the single photon changes due to interference with itself. In effect, the two slits form a cavity resonance with each single photon and the changed single photon emerges with different phase angles due to the differences in phase input for each photon. In fact, all quantum particles can exist in such spatial superpositions and this property is the basis of chemical bonds.

There are a number of different ways to do the single photon counting two slit experiment. Hamamatsu did the one below in 1982 with 0.254 micron light from mercury atom plasma lamp and a 100 micron slit collimation followed by two 50 micron slits at 250 microns separation. This is a typical setup for the two slit experiment where the slits are 200 times the wavelength and the separation 2,000 times the wavelength and results in 6 fringes on the screen. Since each photon enters the two slits with different phases, the photon exits the two slits at different phase angles and therefore directions depending on the emitter and absorber phase matching, which is essentially random.

The single photon two slit experiment shows the interference of each photon with itself to result in a well-defined but random path for each single photon. Since this photon coherence length is 125' per 1/e and so each photon results in a very clear resonant phase between the emitter and absorber. The relative phase matching between the emitter and absorber is basically random and sets the particular photon path. 

The figure below shows the two-slit causal set and its spectrum of sprinkled random red vertex resonant photons that, after some time of photon accumulation, converge to the analytic diffraction function also shown. The red vertex resonant photons irreversibly decay into heat at the absorber. The black vertex nonresonant reversible photons decay as heat at the emitter.

There is no space or time in the two slit quantum causal set, just the mass of 254 nm mercury photon, Planck's action constant, and the quantum phase angle, q. All of the resonant single photon causal vertices are reversible and so split the single photon events 50:50 between the emitter and absorber decays. Each photon has a vertex that includes both slits, which alters the phase of the photon, but not its frequency, energy, or mass.

The sprinkling of many random single photon events defines the diffraction pattern spectrum as the figure shows with just 1000 photons that decay into heat at the absorber. Many more photons decay as heat at the emitter, including nonresonant photon vertices. Space and time both emerge from this random sprinkling since the diffraction splitting defines the slit separation relative to the photon wavelength. Of course, time emerges from the photon oscillation and the speed of light, c, and so this sprinkling of random but resonant vertices is what defines the space and time of our physical reality.

two slit experiment

Gorard has built a hypergraph for the two slit function by propagating 23 bits from the sequence of "o"'s with two “X” amplitudes


down a 10 layer hypergraph to create 75 events for the causal graph below.

This multiway hypergraph results in 75 points that represent the algebraic average for the two slit
diffraction pattern by summing all of the layer reverse weights as

However, this is just a classical wave diffraction pattern with a splitting of 16 units and results from two coherent sources or slits spaced 4 units apart with a light wavelength of 4 units and a slit width of 1 unit.

Since this hypergraph is determinate and not probabilistic, it simply represents a classical wave diffraction pattern of two point sources. In other words, this is not a quantum two slit multiway hypergraph since it does not represent any emitter-absorber quantum phase resonances at all.

Each photon event is a quantum resonance path of the hypergraph when the emitter and absorber are in resonance. The figure above shows two possible paths hypergraph paths in red.The resonance therefore is a superposition between the emitter and absorber and occurs because of a quantum phase resonance between the emitter and absorber. The quantum phase resonance also depends on any phase shifts of intervening causal layers like the collimator and two slits, but the emitter and absorber quantum phases are essentially random.

Therefore, the results of these multiway hypergraph layers are simply spatial smoothing functions for the classical two emitter diffraction and has no collimator. Random excitations of graph resonances can occur when the emitters and absorbers are in phase and those result in a photon states that then decay irreversibly. The states release heat to either the absorber or emitter depending on relative decay times to transit times. When a photon decay occurs in the absorber, we call that a photon event and all of the other emitter photons decay in the emitter.

Randomly exciting 1,000 quantum resonances of the two-slit hypergraph will generate the accumulation of single quantum photon results noted above for this case. However, it is a lot easier just to use the two-slit analytic expression in the first place.