# Matter Time, Aethertime

The simple axioms of discrete aether and quantum action augment the more limited reality of continuous space, motion, and time. With the quantum action of the SchrÃ¶dinger equation and a single fundamental aether particle, two constants predict all action and all other physical constants. In the discovery of truth, there are only atoms and quantum action.

## Saturday, December 7, 2019

### Newton's Aether in Matter Action

Newton was the first to accurately predict gravity motions of the sun, moon, and planets and Newton’s predictions assumed space was absolute and filled with a luminiferous aether. In addition, Newton’s predictions assumed time was the independent of velocity and gravity, which of course Einstein showed is not true. Mainstream science now also rejects Newton’s notion of aether and since Einstein, science also accepts that time slows and space shrinks with increasing velocity and gravity.

Now, Newton’s aether returns in matter action but aether action does not then fill space. Rather, space and time emerge from aether action and so space and time are not axiomatic in matter action. The ancient archetypes of space and time seem so self evident and undeniable and yet space and time are really just convenient shortcuts for consciousness. Matter and action are the axioms upon which existence itself and even consciousness emerge even though it is very hard to imagine a world starting with only matter and action without the primacy of space and time...but such a world does indeed exist.

Although ancient narratives describe the world in many different contexts, ancient narratives often include notions of a smallest particle filling all of space...aether. Up until Einstein, aether was a very popular working fluid for the universe and aether filled all space as the medium for the changes of gravity and charge. Even though Newton’s gravity seemed to act through space without any aether, Newton always presumed that gravity was somehow still based on an aether filled space.

In fact, Newton’s motion of light through space depended on his luminiferous aether and so the speed of light should depend on motion through aether as well. Western alchemy filled all space with aether as the fifth element that often complemented earth, fire, water, and air. However, in the Eastern alchemy, the essence qi filled the heavens and was never an Eastern element of the five Feng Shui elements of earth, air, wood, metal, and fire. However, the Eastern qi was still the essence of heaven and so complemented the elements of the world below heaven.

Thus the archetypes of both Western aether and Eastern qi both filled similar needs in the Western and Eastern narratives as a universal medium for microscopic action. There must be something to fill space since a truly empty void seemed incomprehensible. In order to move, there must be something to push against like walking on ground and so light’s motion must push against aether. Although mainstream science avoids the aether or qi narratives, science narratives do now fill space with vacuum oscillators and Higgs bosons. Light, you see, moves by hopping through space by means of a large number of vacuum oscillators and so Newton’s aether has returned to science. While mainstream science well accepts the different notions of discrete vacuum oscillators and Higgs bosons, there is no corresponding notion yet like discrete aether action.

Aether action has precursors and outcomes for change and so aether action represents a causal set of precursors and outcomes without space and time. Instead of filling the universe with an infinity of vacuum oscillators as a basis for change, the universe of aether action is a finite causal set of aether actions. Instead of matter and light existing in space and time, space and time emerge from the precursors and outcomes of matter action.

Mainstream science accepts gravity relativity even though gravity relativity is not consistent with the quantum charge narrative of discrete action. This inconsistency is because gravity relativity depends on the existence of continuous space and time independent from matter and action. The matter action of gravity relativity shapes space and time while quantum matter action does not affect space and time at all. In fact, precursors and outcomes of quantum matter action do not depend on either space or time.

Thus, space and time are not consistent with any kind of unification of gravity and charge, but rather unification is only possible with the conjugate dimensions of matter and action instead of space and time. Discrete matter and action along with quantum phase then represent the changes with both gravity and charge and so quantum aether action is a narrative that does unify gravity and charge. Quantum aether action does mean that there is an important distinction between the slow changes of the universe and the very fast changes of atoms. While the very slow changes in the universe represent quantum gravity as biphoton exchange, the very fast changes of atoms represent quantum charge as single photon exchange.

In space and time, the speed of light limits the fast changes of charge action and the progressive galaxy red shifts represent the very slow changes of gravity in an expanding universe. Light is made up of particles of pure aether phase whose frequency is proportional to energy with the Planck constant and therefore proportional to matter with the speed of light squared. In addition, electrons and protons are also made up of particles of pure aether action, aether that was frozen at creation into the atoms of existing matter.

The limit of discrete matter action for fast change is an action constant, hae=h/c2, the matter scaled Planck constant along with the limit of matter as the smallest particle,mae, aether. Once again, progressive galaxy red shifts represent the very slow changes of gravity in a shrinking universe. The aether particle is that fraction of the hydrogen atom stabilization that is due to gravity and aether is slowly decaying just as hydrogen stabilization grows. Both of the matter action constants are then also space time constants, but mainstream science has a plethora of other constants as well. For example, proton and electron masses are both space time constants, but simply emerge from the discrete matter action nature of the universe collapse. The aether period, Tae=hae/mae, is 13.4 Byr and is simply the antiverse/universe pulse period and therefore also the time width of every aether particle. Thus the mass of the aether particle and the size of the universe determine the stabilization energy of the hydrogen atom.

The time width of atomic action is the period of electron spin, which emerges from the spiral collapse of aether at creation into electrons and protons. Electron and proton masses both emerged when force growth from matter collapse stabilized hydrogen at creation by freezing a very small fraction of total aether into observable matter at creation. The first light of creation continues to bathe us in the warm glow of the cosmic microwave background of deep space that completely surrounds us.

Photons are the glue that binds the universe together with matter, action, and phase. A photon is an aether time pulse with a spectrum of frequencies and phases. Each photon has a matter spectrum that comes from the action of atomic matter as an action through space and time. A photon frequency spectrum emerges from its matter spectrum along with a polarization or spin = +/-1. A single photon polarization can be linear, circular, elliptical, or anywhere in between and even unpolarized. However, an unpolarized single photon still has the property of polarization or spin as a random superposition of phases.

An electron binds with a proton to stabilize a hydrogen atom by the exchange of a binding photon and complementary emission of another photon. The electron and proton each have polarization or spin = ½ and so an electron spin can exist as +½ or -½ or anywhere in between and even unpolarized, just like a photon. In fact, the hydrogen atom has a spin = 1, but now as -1, 0, +1 and unlike a photon, has a spin = 0 state when the electron and proton spins are antiparallel.

Each hydrogen atom bonding photon has a complementary emitted photon from its CMB creation. The complementary emitted photon is what binds the hydrogen atom to the universe and represents gravity as well as the size of the universe at creation. The gravity biphoton or graviton has a spin = 2 and complementary graviton exchange is the bond of quantum gravity. Each graviton particle mass is a very small fraction, 1e-39, of the stabilization mass of hydrogen scaled with the size of the universe.

While a single photon has both matter and action spectra, a graviton exchange is always complementary. This is because a quantum graviton exchange is always a superposition of complementary action spectra from its biphoton complements that always result in a single mass and not in a mass spectrum. This means that the graviton as a biphoton exchange is not subject to the same quantum uncertainty principle as a single photon.

Thus, the matter action of quantum gravity exchange shows the symmetry of monopoles and quadrupoles instead of the asymmetry of single photon dipoles. This means that quantum gravity matter and action are antiparallel and so anticommute in contrast to quantum charge matter and action, which are orthogonal and so do not commute at all. While both space and time emerge from the action spectra of quantum charge, the null action spectra of quantum gravity are always complementary. It is ironic, then, that it is atomic quantum matter action that shapes space and time and so quantum graviton exchange simply conforms to the space and time of quantum charge.

Gravity relativity shapes space and time because increasing velocity dilates space and time. In gravity relativity, there is no absolute space and time, only relative space and time. Because light is an oscillation from which space and time emerge, the speed of light does not depend on relative velocity. However, matter and action do both increase with increasing relative velocity. So increasing velocity actually emerges from increasing matter and action. Impulse in space and time comes from the release of potential energy as kinetic energy, and so impulse emerges from the quantum matter action of potential matter becoming kinetic matter.

In matter action, Newton’s aether returns with a narrative of discrete quantum matter action for our very, very large but finite universe. Matter action shows gravity relativity as a consequence of the light emitted at creation subsequent biphoton or quantum graviton exchange. Matter action also shows quantum charge as a consequence of single photon exchange consistent with mainstream science. Since the standard model of nuclear physics is already consistent with quantum charge, matter action is now a completely consistent narrative for physical reality.

### Random versus Quantum Noise

Random noise is a very important and yet unknowable part of physical reality that we usually simply take for granted. However, all random noise is actually inherently quantum and not classical at all. A classical coin toss, for example, results in a random landing of heads or tails because it is otherwise impossible to predict the outcomes of a hand-tossed coin. A hand coin toss is therefore officially accepted by the highest levels in sports and government...and even science. A classical coin toss will resolve a tied political election, for example, or the selection of sides in a football game and a coin toss is a measure of random noise in science. Thus, the random noise is the ultimate arbiter of choice when two sides cannot otherwise agree.

However, determinist logic argues that even a random result is actually the product of a determinate creation and so there really are no truly random events in destiny, merely chaotic. The classical destiny of a coin toss is a determinate outcome and a mere function of the past albeit subject to the random noise of classical chaos. So classical science accepts the unpredictable outcomes of random noise like a coin toss, since a large number of classical events means classical chaos determines an outcome from precursors. Classical noise, you see, is just something random and unpredictable that happens without any reason despite our determinate classical universe.

The unpredictable outcomes in the quantum universe are due to precursor superposition and entanglement of quantum phase. Thus quantum phase noise is the always the real source of even classical noise since classical chaos is simply due to a large number of similar repeated actions. While a single classical action like a single flip precursor has a very predictable outcome, the of a coin toss drives highly variable neural actions of the thumb and fingers to a random outcome. Thus all random noise is inherently quantum and not classical at all...

## Saturday, November 23, 2019

### Classical versus Quantum Coin Toss

The outcome of a classical coin toss is a classically random heads or tails. However, it is classically possible to measure the actions of a classical coin toss to an arbitrary precision and therefore it is possible to predict a classical coin toss.

A quantum coin has one more attribute besides heads and tails and that is quantum phase. With quantum phase, the coin can still exist as heads or tails, but the quantum coin can also exist as a superposition of both heads and tails. A classical coin toss begins with either heads or tails up and then executes a number of flips according to the person or mechanism doing the flipping and then lands either heads or tails up. Classically it is then possible to precisely measure all of these classical actions and therefore to predict a classical outcome to arbitrary precision.

However, any large number of classical actions necessarily entangle some quantum actions as well. This is because the microscopic universe is quantum, not classical. A dephased quantum coin in flight will persist in a microscopic superposition until the macroscopic coin lands as heads or tails. Unlike the precise classical measurements that can predict a classical coin toss, there are no measurements that will predict the outcome of a quantum coin toss from a superposition state better than 50%.

In fact, there is really no such thing as a classical coin toss in our quantum world. Instead, a large number of classical macroscopic actions like a flipping coin will ultimately access many microscopic quantum outcomes of quantum phase noise. The classical random noise of chaos is just a convenient macroscopic archetype for the underlying microscopic quantum phase noise of physical reality.

Note that not only the quantum coin exists as a superposition, the quantum actions of starting, flipping, and landing also exist as superpositions with quantum phase. A large number of actions like flipping or neural impulses will also entangle quantum phase noise and therefore be subject to the limits of quantum knowledge. The fact that we cannot therefore ever precisely know a precursor feeling or precisely predict an outcome feeling gives us the archetypes of free will and free choice...

A quantum coin has one more attribute besides heads and tails and that is quantum phase. With quantum phase, the coin can still exist as heads or tails, but the quantum coin can also exist as a superposition of both heads and tails. A classical coin toss begins with either heads or tails up and then executes a number of flips according to the person or mechanism doing the flipping and then lands either heads or tails up. Classically it is then possible to precisely measure all of these classical actions and therefore to predict a classical outcome to arbitrary precision.

However, any large number of classical actions necessarily entangle some quantum actions as well. This is because the microscopic universe is quantum, not classical. A dephased quantum coin in flight will persist in a microscopic superposition until the macroscopic coin lands as heads or tails. Unlike the precise classical measurements that can predict a classical coin toss, there are no measurements that will predict the outcome of a quantum coin toss from a superposition state better than 50%.

In fact, there is really no such thing as a classical coin toss in our quantum world. Instead, a large number of classical macroscopic actions like a flipping coin will ultimately access many microscopic quantum outcomes of quantum phase noise. The classical random noise of chaos is just a convenient macroscopic archetype for the underlying microscopic quantum phase noise of physical reality.

Note that not only the quantum coin exists as a superposition, the quantum actions of starting, flipping, and landing also exist as superpositions with quantum phase. A large number of actions like flipping or neural impulses will also entangle quantum phase noise and therefore be subject to the limits of quantum knowledge. The fact that we cannot therefore ever precisely know a precursor feeling or precisely predict an outcome feeling gives us the archetypes of free will and free choice...

## Saturday, November 9, 2019

### Classical versus Quantum Photons

Einstein was the first to explain the electric impulses of the photoelectric effect as a quantum consequence of single photons in 1905. Although Planck had some years earlier in 1900 proposed the notion of a quantum of light to explain the nature of blackbody emission, it was Einstein who first recognized the quantum nature of light photons as particles in the photoelectric effect. Light made up of finite photon particles instead of the classical determinism of infinitely divisible light waves birthed the uncertainty of discrete quantum mechanics.

Classical physics had long accepted the notion of light as an infinitely divisible wave and then quickly adapted to the semiclassical notion of light as a large number of single photons or electromagnetic pulses in time and space. However, even such a semiclassical photon of light shows the uncertainty principle and so photons are not subject to classical determinism. Rather, a single quantum photon obeys the quantum uncertainty of superposition of many paths, polarizations, and energies. Specifically, while classical determinism argues that a classical single photon particle can only be on one path at a time with well-defined polarization, frequency, and location and all simultaneously knowable to arbitrary precision.

The single quantum photon exists instead with an uncertain outcome as a superposition of paths, polarizations, and frequencies. As a result, there is a well-defined limit to the precision of any simultaneous single photon measurement of path, polarization, and frequency. Nevertheless, many of the semiclassical notions of a photon survive and result in much quantum confusion that precludes determinate outcomes.

Photon exchange is the basic quantum glue that bonds all matter together and photon exchange is what bonds both charge and gravity matter. The outcome of a photon precursor is a quantum bonding state between emitter and absorber matter. While single photon exchange bonds charge matter by exchange and complementary ephoton mission, biphoton exchange bonds gravity matter by the complementary exchange and emission of biphotons.

A photon is an electromagnetic pulse that has a spectrum of frequencies in its Fourier transform. This fundamental relation between time and frequency is the foundation of the uncertainty principle. A short pulse of light is made up of a broad frequency spectrum and a long pulse of light is made up of a correspondingly very narrow spectrum. Thus a photon is a fundamentally quantum object that can nevertheless behave like a classical particle of matter under certain conditions. A classical particle of matter has a well defined path, mass, polarization, and location and a particle of matter can behave like a photon under certain conditions as well.

A charge bond is a photon exchange with complementary emitted photons since it is necessary to lose heat to bond charges. A gravity bond is a biphoton exchange that also has a complementary emitted biphoton since it is also necessary to lose heat to bond gravity matter. As a result of quantum gravity, atomic hydrogen can exist as a cold vacuum lattice cloud. As the cloud density grows with more and more cold hydrogen, eventually molecular hydrogen forms and the lattice spacing decreases until it nucleates. At this point, there is a transition from gravity to charge dispersion and nascent stellar binary nucleates condense with orthogonal spins. One-half of the cloud lattice collapses into one spin while the other half collapses into the orthogonal spin.

Quantum gravity bonds form and emit heat in a concerted spiral of condensation in the nuclei of molecular clouds. However, quantum gravity biphotons are 1e-39 less than quantum charge photon and so represent a virtual continuum of spiral states with orthogonal spins. While one spin condenses with like spins into one spiral, the orthogonal spin condenses with complementary spins into the complementary spiral of a stellar binary. It is important that the stellar nuclei continue to lose heat as the molecular cloud collapses with radial accretion. Heat loss occurs from hot axial jets that result from the cold radial accretion until fusion eventually ignites the stellar nuclei into nascent stars.

Once again, there is really no such thing as a classical photon because a photon is a pure quantum manifestation. Complementary to an atom as a discrete quantum of matter that is a superposition of electrons and protons, a photon is a discrete electromagnetic quantum that is a superposition of frequencies, polarizations, paths, and locations. However, there are various semiclassical simplifications for a photon that people find useful in certain contexts just as there are for atoms. For example, a simplified semiclassical photon may have a single frequency even though a quantum photon is always a spectrum of frequencies and never a single frequency.

A semiclassical single photon may have a single polarization state even though a quantum photon is always in a superposition of polarizations. A polarized photon will pass an aligned polarizer, which then reflects other polarizations. In contrast, a single quantum photon always exists in a superposition of polarization states until interacting with a polarizer to form a probabilistic polarization for each single quantum photon. Thus a single quantum photon may not have a well-defined polarization state before it interacts with the electrons of a polarizer. Note that a linear polarized single quantum photon is still a superposition of right and left circular polarizations.

A semiclassical single photon has a well-defined pulse path and location and cannot be in two places at the same time. However, a quantum single photon exists as a probabilistic superposition of all locations in the universe. At any given moment, that single quantum photon can exist as any number of paths and locations with various probabilities.

A semiclassical single photon still has a well defined frequency distribution and phase called a spectrum. A semiclassical photon spectrum exists as a Fourier transform of its time pulse and so the photon spectrum relates the time pulse and frequency. A quantum single photon is a superposition of frequencies and phases that are its spectrum and the Fourier transform relates photon pulse and spectrum. The quantum photon spectrum and pulse relationship is the quantum uncertainty principle between time and frequency.

Classically, there is no limit to the precision of simultaneous measurement of a particle momentum and location. A photon, however, has a discrete quantum limit to the precision of simultaneous measurements of both photon frequency and location. As a result, the more localized the photon, the broader the frequency spectrum becomes and eventually, the light wavelength exceeds the apparatus size. At that point, the measurement becomes meaningless.

Likewise, a semiclassical photon may have a well defined average location in time, but a quantum photon is always a distribution of locations, never a single location. A semiclassical photon may have a well-defined single path, but a quantum photon always exists on a distribution of paths, never just a single path. Moreover, matter has the complementary quantum properties of light.

Matter has a well-defined average location in time and matter is stationary while light only moves at a constant speed. Matter also oscillates complementary to light with a distribution of frequencies and also has a distribution of locations about an average location. An atom of matter has an average mass or frequency, but matter is also a distribution of masses about that average mass. While there are fundamental particles with very well-defined rest masses, quantum particles really only have inertial mass complementary to light. Rest mass just represents a particle’s interaction with other matter, which photons of course mediate.

Finally, classical matter has a well-defined average path, but quantum particles exist on a distribution of paths. However, upon interaction with other matter, any such distribution decays very quickly into the one path that we call our rest frame reality.

The single quantum photon exists instead with an uncertain outcome as a superposition of paths, polarizations, and frequencies. As a result, there is a well-defined limit to the precision of any simultaneous single photon measurement of path, polarization, and frequency. Nevertheless, many of the semiclassical notions of a photon survive and result in much quantum confusion that precludes determinate outcomes.

Photon exchange is the basic quantum glue that bonds all matter together and photon exchange is what bonds both charge and gravity matter. The outcome of a photon precursor is a quantum bonding state between emitter and absorber matter. While single photon exchange bonds charge matter by exchange and complementary ephoton mission, biphoton exchange bonds gravity matter by the complementary exchange and emission of biphotons.

A photon is an electromagnetic pulse that has a spectrum of frequencies in its Fourier transform. This fundamental relation between time and frequency is the foundation of the uncertainty principle. A short pulse of light is made up of a broad frequency spectrum and a long pulse of light is made up of a correspondingly very narrow spectrum. Thus a photon is a fundamentally quantum object that can nevertheless behave like a classical particle of matter under certain conditions. A classical particle of matter has a well defined path, mass, polarization, and location and a particle of matter can behave like a photon under certain conditions as well.

A charge bond is a photon exchange with complementary emitted photons since it is necessary to lose heat to bond charges. A gravity bond is a biphoton exchange that also has a complementary emitted biphoton since it is also necessary to lose heat to bond gravity matter. As a result of quantum gravity, atomic hydrogen can exist as a cold vacuum lattice cloud. As the cloud density grows with more and more cold hydrogen, eventually molecular hydrogen forms and the lattice spacing decreases until it nucleates. At this point, there is a transition from gravity to charge dispersion and nascent stellar binary nucleates condense with orthogonal spins. One-half of the cloud lattice collapses into one spin while the other half collapses into the orthogonal spin.

Quantum gravity bonds form and emit heat in a concerted spiral of condensation in the nuclei of molecular clouds. However, quantum gravity biphotons are 1e-39 less than quantum charge photon and so represent a virtual continuum of spiral states with orthogonal spins. While one spin condenses with like spins into one spiral, the orthogonal spin condenses with complementary spins into the complementary spiral of a stellar binary. It is important that the stellar nuclei continue to lose heat as the molecular cloud collapses with radial accretion. Heat loss occurs from hot axial jets that result from the cold radial accretion until fusion eventually ignites the stellar nuclei into nascent stars.

Once again, there is really no such thing as a classical photon because a photon is a pure quantum manifestation. Complementary to an atom as a discrete quantum of matter that is a superposition of electrons and protons, a photon is a discrete electromagnetic quantum that is a superposition of frequencies, polarizations, paths, and locations. However, there are various semiclassical simplifications for a photon that people find useful in certain contexts just as there are for atoms. For example, a simplified semiclassical photon may have a single frequency even though a quantum photon is always a spectrum of frequencies and never a single frequency.

A semiclassical single photon may have a single polarization state even though a quantum photon is always in a superposition of polarizations. A polarized photon will pass an aligned polarizer, which then reflects other polarizations. In contrast, a single quantum photon always exists in a superposition of polarization states until interacting with a polarizer to form a probabilistic polarization for each single quantum photon. Thus a single quantum photon may not have a well-defined polarization state before it interacts with the electrons of a polarizer. Note that a linear polarized single quantum photon is still a superposition of right and left circular polarizations.

A semiclassical single photon has a well-defined pulse path and location and cannot be in two places at the same time. However, a quantum single photon exists as a probabilistic superposition of all locations in the universe. At any given moment, that single quantum photon can exist as any number of paths and locations with various probabilities.

A semiclassical single photon still has a well defined frequency distribution and phase called a spectrum. A semiclassical photon spectrum exists as a Fourier transform of its time pulse and so the photon spectrum relates the time pulse and frequency. A quantum single photon is a superposition of frequencies and phases that are its spectrum and the Fourier transform relates photon pulse and spectrum. The quantum photon spectrum and pulse relationship is the quantum uncertainty principle between time and frequency.

Classically, there is no limit to the precision of simultaneous measurement of a particle momentum and location. A photon, however, has a discrete quantum limit to the precision of simultaneous measurements of both photon frequency and location. As a result, the more localized the photon, the broader the frequency spectrum becomes and eventually, the light wavelength exceeds the apparatus size. At that point, the measurement becomes meaningless.

Likewise, a semiclassical photon may have a well defined average location in time, but a quantum photon is always a distribution of locations, never a single location. A semiclassical photon may have a well-defined single path, but a quantum photon always exists on a distribution of paths, never just a single path. Moreover, matter has the complementary quantum properties of light.

Matter has a well-defined average location in time and matter is stationary while light only moves at a constant speed. Matter also oscillates complementary to light with a distribution of frequencies and also has a distribution of locations about an average location. An atom of matter has an average mass or frequency, but matter is also a distribution of masses about that average mass. While there are fundamental particles with very well-defined rest masses, quantum particles really only have inertial mass complementary to light. Rest mass just represents a particle’s interaction with other matter, which photons of course mediate.

Finally, classical matter has a well-defined average path, but quantum particles exist on a distribution of paths. However, upon interaction with other matter, any such distribution decays very quickly into the one path that we call our rest frame reality.

## Tuesday, October 22, 2019

### Classical Versus Quantum Narratives

Classical versus quantum are really two very different but still related narratives that underpin physical reality. While our macroscopic reality is very classical, our microscopic reality is quantum and so the two narratives derive from the very different natures of our macroscopic versus microscopic realities. Classically, the visual, audio, touch, taste, and odor contrasts of matter motion through space and time define our macroscopic reality, while the quantum amplitude and phase of much higher resolution spectra refine our microscopic reality.

In particular, we only sense a very low resolution and limited visible light spectrum and do not sense the phase or polarization of that light at all and there are similar low resolution spectra for all of our other senses as well. These low resolution spectra contrast with the very high resolution spectra that science records from many different devices. Science measures light, sound, impulse, chemistry, and odor not only at other vastly different wavelengths, but also at much higher resolution that also include phase as well as wavelength in its spectra. While there is a great deal of overlap between our macroscopic and microscopic narratives, there are many dramatic differences as well.

In our macroscopic reality, matter does not appear to exist in the same exact place at one time nor does the same matter appear to exist in more than one place at a time, either. Classically there are knowable precursors for every outcome in spite of the fact that we might not know those precursors because they might be hidden or otherwise obscured by noise. In other words, there is no classical limit to the precision of our knowledge of classical precursors despite the noise.

In our microscopic reality, though, matter can exist in the same exact place and time as other matter and the same matter can also exist in more than one place at a time as well. This is simply a consequence of quantum superposition and entanglement and does not violate causality. Thus there are still quantum precursors for every quantum outcome, but we may not be able to precisely know or measure those quantum precursors. Unlike the unlimited precision of classical knowledge, there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision of our knowledge of quantum precursors.

In both classical and quantum narratives, a pulse of light exists with both an average frequency as well as an instantaneous amplitude versus time and amplitude versus frequency. In addition, a pulse of light also has a single classical polarization state, but always a quantum superposition of two orthogonal polarization states. While a classical light pulse exists with a single well-defined polarization state, a quantum light pulse exists in a superposition of two orthogonal polarization states.

Therefore a single quantum photon always exists as a superposition of polarizations in contrast to a single classical photon that only exists with a well-defined single polarization. It is not possible to reconcile the notions of non oscillating classical matter with the oscillation of classical light. This represents the irreducible conundrum of classical versus quantum narratives. While a pair of correlated oscillating quantum states can represent a classical state, there is no classical representation for a single quantum state.

The quantum gravity biphoton reconciles classical determinate gravity relativity with the discrete uncertainties of quantum charge. While the photon-matter exchange of charge is necessarily quantum, biphoton-matter exchange is classical because of the entanglement and symmetry of quantum phase. Unlike the microscopic single photon exchange of charge with uncertain outcomes, the macroscopic biphoton exchange of gravity occurs with the determinate outcomes of universe change. The uncertainties of quantum gravity only show up at the scale of the universe while the uncertainties of atomic charge show up at the atomic scale.

In particular, we only sense a very low resolution and limited visible light spectrum and do not sense the phase or polarization of that light at all and there are similar low resolution spectra for all of our other senses as well. These low resolution spectra contrast with the very high resolution spectra that science records from many different devices. Science measures light, sound, impulse, chemistry, and odor not only at other vastly different wavelengths, but also at much higher resolution that also include phase as well as wavelength in its spectra. While there is a great deal of overlap between our macroscopic and microscopic narratives, there are many dramatic differences as well.

In our macroscopic reality, matter does not appear to exist in the same exact place at one time nor does the same matter appear to exist in more than one place at a time, either. Classically there are knowable precursors for every outcome in spite of the fact that we might not know those precursors because they might be hidden or otherwise obscured by noise. In other words, there is no classical limit to the precision of our knowledge of classical precursors despite the noise.

In our microscopic reality, though, matter can exist in the same exact place and time as other matter and the same matter can also exist in more than one place at a time as well. This is simply a consequence of quantum superposition and entanglement and does not violate causality. Thus there are still quantum precursors for every quantum outcome, but we may not be able to precisely know or measure those quantum precursors. Unlike the unlimited precision of classical knowledge, there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision of our knowledge of quantum precursors.

In both classical and quantum narratives, a pulse of light exists with both an average frequency as well as an instantaneous amplitude versus time and amplitude versus frequency. In addition, a pulse of light also has a single classical polarization state, but always a quantum superposition of two orthogonal polarization states. While a classical light pulse exists with a single well-defined polarization state, a quantum light pulse exists in a superposition of two orthogonal polarization states.

Therefore a single quantum photon always exists as a superposition of polarizations in contrast to a single classical photon that only exists with a well-defined single polarization. It is not possible to reconcile the notions of non oscillating classical matter with the oscillation of classical light. This represents the irreducible conundrum of classical versus quantum narratives. While a pair of correlated oscillating quantum states can represent a classical state, there is no classical representation for a single quantum state.

The quantum gravity biphoton reconciles classical determinate gravity relativity with the discrete uncertainties of quantum charge. While the photon-matter exchange of charge is necessarily quantum, biphoton-matter exchange is classical because of the entanglement and symmetry of quantum phase. Unlike the microscopic single photon exchange of charge with uncertain outcomes, the macroscopic biphoton exchange of gravity occurs with the determinate outcomes of universe change. The uncertainties of quantum gravity only show up at the scale of the universe while the uncertainties of atomic charge show up at the atomic scale.

## Thursday, October 10, 2019

### Fast Changes versus Slow Changes

There is a fundamental confusion between how different very fast changes are from very slow changes in the universe. Even though there are two very different clocks for slow versus fast changes, mainstream science believes that there is still only one time dimension. While the universe changes only very, very slowly, atoms and molecules literally change at the speed of light and even the atoms and molecules of rest matter undergo very fast and perpetual changes. What looks like quiescent matter is actually a cauldron of seething electrons, protons, and neutrons in perpetual motion and change and yet on the scale of the cosmos, we sometimes see no change at all.

Mainstream science believes that the very slow changes in the universe are simply manifestations of the very fast atomic changes of one time dimension. This is not correct. While atomic clocks show a very precise time for atoms and molecules, the dephasing of two atomic time clocks reveals a second time dimension of very slow universe time. Mainstream science believes the very slow changes in the universe today stem from the very fast changes of a big bang followed by another whole universe of very fast changes known as inflation. Finally, the very slow changes we see today just derive from the CMB (cosmic microwave background) creation.

However, there is no sense to what caused the big bang and there are over twenty fundamental particles and constants as well as their antimatter equivalents and those constants have existed since just after the very fast changes of the big bang and inflation. Thus, the patchwork belief of mainstream is a narrative of a very slow universe changes evolving from very fast matter action. In fact, mainstream science must believe in an origin along with a large number of particles, constants, and other leaps of faith to make sense out of the very slow changes that we see today in the universe.

Mattertime is an alternative belief that still makes sense out of the CMB creation and that there are actually two time dimensions; the very fast atom changes result in an atomic clock and the very slow universe changes of the dephasing of two atomic clocks . Mattertime is a very simple alternative belief that is also consistent with all observations and in fact, mattertime simply reinterprets many observations of matter decay and force growth that the mainstream attributes to other things or can't otherwise explain.

Mattertime expresses all change with just two quantum dimensions or conjugates of matter and action which along with quantum phase complete the trimal of quantum change.

There are just two mattertime constants and all other constants and particles emerge from just these two. Of course, the two mattertime constants, aether particle mass and action, are just simplifications of all spacetime constants and particles. All matter including even space and time and black holes emerges from the actions of aether particles and the fundamental quantum SchrÃ¶dinger equation.

The Planck constant,

The aether particle mass is the second mattertime constant and is simply the fraction of hydrogen atom action mass,

The incredible and complex universe emerges from the very simply building blocks of matter and action along with the quantum SchrÃ¶dinger equation. The universe is really a causal set of precursors for every outcome and our own purpose and meaning emerge from that family relationship. However, since we ourselves are all causal sets embedded within the universe causal set, there are limits to what we can know about precursors of outcomes. This limitation is enshrined in something called the quantum uncertainty principle and is really a direct outcome of the nature of quantum phase.

Fundamentally, we are quantum beings with matter, action, and phase in a perpetual oscillation embedded in the quantum matter, action and phase of the universe. The fact that we cannot know our quantum phase limits how well we can know other quantum phase and that limits the precision of our knowledge of matter action. While we can predict matter action quite well, there is a fundamental mystery of matter action in which we must simply believe.

Mattertime is completely consistent with the matter-energy equivalence of gravity relativity since all energy is a form of aether in mattertime. In fact, the entire universe is made up of matter action and time and space and black holes all emerge from matter action and phase. Therefore, mattertime includes quantum gravity and gravitons become the biphotons of CMB creation. The dark biphotons of gravity waves are the glue that pulls the universe together and there is no need to invent dark matter or dark energy. The mattertime universe already makes sense as a pulse of matter and the fundamental gauge or measure of all action is the aether particle.

Mainstream science believes that the very slow changes in the universe are simply manifestations of the very fast atomic changes of one time dimension. This is not correct. While atomic clocks show a very precise time for atoms and molecules, the dephasing of two atomic time clocks reveals a second time dimension of very slow universe time. Mainstream science believes the very slow changes in the universe today stem from the very fast changes of a big bang followed by another whole universe of very fast changes known as inflation. Finally, the very slow changes we see today just derive from the CMB (cosmic microwave background) creation.

However, there is no sense to what caused the big bang and there are over twenty fundamental particles and constants as well as their antimatter equivalents and those constants have existed since just after the very fast changes of the big bang and inflation. Thus, the patchwork belief of mainstream is a narrative of a very slow universe changes evolving from very fast matter action. In fact, mainstream science must believe in an origin along with a large number of particles, constants, and other leaps of faith to make sense out of the very slow changes that we see today in the universe.

Mattertime is an alternative belief that still makes sense out of the CMB creation and that there are actually two time dimensions; the very fast atom changes result in an atomic clock and the very slow universe changes of the dephasing of two atomic clocks . Mattertime is a very simple alternative belief that is also consistent with all observations and in fact, mattertime simply reinterprets many observations of matter decay and force growth that the mainstream attributes to other things or can't otherwise explain.

Mattertime expresses all change with just two quantum dimensions or conjugates of matter and action which along with quantum phase complete the trimal of quantum change.

There are just two mattertime constants and all other constants and particles emerge from just these two. Of course, the two mattertime constants, aether particle mass and action, are just simplifications of all spacetime constants and particles. All matter including even space and time and black holes emerges from the actions of aether particles and the fundamental quantum SchrÃ¶dinger equation.

The Planck constant,

*h*, is the action constant of light since it gives the energy of each photon of light from the light's oscillation frequency. Since photon exchange bonds all matter,*h*is a part of all matter, not just light. Likewise,*h*is the action constant of mattertime since it relates an equivalent mass to any action oscillation frequency. All quantum aether oscillates and the relative phases of matter's quantum oscillations are what either bonds or scatters matter with aether exchange. This means that each photon of light is actually a bound aether pair and the photon energy is equal to the strength of that bond._{ae}= h/c^{2}The aether particle mass is the second mattertime constant and is simply the fraction of hydrogen atom action mass,

*h*, due to gravity versus charge,_{ae}/t_{B}*force*. The ratio of the Planck constant,_{charge}/force_{gravity}*h*, to Bohr hydrogen orbit period,_{ae}*t*, is the mass equivalent bonding energy of a hydrogen atom and so the aether particle mass is then the matter equivalent bonding energy of the universe to itself._{B}The incredible and complex universe emerges from the very simply building blocks of matter and action along with the quantum SchrÃ¶dinger equation. The universe is really a causal set of precursors for every outcome and our own purpose and meaning emerge from that family relationship. However, since we ourselves are all causal sets embedded within the universe causal set, there are limits to what we can know about precursors of outcomes. This limitation is enshrined in something called the quantum uncertainty principle and is really a direct outcome of the nature of quantum phase.

Fundamentally, we are quantum beings with matter, action, and phase in a perpetual oscillation embedded in the quantum matter, action and phase of the universe. The fact that we cannot know our quantum phase limits how well we can know other quantum phase and that limits the precision of our knowledge of matter action. While we can predict matter action quite well, there is a fundamental mystery of matter action in which we must simply believe.

Mattertime is completely consistent with the matter-energy equivalence of gravity relativity since all energy is a form of aether in mattertime. In fact, the entire universe is made up of matter action and time and space and black holes all emerge from matter action and phase. Therefore, mattertime includes quantum gravity and gravitons become the biphotons of CMB creation. The dark biphotons of gravity waves are the glue that pulls the universe together and there is no need to invent dark matter or dark energy. The mattertime universe already makes sense as a pulse of matter and the fundamental gauge or measure of all action is the aether particle.

## Tuesday, October 1, 2019

### Single Photon Resonator

*vice versa*.

A single classical photon exists as a pulse of light with both a location and a spectral superposition of frequencies and phases called a spectrum. A single quantum photon location in a beamsplitter device can be in a superposition of locations and any measurement will affect the single photon spectrum since the measurement becomes part of the device. Any simultaneous knowledge of both photon location and spectrum is necessarily limited by the uncertainty principle and the fact that it is a single photon.

Even very smart people can ask the absurd question about a quantum photon location in a beamsplitter resonator and location has no meaning since single photon has no classical meaning. A photon is a superposition of all frequencies and phases and all locations in the entire universe that happen to make up what we call a pulse of light that shows up on one path with one spectrum. This is how the universe works and yet, these same very smart people seem forever confused by the discrete nature of quantum matter and action.

Why is the universe full of things that happen? Why do things happen at all? Why do things happen to one person and not to someone else? These are questions that people ask and answer all the time, but there are no single precise answers to such questions. The things that happen to us are simply how the universe is and there is no further explanation needed, just belief in the way the universe is.

However, all things that happen are outcomes that have matter action causes and so we can find out a lot about the matter and action that causes something to happen, but we cannot know everything. Even though there are answers to all questions about the matter and action that causes something to happen within the universe, there are limits to the precision of any answer. Classically, there is no limit to the precision of knowledge but in quantum space and time, precise knowledge of both location and momentum is not possible. In fact, a more precise measurement of location results in more uncertainty in the spectrum of a photon. Thus, there is a discrete quantum limit to simultaneous knowledge of both the matter and action that causes something to happen.

Both double slit and beamsplitter resonators as well as any laser resonators are all examples of photon resonators and there are many ways to fabricate a single photon resonator at light wavelengths. Such a light resonator includes a source, confinement of some sort with mirrors and beamsplitters, lenses and apertures, and a detector. Depending on dephasing time and frequency of the source and detector, there are any number of semiclassical approximations or simplifications for the quantum phase superposition and entanglement that are a part of even a single photon resonator. However, since quantum superposition and entanglement of a single photon with itself has no completely classical meaning, and the many semiclassical questions will necessarily result in absurd semiclassical answers.

For example, a 1996 sciAm article reported a photon resonator that detects objects with a photon that never hits those objects. The underlying assumption is that it is only by photon absorption or emission that we detect objects, but of course this is not true. A shadow is a perfect example of detecting an object with the photons that do not hit the object instead of those that do. Since there are two or any number of paths in superposition within this single photon resonator, this resonator recorded an object shadow by blocking one path and thereby changing the photon output along the other path. Therefore, the photon that passed through the resonator recorded a change without ever hitting the object. The authors then implied that the photon was identical before and after, but that was really not true either. The photon spectrum did change and in particular, the phase and polarization of the photon changed and that recorded change showed the blockage of one path.

In other words, a single photon carries both frequency and phase information and so the photon did change even though it did not hit the inserted object. This single photon resonator is analogous to the hydrogen atom, since hydrogen is also a single photon resonator where photon exchange between the electron and proton binds the hydrogen

*orbits*. Thus, a hydrogen atom resonator is an electron source, a proton detector, and photon confinement due to exchange. Note that a hydrogen atom is completely symmetric (actually, not quite because of spin polarization) and therefore also equivalent to a proton source and electron detector. Creation formed each hydrogen atom in the universe by emitting a photon of light complementary in frequency and phase to the photon exchange that binds hydrogen. In fact, this complementary photon pair is the biphoton that we call gravity force.

There are many semiclassical approximations for single photon resonators including the hydrogen atom and these approximations often result in semiclassical confusion. This confusion is due to the underlying quantum phase correlation, interference, and entanglement that have no classical meanings. A single photon, electron, or proton can actually interfere or entangle with itself while in relativistic gravity, there is no such self-energy of quantum phase coherence. A very common semiclassical approximation is to completely neglect of the role of quantum phase and in particular, to completely neglect the roles of source and detector phase entanglement.

Thus, just as there is no way to really explain the bonding of a hydrogen atom without quantum phase or to locate the photon being exchanged, there is likewise really no way to precisely locate a single photon in a quantum resonator, either. Hydrogen is made up of two opposite semiclassical charged particles, but what bonds the electron and proton of hydrogen is photon exchange, which makes no classical sense at all. The semiclassical observer can then imagine the photon as a free particle independent of its source and detector traveling independently in space and time. While this is often a very useful semiclassical approximation, the neglect of source and detector quantum phase entanglement can lead the observer to many absurd semiclassical conclusions.

One absurd conclusion is that a semiclassical electron falling into a proton eventually exceeds the speed of light. Another absurd conclusion is that since a semiclassical electron moves through space and time in its orbit around a proton, there is instantaneous communication across the diameter of the orbit. In fact, these same absurd semiclassical conclusions result from any single photon resonator given semiclassical approximations.

A second very common semiclassical approximation that a single photon behaves in a similar manner to a large collection of photons. However, while a large number of uncorrelated photons give a classical statistical average classical behavior, a single photon will necessarily show only a quantum outcome just as a large number of highly correlated photons become a laser. Therefore, a single photon does not have a single classical determinate outcome because even a single photon represents a quantum superposition of many possible outcomes and not just a single classical outcome like a classical cannonball.

Unlike a classical cannonball, which only has a semiclassical mass, a photon and indeed all quantum matter, even cannonballs, have both masses and a spectrum of frequencies and phases and so no two photons or particles are ever exactly alike. Even though two photons may come from the same source and end up at the same detector, they never have exactly the same spectrum. Therefore, ignoring quantum phase entanglement for any single photon resonator like a double slit or a beam splitter can lead to absurd semiclassical determinate answers instead of uncertain quantum answers.

Including quantum phase entanglement and decay in a single photon resonator resolves all of these semiclassical paradoxes with probabilistic quantum answers. Quantum nonlocality and action at a distance are both the direct outcomes of semiclassical and determinate assumptions that completely ignore quantum phase entanglement and decay. Classically, there is no limit to the precision of the simultaneous knowledge of the mass and action of a particle or body like a cannonball. However, there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision of the simultaneous knowledge of matter and action, the uncertainty principle, because quantum matter and action have quantum phase and entanglement.

A classical cannonball has a classical mass measurable to an arbitrary classical and relativistic precision as long as the cannonball is at rest. However, the electrons, protons, and neutrons of the quantum cannonball are never at rest since they are all in perpetual motion, even at absolute zero temperature. Therefore, the cannonball mass actually depends on its temperature as well as on the atmosphere it is in contact with and so on. Thus, there are a large number of semiclassical approximations that we make when we measure a classical cannonball rest mass. When we measure the quantum mass of a cannonball, its action is always a part of that quantum measurement and the relativistic rest mass is then just a semiclassical approximation that has no quantum meaning. And there is a semiclassical assumption that the universe does not change during the course of the measurement, but the universe does in fact change all the time and those changes do actually affect the measurement, if only very slightly.

Quantum phase entanglement and decay can lead to very complex analyses called two-dimensional photon spectroscopy. The more complex the photon resonator, the more complex the spectral analysis and even very smart people can end up with absurd semiclassical answers given semiclassical approximations. There are really two outcomes for source and detector phases and pure decay to heat is just one outcome while pure dephasing is a second outcome that results in no heat. Semiclassical approximations usually assume pure decay and completely neglect the pure dephasing of quantum phase, but many of the absurd semiclassical conclusions of the double slit and beamsplitter resonators result from the neglect of pure dephasing and entanglement.

Classically, atom excitation energy decays only to heat and results in a classical emission spectrum after quantum phase decay. However, it is possible for quantum phase to diffuse to other matter and couple source and detector even though the excitation energy does not decay to heat. Rather, quantum phase entanglement persists and the emission spectrum evolves and can result in photon echoes and other pure phase entanglements that have no classical meaning at all.

Thus there is no Wittgenstein sense to the many absurd questions about semiclassical single photon resonators. Single photons as well as large numbers of highly phase correlated photons in resonators have only quantum and not really classical answers. Thus, the determinism of gravity relativity is a very misleading semiclassical approximation for the biphoton phase correlation of quantum gravity. It is the biphoton phase entanglement and correlation of the emitted and exchanged photons of hydrogen and all matter in the universe that is gravity force. In other words, gravity force is due to a persistent biphoton quantum phase correlation and so gravity relativity is a very good approximation that neglects the fundamental role of phase for the biphoton of quantum gravity.

The penultimate photon resonator is a black hole where only photon phase exchange binds matter into a pure phase gravity photon resonator while the ultimate photon resonator is the universe itself. A black hole outcome represents a pure quantum phase matter action that really has no meaning in classical space and time. A black hole quantum phase or spin outcome preserves all of its precursor matter action information as both matter and pure phase and there is no meaning for black hole space and time. Our notions of space and time as well as black holes then all emerge from things that happen and really space and time and black holes do not therefore have meaning without things that happen. Space, time, and black holes all emerge from the causal set of the precursors and outcomes of discrete matter action.

## Wednesday, September 4, 2019

### Measuring Free Will

In a recent FQXi conference, Ian Durham proposed a measure of free will as the distance, zeta, in a Mahalanobis phase space of possible outcomes from a precursor to the outcome of a free choice. His argument was then that a free choice is somehow inevitable and therefore would be a shortest zeta path in the multidimensional decision space of all possible outcomes. However, if a choice is truly inevitable based on its zeta distance, then that choice would be determinate and not free after all.

One thing is very clear...it is even more difficult to

However, if there were a determinate measure of free will precursors to a choice like a scalar zeta, it is clear that that would not then be free choice since a predictable choice cannot be a free choice. There are only two ways out of the determinate conundrum of individual freedom versus social responsibility; the noise of classical chaos and noise of quantum phase. In particular, a free choice is one that we make based on gut feeling and so there may be any number of constraints on that free choice. Feelings derive from emotions and how exactly we feel about a choice can be impossible to truly know.

There are many things that we cannot ever truly know and neither the noise of classical chaos nor the noise of quantum phase have completely knowable precursors even though those precursors do exist for each in the causal universe. Unknowable precursors represent the mystery of consciousness and being and feeling and are things that we must simply accept. The universe is after all just the way that it is first of all. The precursors of free choice must be unknowable since free choice represents the balance between individual freedom and social responsibility and we achieve that balance by our feelings. The noise of classical chaos, Shannon noise, is what we call random action but the noise of classical chaos is actually not really random at all. In fact, classical chaos is in principle infinitely resolvable and therefore knowable with infinitely resolvable space and time. Therefore classical

While classical choices all have knowable precursors, quantum choices do not since they are superpositions of precursors and outcomes and do not have infinitely resolvable precursors. The decay of quantum phase results in a real outcome and so even a real outcome does not have any precisely knowable precursors, just more likely precursors. Quantum phase decay is a consequence of the very slow intrinsic change in the universe. Quantum outcomes do have more likely precursors and our individual freedom and social responsibility mean that we cannot know the precursors of free choice with infinitely resolvable precision even though those precursors do exist in a causal universe.

In other words, while we believe might that we are free and socially responsible, we cannot ever be completely certain about individual freedom or about social responsibility, we just have feelings about them. This means that there is a discrete quantum limit to the knowledge that we may have about our individual freedom and so there are fundamental mysteries about the universe that we must simply accept as the way that the universe is.

Thus, individual freedom exists in a balance with social responsibility as the fundamental duality of the free choice of the mystery of consciousness. Random choices are unpredictable just like free choices are unpredictable and so Durham argues along with many others that random choices are not free choices. Likewise, choices by instinct, Durham further argues, are also not free choices and so the classical reasoning of chaos imposes its infinitesimals and infinities upon our discrete causal quantum universe. Random action is just a convenient shortcut for the practical limit for knowledge of precursors and it is always ironic that in a causal universe things can ever happen for unknowable causes.

What classical physics really means by random is not that random things are

In fact, there is a classical practical limit to knowing Shannon

Quantum phase noise is really very similar to classical Shannon noise, but quantum phase noise includes quantum phase and the phase decay of the universe. Quantum phase decay is the fundamental driver in the discrete causal universe and quantum phase decay is therefore not really random in the classical sense. Quantum phase noise is random in the quantum sense of superposition and correlation and the likelihood of Schumacher's qubits and von Neumann's density matrices. Unlike the unlimited divisibility and knowledge of Shannon's bits, qubits represent the discrete limit of knowledge in the quantum universe.

Free choice is of course an essential part of consciousness and we have a free choice between the selfishness of individual freedom and the compassion of social responsibility. The most direct measure of consciousness is how we act like other people and then how they act like we act. When we agree with other people about a conscious state, our subjective feeling becomes an objective shared feeling, but even very smart people like Durham can still disagree about the natures of consciousness and free will as well as individual freedom versus social responsibility.

Even more objective measures of consciousness are in the resonances of neural action potentials as EEG spectra. Although EEG resonances are objective measures of the conscious state, EEG’s do not necessarily measure the quality of any conscious state...at least not with present technology. In fact, every neural action potential network, even those of a mouse or even a house fly or indeed a pond hydra, show the resonances of some kind of limited neural consciousness. However, fundamental particles do not show neural resonances and therefore are not conscious. Measuring both waking and sleeping state EEG's of neural networks provides objective measures of awake conscious spectra versus the unconscious spectra of sleep as resonance frequencies and resonance widths.

The EEG spectrum delta mode is a fundamental resonance of human neural action potentials at 1.5 Hz with a full width of 1.5 Hz. The fundamental modes of consciousness are the overtone alpha modes at 11 Hz = 7x delta and beta modes at 21 Hz = 14x delta and represent the human conscious state, all with similar widths. These multiples are not accidents of nature but rather are a consequence of the neural structures of the hexagonal close-packing of the eye's retina and the sound octaves of the ear's cochlea. Thus humans have many of the same neural resonances as other sentient neural action potentials.

While the peaks and overtones of each neural spectrum represents the complexity of a moment of thought, the peak

One thing is very clear...it is even more difficult to

*define*free will than it will ever be to*measure*free will and so it is important to first define free will in order to ever hope to measure free will. If it is not clear exactly how we make free choices versus not free choices in the first place, measuring free choice would then be undefined as well.However, if there were a determinate measure of free will precursors to a choice like a scalar zeta, it is clear that that would not then be free choice since a predictable choice cannot be a free choice. There are only two ways out of the determinate conundrum of individual freedom versus social responsibility; the noise of classical chaos and noise of quantum phase. In particular, a free choice is one that we make based on gut feeling and so there may be any number of constraints on that free choice. Feelings derive from emotions and how exactly we feel about a choice can be impossible to truly know.

There are many things that we cannot ever truly know and neither the noise of classical chaos nor the noise of quantum phase have completely knowable precursors even though those precursors do exist for each in the causal universe. Unknowable precursors represent the mystery of consciousness and being and feeling and are things that we must simply accept. The universe is after all just the way that it is first of all. The precursors of free choice must be unknowable since free choice represents the balance between individual freedom and social responsibility and we achieve that balance by our feelings. The noise of classical chaos, Shannon noise, is what we call random action but the noise of classical chaos is actually not really random at all. In fact, classical chaos is in principle infinitely resolvable and therefore knowable with infinitely resolvable space and time. Therefore classical

*random*noise is actually just a recognition of a practical limit of the knowable precursors precursors of random noise. However, the noise of a quantum superposition outcome has a well-defined discrete limit and yet will still not have completely knowable precursors even though quantum choices can be very likely.While classical choices all have knowable precursors, quantum choices do not since they are superpositions of precursors and outcomes and do not have infinitely resolvable precursors. The decay of quantum phase results in a real outcome and so even a real outcome does not have any precisely knowable precursors, just more likely precursors. Quantum phase decay is a consequence of the very slow intrinsic change in the universe. Quantum outcomes do have more likely precursors and our individual freedom and social responsibility mean that we cannot know the precursors of free choice with infinitely resolvable precision even though those precursors do exist in a causal universe.

In other words, while we believe might that we are free and socially responsible, we cannot ever be completely certain about individual freedom or about social responsibility, we just have feelings about them. This means that there is a discrete quantum limit to the knowledge that we may have about our individual freedom and so there are fundamental mysteries about the universe that we must simply accept as the way that the universe is.

Thus, individual freedom exists in a balance with social responsibility as the fundamental duality of the free choice of the mystery of consciousness. Random choices are unpredictable just like free choices are unpredictable and so Durham argues along with many others that random choices are not free choices. Likewise, choices by instinct, Durham further argues, are also not free choices and so the classical reasoning of chaos imposes its infinitesimals and infinities upon our discrete causal quantum universe. Random action is just a convenient shortcut for the practical limit for knowledge of precursors and it is always ironic that in a causal universe things can ever happen for unknowable causes.

What classical physics really means by random is not that random things are

*fundamentally*unknowable, but rather that random things are just*practically*unknowable. Classically, there is no limit to resolving uncertainty except just a practical limit since all action has infinitely divisible momentum along with infinitely divisible displacement. Thus random simply represents the practical limit to knowing the classical precursors of classical outcomes.In fact, there is a classical practical limit to knowing Shannon

*noise*, but that does not then mean that noise is truly random. In fact, computer algorithms simulate random noise to arbitrary precision quite well with determinate algorithms. Therefore, the universe really is not*fundamentally*random as Durham claims, but more like*effectively*random just like the determinate computer algorithms of noise are not fundamentally random. Classical Shannon noise is then what we call*random*but in a classical causal universe, each bit of Shannon noise does actually have knowable precursors in an infinity of divisibility.Quantum phase noise is really very similar to classical Shannon noise, but quantum phase noise includes quantum phase and the phase decay of the universe. Quantum phase decay is the fundamental driver in the discrete causal universe and quantum phase decay is therefore not really random in the classical sense. Quantum phase noise is random in the quantum sense of superposition and correlation and the likelihood of Schumacher's qubits and von Neumann's density matrices. Unlike the unlimited divisibility and knowledge of Shannon's bits, qubits represent the discrete limit of knowledge in the quantum universe.

Free choice is of course an essential part of consciousness and we have a free choice between the selfishness of individual freedom and the compassion of social responsibility. The most direct measure of consciousness is how we act like other people and then how they act like we act. When we agree with other people about a conscious state, our subjective feeling becomes an objective shared feeling, but even very smart people like Durham can still disagree about the natures of consciousness and free will as well as individual freedom versus social responsibility.

Even more objective measures of consciousness are in the resonances of neural action potentials as EEG spectra. Although EEG resonances are objective measures of the conscious state, EEG’s do not necessarily measure the quality of any conscious state...at least not with present technology. In fact, every neural action potential network, even those of a mouse or even a house fly or indeed a pond hydra, show the resonances of some kind of limited neural consciousness. However, fundamental particles do not show neural resonances and therefore are not conscious. Measuring both waking and sleeping state EEG's of neural networks provides objective measures of awake conscious spectra versus the unconscious spectra of sleep as resonance frequencies and resonance widths.

The EEG spectrum delta mode is a fundamental resonance of human neural action potentials at 1.5 Hz with a full width of 1.5 Hz. The fundamental modes of consciousness are the overtone alpha modes at 11 Hz = 7x delta and beta modes at 21 Hz = 14x delta and represent the human conscious state, all with similar widths. These multiples are not accidents of nature but rather are a consequence of the neural structures of the hexagonal close-packing of the eye's retina and the sound octaves of the ear's cochlea. Thus humans have many of the same neural resonances as other sentient neural action potentials.

*widths*represent the phase decay from a precursor thought to an outcome thought. Thus, an objective measure of free choice is in the state-to-state neural transition of a precursor to an outcome spectrum as thoughts. It is then the*phase decay*of each moment of thought from one EEG spectrum to another that is the objective measure of free choice and not really an inevitability of some sort of determinism. Human choice is due to the primitive brain's amygdala, one of many organs of the primitive brain of subconscious thought versus the cerebral brain of conscious thought, and so the phase decay of choice is somehow due to the amygdala.
A classical determinate argument supposes that a precursor spectrum completely determines an outcome spectrum, but that is clearly not the case. Rather, there are a large but finite number of possible outcome spectra that exist in superposition with a precursor spectrum. Therefore free choice is not Durham's determinate scalar zeta but rather a complex zeta that includes phase and a phase decay along with uncertainty for our quantum choices. Since it is not possible to know our own quantum phase and all possible outcomes, it is also not possible to precisely know the precursors for choices that we make even though some outcomes are more likely than others. All of the possible outcomes affect free choice just as do all of the precursors for a moment of thought.

Our morality then arises from a the decay of a superposition of the spectra of choice between the many but finite possible spectra of individual freedom and social responsibility. These spectra are all Jungian archetypes, some intrinsic and some that we learn from persuasion and imitation of others as we grow up and mature. While we can change how we feel about a choice by learning new archetypes, it is simply not possible to always know precisely why we feel the way that we do feel and that is the uncertain nature of free choice.

## Saturday, August 17, 2019

### Quantum Causal Asymmetry

Causal Asymmetry in a Quantum World

PHYSICAL REVIEW X 8, 031013 (2018)

Jayne Thompson, Andrew J. P. Garner, John R. Mahoney, James P. Crutchfield, Vlatko Vedral, and Mile Gu

...Consider a cannonball in free fall. To model its future trajectory classically, we need only its current position and velocity. This remains true even when we view the process in reverse time. This exemplifies causal symmetry. There is no difference in the amount of information we must track for prediction versus retrodiction.

However, this is not as obvious for more complex processes. Take a glass shattering upon impact with the floor. In one temporal direction, the future distribution of shards depends only on the glass’s current position, velocity, and orientation. In the opposite direction, we may need to track relevant information regarding each glass shard to infer the glass’s prior trajectory.

PHYSICAL REVIEW X 8, 031013 (2018)

Jayne Thompson, Andrew J. P. Garner, John R. Mahoney, James P. Crutchfield, Vlatko Vedral, and Mile Gu

*Start excerpt...*

...Consider a cannonball in free fall. To model its future trajectory classically, we need only its current position and velocity. This remains true even when we view the process in reverse time. This exemplifies causal symmetry. There is no difference in the amount of information we must track for prediction versus retrodiction.

However, this is not as obvious for more complex processes. Take a glass shattering upon impact with the floor. In one temporal direction, the future distribution of shards depends only on the glass’s current position, velocity, and orientation. In the opposite direction, we may need to track relevant information regarding each glass shard to infer the glass’s prior trajectory.

Does this require more or less information? This potential divergence is quantified in the theory of computational mechanics [6]...

[6] J. P. Crutchfield, Between Order, and Chaos , Nat. Phys. 8, 17 (2012).

This paper shows a quantum causal asymmetry that does not exist classically and uses a cannonball as an example of classical time reversal symmetry of prediction and retrodiction. However, including the atmospheric friction around the cannonball trajectory results in the same classical versus quantum complexity dilemma as this actual cannonball trajectories as a painting in1628 by Diego Ufano shows.

Even the simplest actual classical cannonball trajectory involves much more classical than quantum information since the trajectory is continuous and infinitely divisible but chaotic due to atmospheric friction. However, the quantum trajectory involves discrete jumps or hops and quantum therefore ultimately limits the information needed for retrodiction. However, the price to pay for that quantum limit is in a limited uncertainty while classically, there is no limit to the uncertainty and therefore the information is unbounded.

The cannonball trajectory makes up a causal set of precursors and outcomes and are all predicated on atmospheric eddies at a higher resolution. Eventually, a discrete quantum limits the information for quantum retrodiction and so provides a kind of quantum arrow of time. Although not discussed in this paper, it is quantum phase decay that brings quantum and classical retrodiction together as one.

[6] J. P. Crutchfield, Between Order, and Chaos , Nat. Phys. 8, 17 (2012).

*End excerpt...*This paper shows a quantum causal asymmetry that does not exist classically and uses a cannonball as an example of classical time reversal symmetry of prediction and retrodiction. However, including the atmospheric friction around the cannonball trajectory results in the same classical versus quantum complexity dilemma as this actual cannonball trajectories as a painting in1628 by Diego Ufano shows.

Even the simplest actual classical cannonball trajectory involves much more classical than quantum information since the trajectory is continuous and infinitely divisible but chaotic due to atmospheric friction. However, the quantum trajectory involves discrete jumps or hops and quantum therefore ultimately limits the information needed for retrodiction. However, the price to pay for that quantum limit is in a limited uncertainty while classically, there is no limit to the uncertainty and therefore the information is unbounded.

The cannonball trajectory makes up a causal set of precursors and outcomes and are all predicated on atmospheric eddies at a higher resolution. Eventually, a discrete quantum limits the information for quantum retrodiction and so provides a kind of quantum arrow of time. Although not discussed in this paper, it is quantum phase decay that brings quantum and classical retrodiction together as one.

## Saturday, August 10, 2019

### Our Subconscious Free Will

It is now well established that we make decisions based on irrational subconscious feeling and not based on conscious rational reasoning. Perhaps the most compelling evidence is that of the delay between when we are conscious of a choice and when that choice shows up in the brain MRI. However, it is not then true that we do not have free will or free choice despite the fact that our subconscious and not conscious mind determines choice. Many people argue that since subconscious decisions are based on irrational feeling and not based on rational reasoning that we then do not have free will and our choices are all persuaded by a determinate universe.

However, how we feel about things and therefore make choices derives from a set of emotions that in turn arise from a set of subconscious archetypes of consciousness. Consciousness involves a recursion of thought, memories, and feeling and archetypes are in what we believe and are what affect our emotions and therefore feelings and memories. Some of our subconscious archetypes are innate but are by no means completely fixed and constant and constantly evolve in life. As other people and things that happen persuade us to believe differently, so our beliefs evolve as a result of the persuasion of others and how they act. Instead of directly perceiving reality, our archetypes provide a template of what we call perception and we respond to things that happen with emotions and feeling. Irrational feeling then determines how we make free choices and why we have free will.

The technical reason that we have free will is that we actually cannot always know the reasons why we make the choices that we make even though those reasons do exist. What we do is first make a choice based on our subconscious feeling and then we rationalize that choice with conscious reasoning that may or may not have had anything to do with our choice. In very technical terms, we each live in our own subjective quantum universe of matter, action, and phase and while matter and action are how things change, quantum phase is also a part of how things change and we also have quantum phase that affects how we feel. In fact, the very nature of neural action potentials has to do with quantum phase so our quantum phase affects how we see matter action and then how we perceive reality.

A large number of classical events like flips of a coin toss or neural action potentials, necessarily also entangle quantum phase noise. This is because even though a macroscopic event entangles only very small amounts of quantum phase noise, large numbers of such events by design do. While a classical event is never really random, a quantum event is truly random in the sense that quantum is not predictable with arbitrary precision.

Each moment of thought is an EEG power spectrum of neural resonances of a large number of neural actions and each choice represents an outcome EEG spectrum. Every precursor spectrum of thought is a superposition with a large but finite number of outcome spectra and it is quantum phase decay that transitions from the precursor to outcome spectrum in what we call a choice. Although each choice is an outcome spectrum due to the collapse of precursor spectra superposition, it is not possible to predict the precise outcome of free choice from just the precursor spectra superposition even though it is possible to often predict the most likely choice. Therefore, there are no precisely certain outcomes given a known precursor and this is why we have free choice and free will.

Therefore it is also not possible for anyone to know all of the precursors for their choices even though those precursors do exist in a causal discrete set universe. Our free choices are free precisely because it is not possible for anyone to actually know all of the precursors for our choices. The very definition of free will is that these choices are ours and ours alone and we are free to choose to bond or conflict...

The outcome of a precursor superposition is not precisely certain and neural superpositions exist for only very short times. Once we make a choice, the outcome follows even though the precise precursor remains uncertain.

However, how we feel about things and therefore make choices derives from a set of emotions that in turn arise from a set of subconscious archetypes of consciousness. Consciousness involves a recursion of thought, memories, and feeling and archetypes are in what we believe and are what affect our emotions and therefore feelings and memories. Some of our subconscious archetypes are innate but are by no means completely fixed and constant and constantly evolve in life. As other people and things that happen persuade us to believe differently, so our beliefs evolve as a result of the persuasion of others and how they act. Instead of directly perceiving reality, our archetypes provide a template of what we call perception and we respond to things that happen with emotions and feeling. Irrational feeling then determines how we make free choices and why we have free will.

The technical reason that we have free will is that we actually cannot always know the reasons why we make the choices that we make even though those reasons do exist. What we do is first make a choice based on our subconscious feeling and then we rationalize that choice with conscious reasoning that may or may not have had anything to do with our choice. In very technical terms, we each live in our own subjective quantum universe of matter, action, and phase and while matter and action are how things change, quantum phase is also a part of how things change and we also have quantum phase that affects how we feel. In fact, the very nature of neural action potentials has to do with quantum phase so our quantum phase affects how we see matter action and then how we perceive reality.

A large number of classical events like flips of a coin toss or neural action potentials, necessarily also entangle quantum phase noise. This is because even though a macroscopic event entangles only very small amounts of quantum phase noise, large numbers of such events by design do. While a classical event is never really random, a quantum event is truly random in the sense that quantum is not predictable with arbitrary precision.

Each moment of thought is an EEG power spectrum of neural resonances of a large number of neural actions and each choice represents an outcome EEG spectrum. Every precursor spectrum of thought is a superposition with a large but finite number of outcome spectra and it is quantum phase decay that transitions from the precursor to outcome spectrum in what we call a choice. Although each choice is an outcome spectrum due to the collapse of precursor spectra superposition, it is not possible to predict the precise outcome of free choice from just the precursor spectra superposition even though it is possible to often predict the most likely choice. Therefore, there are no precisely certain outcomes given a known precursor and this is why we have free choice and free will.

Therefore it is also not possible for anyone to know all of the precursors for their choices even though those precursors do exist in a causal discrete set universe. Our free choices are free precisely because it is not possible for anyone to actually know all of the precursors for our choices. The very definition of free will is that these choices are ours and ours alone and we are free to choose to bond or conflict...

One of the most important free choices we make with consciousness is the balance between the conflict of selfish individual freedom and the bonding of compassionate social responsibility. We actually need some selfishness to survive even though it leads to conflict as well as some compassion to bond with others, cooperate, mate, and have a family. Our subconscious archetypes are how we perceive the world as well as how we feel about what we perceive. Although some archetypes are innate, we learn most archetypes from the many narratives that we see, hear, and feel as well as in how we see others act, since we often then act like we see others act. This is all part of the mystery of consciousness.

## Thursday, August 8, 2019

### Inequalities in Education, Life Expectancy, and Income

We live in an age where our entire civilization benefits from the technological advances of the enlightenment. All of the measures of progress show a steady advance and in particular, the three key competencies of education, life expectancy, and income all show steady progress for individual freedom. However, there are still very large variations within each of these competencies and our social responsibility struggles with the distribution even though there is average or mean progress. In effect, the means of progress reflect the individual freedom of its individuals while the distribution of progress about those means reflects each individual’s social responsibility to reduce disparities in each competency.

The likelihoods of IQ, long life, and income all show distributions that peak in likelihood at about the same incomes. While long life tends to follow IQ, the likelihood for income crosses around the median income. Long life and IQ then do not increase at the same rate as increasing income. When you are $25,000 income, you gain 15% longer life for an $10,000 income increase, but at $150,000 income, you only gain 1.9% longer life for the same $10,000 income increase.

The basic dilemma of inequality is not really in progress, which is rapidly occurring in any event, but rather in how much social responsibility people have in reducing the inequalities of progress. Civilization has long struggled with the dilemma of inequality given the fundamental natural inequality in human ability across each competency. That is, individuals have their own education, life expectancy, and income, but individuals also have a social responsibility to others for reducing the inequalities of opportunity for education, long life, and income. These are all unequal outcomes but those inequalities can result from limited access to education, health care, and to free and fair markets for creating new wealth, i.e., equality of opportunity. Inequality that is largely a result of the large natural variations in individual quality of life, ability to learn, and of course, ability to create wealth is simply human.

There are 14 competencies that define people’s roles in civilization: education, health care, housing, transportation, food, energy, environment, tools, communication, security, leisure, risk, administration, and money. While education and health care both relate directly to progress, the progress for income and wealth distribute across all 14 competencies as money that people earn as income or spend on consumption. Money represents wealth and facilitates commerce among competencies and people make money by specializing in the products of a particular competency and then tend to distribute that wealth to a limited set of competency products. People consume some of the 14 competency products and this commerce is therefore the most important reason for innovation and progress in all competencies.

These 14 competencies make up the macro economy and each individual creates wealth in one competency and then distributes that wealth among the other 13 in order to survive. While the 14 competencies are a very rational description of the way civilization is, people basically do not really make rational decisions, people make decisions based on their feeling. Feeling is the root of consciousness and the result of a set of five emotion complements and subconscious archetypes. It is by feeling that we make our decisions and not by rational thought and so the archetypes that we learn early in life are what guides our lives.

Others persuade us into consciousness as we grow up by acting like we act and then persuading us to act like we see others act as well. By this persuasion, we acquire the grand narratives and archetypes of civilization as consciousness and free choice. The actions of consciousness and feeling either bonds us into cooperation with others or separates us from others with conflict. We adopt a set of unconscious archetypes that are then how we feel about others and feeling is how we make free choices.

Even though outcomes all have causal precursors, it is not possible to know all precursors even though they do exist. This is fundamentally because both the precursor and we have quantum phase and that phase limits what we can know. This means that fundamentally each choice that we make is for one of many possible outcomes and we can only know the precursors within some uncertainty. The outcomes that we choose are not then determinate and instead, there are many possible outcomes that are subject to quantum uncertainty.

This does not mean that outcomes are random, but rather means that outcomes simply have some unknowable precursors even though they can have fairly rational precursors. If you are hungry, it is certain that you will eventually eat or you will not survive very long. However, when, where, and what you will decide to eat are all free choices that really have unknowable precursors. If you are lonely, you will likely seek companionship, but with whom, when, and where are all free choices and not random at all.

Census.gov, Table A-2. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2017

The likelihoods of IQ, long life, and income all show distributions that peak in likelihood at about the same incomes. While long life tends to follow IQ, the likelihood for income crosses around the median income. Long life and IQ then do not increase at the same rate as increasing income. When you are $25,000 income, you gain 15% longer life for an $10,000 income increase, but at $150,000 income, you only gain 1.9% longer life for the same $10,000 income increase.

The basic dilemma of inequality is not really in progress, which is rapidly occurring in any event, but rather in how much social responsibility people have in reducing the inequalities of progress. Civilization has long struggled with the dilemma of inequality given the fundamental natural inequality in human ability across each competency. That is, individuals have their own education, life expectancy, and income, but individuals also have a social responsibility to others for reducing the inequalities of opportunity for education, long life, and income. These are all unequal outcomes but those inequalities can result from limited access to education, health care, and to free and fair markets for creating new wealth, i.e., equality of opportunity. Inequality that is largely a result of the large natural variations in individual quality of life, ability to learn, and of course, ability to create wealth is simply human.

There are 14 competencies that define people’s roles in civilization: education, health care, housing, transportation, food, energy, environment, tools, communication, security, leisure, risk, administration, and money. While education and health care both relate directly to progress, the progress for income and wealth distribute across all 14 competencies as money that people earn as income or spend on consumption. Money represents wealth and facilitates commerce among competencies and people make money by specializing in the products of a particular competency and then tend to distribute that wealth to a limited set of competency products. People consume some of the 14 competency products and this commerce is therefore the most important reason for innovation and progress in all competencies.

These 14 competencies make up the macro economy and each individual creates wealth in one competency and then distributes that wealth among the other 13 in order to survive. While the 14 competencies are a very rational description of the way civilization is, people basically do not really make rational decisions, people make decisions based on their feeling. Feeling is the root of consciousness and the result of a set of five emotion complements and subconscious archetypes. It is by feeling that we make our decisions and not by rational thought and so the archetypes that we learn early in life are what guides our lives.

Others persuade us into consciousness as we grow up by acting like we act and then persuading us to act like we see others act as well. By this persuasion, we acquire the grand narratives and archetypes of civilization as consciousness and free choice. The actions of consciousness and feeling either bonds us into cooperation with others or separates us from others with conflict. We adopt a set of unconscious archetypes that are then how we feel about others and feeling is how we make free choices.

Even though outcomes all have causal precursors, it is not possible to know all precursors even though they do exist. This is fundamentally because both the precursor and we have quantum phase and that phase limits what we can know. This means that fundamentally each choice that we make is for one of many possible outcomes and we can only know the precursors within some uncertainty. The outcomes that we choose are not then determinate and instead, there are many possible outcomes that are subject to quantum uncertainty.

This does not mean that outcomes are random, but rather means that outcomes simply have some unknowable precursors even though they can have fairly rational precursors. If you are hungry, it is certain that you will eventually eat or you will not survive very long. However, when, where, and what you will decide to eat are all free choices that really have unknowable precursors. If you are lonely, you will likely seek companionship, but with whom, when, and where are all free choices and not random at all.

Census.gov, Table A-2. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2017

life expectancy versus income in the United States

http://www.equality-of-opportunity.org/health/

http://www.equality-of-opportunity.org/health/

IQ and Permanent Income: Sizing Up the “IQ Paradox”

https://humanvarieties.org/2016/01/31/iq-and-permanent-income-sizing-up-the-iq-paradox/

https://humanvarieties.org/2016/01/31/iq-and-permanent-income-sizing-up-the-iq-paradox/

## Friday, August 2, 2019

### The Wonder and Glory of the Pulsed Universe

It is things that happen that make up the universe and most of all that means that it is the universe most of all that just happens. The very slow matter action of the universe pulse is a very slow action that happens very slowly. Although the very fast atom matter actions are what make up the universe, all very fast atom matter actions are still subject to very slow universe matter action as well. In effect, there are two dimensions of time and three dimensions of space that all emerge from matter action.

Time and space have meaning for everywhere in the universe of atoms except at certain boundaries called event horizons. The matter accretions known as black holes, exist beyond the time and space of the universe of atoms since there are no longer any atom matter actions for a black hole. Instead, each black hole exists as only a mass, a quantum phase, and a surface or event horizon and yet black holes are still subject to the overarching universe matter action. Thus the very slow change of the universe pulse still has meaning for a black hole very slow change. Black hole decay along with the universe decay then represents the destiny of all atom matter action as the universe matter-action pulse decays. The eventual decay of the universe into a single black hole outcome becomes the precursor to an expanding antiverse outcome.

The eventual universe precursor is then in a superposition with an antiverse outcome until a dephasing occurs and the antiverse expansion then begins from the black hole precursor. This antiverse expansion of antimatter the becomes the eventual precursor to another shrinking matter universe like the universe that we find ourselves inside of today.

We know that we are in a shrinking universe of growing force because of the many different measurements of matter decay along with force growth. The kilogram standard has decayed over 130 yrs, the earth day has decayed over 50 years, atomic clocks all dephase at characteristic rates per atom, and pulsars all show a limiting frequency decay.

We know that we are in a growing force universe because the Hubble galaxy red shifts occur despite the universe of shrinking matter. The further wonder is that all of science is completely convinced that the universe expands and does not shrink at all. Relativistic gravity is simply a manifestation of a shrinking universe of quantum matter.

The universe matter pulse complements the photon pulses that bind matter and result in quantum gravity as well. An exchange spin = 1 photon binds each electron and proton and has an emitted spin = 1 photon with complementary phase. These spin = 1 phase complements result in a spin = 2 biphoton or graviton whose exchange with other matter biphotons is quantum gravity. Since gravity biphoton exchange does not depend on quantum phase, gravity is always attractive and therefore unlike photon exchange, which depends on quantum phase.

The universe matter pulse complements the photon pulses that bind matter and result in quantum gravity as well. An exchange spin = 1 photon binds each electron and proton and has an emitted spin = 1 photon with complementary phase. These spin = 1 phase complements result in a spin = 2 biphoton or graviton whose exchange with other matter biphotons is quantum gravity. Since gravity biphoton exchange does not depend on quantum phase, gravity is always attractive and therefore unlike photon exchange, which depends on quantum phase.

## Monday, July 29, 2019

### ABC Time

This is a great review of the classical meanings of time given by many over the years. I am especially fond of McTaggart’s A, B, and C times, but have always been intrigued by his conclusion there was no coherent single answer. That always seemed odd...a philosopher without coherence?

Farr also mentions some physics, but he only just touches on relativity and quantum mechanics and he does not say anything about quantum phase at all. Farr states that the equations of relativity and quantum physics are fully reversible...but that is not true at all. Relativity represents all matter actions on irreversible determinate geodesics paths and those actions are not reversible in any sense and so there is never any causal confusion with relativity. In fact, the irreversible determinate paths of relativity are absolutely predictable to an unlimited classical precision. All precursors are prior to their outcomes and that is local cause and effect.

It is quantum action that shows a causal confusion of time in quantum reversibility. The quantum nature of matter action shows that quantum phase is very important but quantum phase does not play any role in gravity relativity. Reconciling microscopic quantum phase with the macroscopic irreversible reality of gravity relativity provides a nice understanding of time as emergent, not axiomatic.

Time is not an infinitely divisible and continuous flow of the paths of gravity relativity, rather the notion of continuous time emerges from a very large number of discrete and reversible quantum matter actions. All quantum action is reversible because even though a precursor occurs for every outcome, the precursor and outcome exist together as a superposition for some very brief dephasing time. Therefore, one dimension of time emerges from a characteristic dephasing time that comes from the very slow and inexorable change in the universe. A very precise measure of dephasing is the time it takes for two atomic clocks to dephase from each other.

Once two quantum clocks dephase, the outcome then becomes part of our irreversible macroscopic gravity relativity and given a very large number of outcomes, the dephasing ensemble is effectively irreversible. However, the inescapable quantum result is even though all outcomes have precursors, not all outcomes have precisely knowable precursors. In the quantum world there are just more likely and never certain precursors and so there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision you can know about an outcome.

The second time dimension is in the very rapid ticks of atomic clocks, which all run in the same very slow direction of dephasing, the first time dimension. Despite the microscopic reversibility of each pulse of light in an atomic clock, the macroscopic nature of an atomic clock results in dephasing and therefore, from dephasing emerges an irreversible flow of events.

Note that time only has two dimensions because there are two kinds of things that happen; slow universe changes and fast atom changes. First of all, the universe changes very slowly as a single gravity event and second, atom changes are very fast and very large in number of quantum events. The two dimensions of time simply emerge from the two very different kinds of things that happen in the universe and therefore the flow of time does not exist otherwise....I still like McTaggart’s times though...

The second time dimension is in the very rapid ticks of atomic clocks, which all run in the same very slow direction of dephasing, the first time dimension. Despite the microscopic reversibility of each pulse of light in an atomic clock, the macroscopic nature of an atomic clock results in dephasing and therefore, from dephasing emerges an irreversible flow of events.

Note that time only has two dimensions because there are two kinds of things that happen; slow universe changes and fast atom changes. First of all, the universe changes very slowly as a single gravity event and second, atom changes are very fast and very large in number of quantum events. The two dimensions of time simply emerge from the two very different kinds of things that happen in the universe and therefore the flow of time does not exist otherwise....I still like McTaggart’s times though...

## Friday, July 26, 2019

### Interpreting Irrational Quantum

The universe changes by quantum matter action and so quantum phase, matter, and action are all just the way the universe is. Quantum phase, matter, and action and are therefore all very useful archetypes for predicting outcomes from precursors. There really is no need to interpret the nature of quantum phase just as there is no need to interpret the natures of quantum matter or action. While people do not often ask about the interpretation of the very intuitive and causal realities of matter and action, people do still ask about the interpretation of the somewhat less intuitive and irrational quantum phase. People ask, how can a single particle exist in two different places? Are there particles or are there waves? In particular, people ask how is the counter intuitive quantum phase surreality consistent with the more intuitive macroscopic reality of relativistic gravity matter action like cannonballs.

All matter vibrates or oscillates and so there are no particles that are completely at rest. Moreover, any two particles or bodies can be in phase or out of phase or anywhere in between. Two particles that are in phase can bond in a collision by emitting light or another particle and two particles that are out of phase will scatter and not bond. A further unusual quantum feature is that a particle affects itself and so a particle can be in or out of phase with itself as well as with other particles.

Of course, two people who like each other are also in phase and will bond while two people who do not like each other are out of phase and will conflict and therefore not bond. A single person can also like or not like themselves as well. Even though we don’t normally associate the intuitive feelings of bonding among people with quantum phase correlation, quantum phase bonding is a perfect analog for human bonding. Quantum phase is also a perfect analog for how people feel about themselves as well. Of course, all of reality is made up of quantum phase bonds as well as conflicts and there also does seem to be phase interference, entanglement, and superposition in relations among people.

Quantum phase bonds and conflicts are a common part of our macroscopic reality and the pure quantum phase of light pulses make up an irrational phase exchange bonds of matter. Quantum phase is also an important part of the universe matter pulse, but macroscopic gravity relativity on the cosmic scale does not include the bonding of quantum phase even though microscopic charge certainly does. Things happen when one discrete quantum state transitions to another discrete quantum state in a fully reversible process known as wavefunction collapse. Quantum reversibility creates an irrational causal confusion for time direction that irreversible macroscopic reality does not have. Macroscopic things always happen somehow irreversibly and seemingly without regard to the irrational quantum phase and in fact our notion of time emerges from the irreversible entropy that results from large numbers of matter actions.

The key to the irreversible nature of macroscopic reality is with the decoherence of any quantum phase entanglement. Phase decoherence collapses large numbers of reversible wavefunction superpositions into the effectively irreversible entropy of a large causal set of matter actions. The electron motion in a hydrogen atom is the result of a charge bond with negligible gravity. Nevertheless, two hydrogen atoms at 70 nm separation have their charge dipole-induced-dipole or dispersive attraction equal to their gravity attraction. At 70 nm separation, gravity and charge fluctuations are equal as a characteristic and continuous perturbation in both time and space.

Each hydrogen atom has a quantum phase correlated with the photon emission that formed that hydrogen atom. This means that the two (or more) photons of these two hydrogen atoms have persistent dispersive attractions that we call gravity. The phase correlation of this biphoton means that there will be slight differences in the gravities of atom particles due to each atom’s history. But the averaged gravity of large bodies of matter created together will be very similar.

The universe pulse gives a characteristic quantum gravity noise known as continuous spontaneous localization (CSL), which collapses wavefunctions and makes our macroscopic reality real by dephasing matter actions. Normally, gravity is too small to affect charge at a microscopic scale, but the very slow universe pulse fluctuation frequency of 0.255 ppb/yr at 70 nm is sufficient as the plot below shows.

This plot also shows that it will take another 2-3 orders of magnitude sensitivity with gravity wave detectors to finally confirm the mattertime decay of our universe pulse. However, mattertime decay does show up in a large number of other measurements, but those measurements are invariably complicated by classical noise. Note that it is the very slow quantum fluctuations in the universe pulse, 0.26 ppb/yr, that collapse wavefunctions at 70 nm, but the dephasing of quantum wavefunction collapse occurs everywhere in the universe.

The next plot shows the decay of the kilogram standard, IPK, over 130 yrs relative to a number of secondary standards and the IPK decay is 0.51 ppb/yr or twice the mattertime decay. Thus far the IPK decay has no explanation and in mattertime, the frequent careful cleaning of the secondary standards actually adds mass to keep many of the secondary standards constant over time. The IPK cleaning only happened each of the three times it was measured.

The universe pulse is after all the pilot wave that guides all light and matter action. Pilot wave or de Broglie-Bohm theory is a deterministic quantum mechanics that creates hidden variables as pilot waves to guide all matter particles, not wavefunctions. However, the universe pulse as a pilot wave and so does not introduce any hidden variables since that is just the way the universe is. Thus, the relativistic gravity Hamilton-Jacobi equation becomes the basic equation of motion as a quadratic and relativistic form of the quantum SchrÃ¶dinger equation. The Klein-Gordon equation is also a quadratic and relativistic form of the SchrÃ¶dinger equation and is the basis for quantum field theory and the standard model of particle physics.

All matter vibrates or oscillates and so there are no particles that are completely at rest. Moreover, any two particles or bodies can be in phase or out of phase or anywhere in between. Two particles that are in phase can bond in a collision by emitting light or another particle and two particles that are out of phase will scatter and not bond. A further unusual quantum feature is that a particle affects itself and so a particle can be in or out of phase with itself as well as with other particles.

Of course, two people who like each other are also in phase and will bond while two people who do not like each other are out of phase and will conflict and therefore not bond. A single person can also like or not like themselves as well. Even though we don’t normally associate the intuitive feelings of bonding among people with quantum phase correlation, quantum phase bonding is a perfect analog for human bonding. Quantum phase is also a perfect analog for how people feel about themselves as well. Of course, all of reality is made up of quantum phase bonds as well as conflicts and there also does seem to be phase interference, entanglement, and superposition in relations among people.

Quantum phase bonds and conflicts are a common part of our macroscopic reality and the pure quantum phase of light pulses make up an irrational phase exchange bonds of matter. Quantum phase is also an important part of the universe matter pulse, but macroscopic gravity relativity on the cosmic scale does not include the bonding of quantum phase even though microscopic charge certainly does. Things happen when one discrete quantum state transitions to another discrete quantum state in a fully reversible process known as wavefunction collapse. Quantum reversibility creates an irrational causal confusion for time direction that irreversible macroscopic reality does not have. Macroscopic things always happen somehow irreversibly and seemingly without regard to the irrational quantum phase and in fact our notion of time emerges from the irreversible entropy that results from large numbers of matter actions.

The key to the irreversible nature of macroscopic reality is with the decoherence of any quantum phase entanglement. Phase decoherence collapses large numbers of reversible wavefunction superpositions into the effectively irreversible entropy of a large causal set of matter actions. The electron motion in a hydrogen atom is the result of a charge bond with negligible gravity. Nevertheless, two hydrogen atoms at 70 nm separation have their charge dipole-induced-dipole or dispersive attraction equal to their gravity attraction. At 70 nm separation, gravity and charge fluctuations are equal as a characteristic and continuous perturbation in both time and space.

Each hydrogen atom has a quantum phase correlated with the photon emission that formed that hydrogen atom. This means that the two (or more) photons of these two hydrogen atoms have persistent dispersive attractions that we call gravity. The phase correlation of this biphoton means that there will be slight differences in the gravities of atom particles due to each atom’s history. But the averaged gravity of large bodies of matter created together will be very similar.

The universe pulse gives a characteristic quantum gravity noise known as continuous spontaneous localization (CSL), which collapses wavefunctions and makes our macroscopic reality real by dephasing matter actions. Normally, gravity is too small to affect charge at a microscopic scale, but the very slow universe pulse fluctuation frequency of 0.255 ppb/yr at 70 nm is sufficient as the plot below shows.

This plot also shows that it will take another 2-3 orders of magnitude sensitivity with gravity wave detectors to finally confirm the mattertime decay of our universe pulse. However, mattertime decay does show up in a large number of other measurements, but those measurements are invariably complicated by classical noise. Note that it is the very slow quantum fluctuations in the universe pulse, 0.26 ppb/yr, that collapse wavefunctions at 70 nm, but the dephasing of quantum wavefunction collapse occurs everywhere in the universe.

Matter decay and force growth are everywhere and in everything that happens. Here is a plot of the mattertime decay versus frequency for a large number of periodic events. Pulsars are rotating neutron stars that show very characteristic pulsing as well as decay and pulsar decay follows the mattertime decay line. However, pulsars also decay by radiation of light and gravity and so this complicates the interpretation as a universal decay.

The Allan deviation of atomic clock synchronisation also follows the mattertime decay line as well as the earth spin decay and the moon-earth distance, as well as the approach of Andromeda galaxy. Of course, this could all be just a coincidence, but it does mean that the electron charge radius, re, does decay and therefore the electron spin period as well.The next plot shows the decay of the kilogram standard, IPK, over 130 yrs relative to a number of secondary standards and the IPK decay is 0.51 ppb/yr or twice the mattertime decay. Thus far the IPK decay has no explanation and in mattertime, the frequent careful cleaning of the secondary standards actually adds mass to keep many of the secondary standards constant over time. The IPK cleaning only happened each of the three times it was measured.

The decay of earth’s day in the next plot includes a very much greater annual variation from 1963 to 2015. There are large annual fluctuations of several ms as well as a long term decay that is consistent with 0.26 ppb/yr. However, most of the variations are due to perturbations of the moon and planets along with tidal heating of earth’s oceans also occurs and this complicates the interpretation.

Thus the quantum dephasing decay of the universe pulse makes our macroscopic reality real and yet still consistent with our surreal quantum time confusion. Quantum phase does have macroscopic effects as light polarization and interference, but very large bodies have all dephased and therefore do not show quantum phase effects.The universe pulse is after all the pilot wave that guides all light and matter action. Pilot wave or de Broglie-Bohm theory is a deterministic quantum mechanics that creates hidden variables as pilot waves to guide all matter particles, not wavefunctions. However, the universe pulse as a pilot wave and so does not introduce any hidden variables since that is just the way the universe is. Thus, the relativistic gravity Hamilton-Jacobi equation becomes the basic equation of motion as a quadratic and relativistic form of the quantum SchrÃ¶dinger equation. The Klein-Gordon equation is also a quadratic and relativistic form of the SchrÃ¶dinger equation and is the basis for quantum field theory and the standard model of particle physics.

## Monday, July 22, 2019

### Interviews of Carroll and Rovelli on FQXi.org

These FXQi interviews of Carroll and Rovelli are both quite interesting since they are two very smart people with related but very different narratives about the nature of physical reality. Measurement guide science and narratives without measurements are really what guide philosophy and such narratives have no role for science. Narratives without measurement guide philosophy and into perpetual discourse among many very smart philosophers about the nature of physical reality.

“Every philosopher disagrees with every other philosopher and so only one philosopher can ever actually be correct.” Paul Skokowski.

These narratives are really mostly philosophy wrapped in the technical jargon and methods of science and therefore these two narratives with and without measurements are a confused discourse. An outcome may be determinate or it may be uncertain, but it is not clear from these narratives which is determinate and which is certain. Carroll links cause and effect and entropy with his multiverses and avoids the conundrum of microscopic reversibility versus macroscopic entropy. Carroll does not suggest any measurements although his choice implies determinism. Classical causality means that both macroscopic and microscopic measured outcomes have precursors, while quantum causality means that you cannot precisely measure all precursors. Rovelli, in contrast, seems to believe in free choice and not in determinism and offers meaning for reality without multiverses.

In fact, observer quantum phase always affects a quantum measurement and it is not possible for an quantum observer to measure their own phase. For most macroscopic measurements, though, quantum phase plays no role in causality since the decay of quantum phase is so fast. However, when quantum phase decay is slow, the superposition of precursor and outcome results in causal confusion since the notion of symmetric time has no arrow.

There is a fundamental causal confusion in the symmetry of our quantum reality and yet there is no causal confusion in the changing universe of gravity relativity. Quantum phase obviously does play a role in quantum gravity but relativistic gravity seems inconsistent with quantum gravity. This is because superpositions of quantum gravity precursors and outcomes result in many possible paths and that seems inconsistent with the single paths of relativity’s determinate geodesics. Carroll suggests that multiverses explain the other possible paths of quantum gravity while Rovelli suggests that it is rather meaningful information that decides the single path from quantum gravity, not multiverses.

Neither Carroll nor Rovelli acknowledge the unknowable precursors that result from quantum phase correlation and superposition, but both accept the notions that the universe changes and that outcomes all have precursors. However, they do not discuss the two very different kinds of changes that make up things that happen: First there is the very slow change of the universe due to gravity and the universe pulse dephasing; Second, there are the very fast changes of atoms due to charge.

Mainstream science argues that atoms and forces at rest are constant for all time and so atoms and forces do not change with the slow expansion of the universe under gravity from the big bang. Despite gravity and charge being attractive, the expanding universe therefore only changes space, not matter or action. However, the equivalence of matter and energy in relativity means that mass does increase with motion, and matter-energy equivalence then means that time slows just as matter increases with increasing velocity.

The mattertime universe pulse decay supposes instead that the universe pulse of matter decays very slowly in concert with its very slow growth of the action of force. Not unlike a photon pulse of light. the combination of decaying matter and increasing force give the illusion that the universe slowly expands from a big bang. Universe pulse decay is then consistent with gravity relativity just as gravity force slowly grows. This complementary matter decay and gravity increase gives the illusion that gravity stays constant over time.

The universe pulse illusions of constant atoms, constant force, and expanding space are all very strong and dominate science. Very few in science acknowledge that it is even possible for the very slow decay of universe matter to complement a very slow growth of force, which then gives the arrow of time and is still consistent with mass increasing with motion just like relativity. This very slow mass decay and force growth is what I call mattertime and also means that time and space emerge from change and that entropy of atoms is different from the entropy of the universe pulse. Atom entropy derives from the very fast changes of atom states while universe entropy derives from the very slow changes of universe states, which include atom entropy.

Black holes are endpoints of time and space, but black holes are still subject to the slow changes of matter and action. In mattertime, the universe pulse destiny is a single black hole and that destiny births the next antiverse/universe pulse. The first half pulse is the antiverse expansion that grows with antimatter precursors then the universe second half pulse matter decay outcomes.

In mainstream science, matter condenses first by charge and then by gravity into stars, black holes, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and large-scale structures and those bodies all decay by charge and gravity radiation. All of this decay seems inconsistent with an ever-expanding universe, but all of this observed matter decay is completely consistent with the universe pulse of mattertime decay. In fact, mattertime decay results in a gravitization vector force that couples moving stars and is analogous to the magnetization vector force that couples moving charges. Gravitization is a large scale vector force that, along with gravity, bonds stars into galaxies, galaxies into clusters, and clusters into large-scale structures.

In any case, these two philosophers each believe they are correct and disagree with each other. The last artifact of standards is the kilogram standard and the IPK has decayed by 0.51 ppb/yr over the last 130 yrs, exactly twice the matter decay of 0.26 ppb/yr from the ratio of hydrogen gravity and charge forces times the hydrogen orbit frequency, Gm

“Every philosopher disagrees with every other philosopher and so only one philosopher can ever actually be correct.” Paul Skokowski.

These narratives are really mostly philosophy wrapped in the technical jargon and methods of science and therefore these two narratives with and without measurements are a confused discourse. An outcome may be determinate or it may be uncertain, but it is not clear from these narratives which is determinate and which is certain. Carroll links cause and effect and entropy with his multiverses and avoids the conundrum of microscopic reversibility versus macroscopic entropy. Carroll does not suggest any measurements although his choice implies determinism. Classical causality means that both macroscopic and microscopic measured outcomes have precursors, while quantum causality means that you cannot precisely measure all precursors. Rovelli, in contrast, seems to believe in free choice and not in determinism and offers meaning for reality without multiverses.

In fact, observer quantum phase always affects a quantum measurement and it is not possible for an quantum observer to measure their own phase. For most macroscopic measurements, though, quantum phase plays no role in causality since the decay of quantum phase is so fast. However, when quantum phase decay is slow, the superposition of precursor and outcome results in causal confusion since the notion of symmetric time has no arrow.

There is a fundamental causal confusion in the symmetry of our quantum reality and yet there is no causal confusion in the changing universe of gravity relativity. Quantum phase obviously does play a role in quantum gravity but relativistic gravity seems inconsistent with quantum gravity. This is because superpositions of quantum gravity precursors and outcomes result in many possible paths and that seems inconsistent with the single paths of relativity’s determinate geodesics. Carroll suggests that multiverses explain the other possible paths of quantum gravity while Rovelli suggests that it is rather meaningful information that decides the single path from quantum gravity, not multiverses.

Neither Carroll nor Rovelli acknowledge the unknowable precursors that result from quantum phase correlation and superposition, but both accept the notions that the universe changes and that outcomes all have precursors. However, they do not discuss the two very different kinds of changes that make up things that happen: First there is the very slow change of the universe due to gravity and the universe pulse dephasing; Second, there are the very fast changes of atoms due to charge.

Mainstream science argues that atoms and forces at rest are constant for all time and so atoms and forces do not change with the slow expansion of the universe under gravity from the big bang. Despite gravity and charge being attractive, the expanding universe therefore only changes space, not matter or action. However, the equivalence of matter and energy in relativity means that mass does increase with motion, and matter-energy equivalence then means that time slows just as matter increases with increasing velocity.

The mattertime universe pulse decay supposes instead that the universe pulse of matter decays very slowly in concert with its very slow growth of the action of force. Not unlike a photon pulse of light. the combination of decaying matter and increasing force give the illusion that the universe slowly expands from a big bang. Universe pulse decay is then consistent with gravity relativity just as gravity force slowly grows. This complementary matter decay and gravity increase gives the illusion that gravity stays constant over time.

The universe pulse illusions of constant atoms, constant force, and expanding space are all very strong and dominate science. Very few in science acknowledge that it is even possible for the very slow decay of universe matter to complement a very slow growth of force, which then gives the arrow of time and is still consistent with mass increasing with motion just like relativity. This very slow mass decay and force growth is what I call mattertime and also means that time and space emerge from change and that entropy of atoms is different from the entropy of the universe pulse. Atom entropy derives from the very fast changes of atom states while universe entropy derives from the very slow changes of universe states, which include atom entropy.

Black holes are endpoints of time and space, but black holes are still subject to the slow changes of matter and action. In mattertime, the universe pulse destiny is a single black hole and that destiny births the next antiverse/universe pulse. The first half pulse is the antiverse expansion that grows with antimatter precursors then the universe second half pulse matter decay outcomes.

In mainstream science, matter condenses first by charge and then by gravity into stars, black holes, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and large-scale structures and those bodies all decay by charge and gravity radiation. All of this decay seems inconsistent with an ever-expanding universe, but all of this observed matter decay is completely consistent with the universe pulse of mattertime decay. In fact, mattertime decay results in a gravitization vector force that couples moving stars and is analogous to the magnetization vector force that couples moving charges. Gravitization is a large scale vector force that, along with gravity, bonds stars into galaxies, galaxies into clusters, and clusters into large-scale structures.

In any case, these two philosophers each believe they are correct and disagree with each other. The last artifact of standards is the kilogram standard and the IPK has decayed by 0.51 ppb/yr over the last 130 yrs, exactly twice the matter decay of 0.26 ppb/yr from the ratio of hydrogen gravity and charge forces times the hydrogen orbit frequency, Gm

_{H}^{2}/(q^{2}c^{2}10^{-7}) (c/r_{B}). This is the plot that shows the IPK decay relative to the secondary standards, which average to a constant due to weight gain as a result of their frequent cleaning process.
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