Another way to look at quantum gravity biphotons is to first consider the single photon transfer from an excited source to excite a phase-matched absorber ground state. As long as the source and absorber are close enough given the dephasing lifetime, a superposition forms between source and absorber. This superposition will collapse by dephasing the source and leaving the absorber excited or by dephasing the absorber and leaving the source excited. The superposition can also result in a chemical bond between the source and absorber and a new molecular ground state.

# Matter Time, Aethertime

Accelerating light leads to the simple axioms of discrete aether and quantum action. Matter action augments the more limited reality of continuous space, motion, and atomic time. With the quantum action of the Schrödinger equation and a single fundamental aether particle, two constants predict all action and all other physical constants. In the discovery of truth, there are only atoms and quantum action.

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## Saturday, August 5, 2023

### Quantum Gravity Biphotons

## Sunday, June 4, 2023

### Quantum Gravity Spin and Phase

Quantum gravity has scalar attraction but also both spin and phase and so quantum gravity differs from relativistic gravity, which has only scalar attraction and neither quantum spin nor quantum phase. Quantum electromagnetism (EM) has both spin and phase and so quantum EM has both scalar attraction or repulsion of static charges as well as the vector forces of moving charges. Quantum gravity then has the scalar attraction of bodies as well as the vector forces of moving bodies.

The collapsing quantum aether universe drives both quantum gravity and quantum EM and while it is the oscillation of quantum aether that drives EM, it is the collapse of quantum aether that drives quantum gravity. All bodies in the collapsing universe lose mass by dephasing and radiation and so stars that lose mass by radiation have even more vector gravity than cooler bodies. Star radiation leads to coupling of star motions around their centers of mass that contributes to scalar gravity and so vector gravity is not apparent with a simple binary star. However, star clusters and galaxies show the added velocities of vector gravity that Science now associates with dark matter.

Like neutron spin and phase, the spin and phase of the universe does not really depend on the motion of charges. However, the universe spin phase does couple with the spin phase of local matter and so there is a slight asymmetry to all universe matter spin phases.

## Monday, May 8, 2023

### Five Great Issues of Science

** Five Great Issues of Science**

*basic research*. These great issues represent the collective

*curiosity*of humanity for all of recorded history and the economic sector Knowledge represents these great issues. In fact, the five great issues of Science are perpetual issues that Science will never completely resolve.

1) Treating Cancer (Health);

2) Treating Heart Disease (Health);

3) Treating other Diseases (Health);

4) Placing People into Space (Knowledge);

5) Reducing Energy Costs (Energy);

6) Improving Transportation (Transportation);

7) Cleaning Up Defense Wastes (Security);

8) Maintaining Economic Stability (Money);

9) Reducing Human Environmental Impact (Environment);

10) Stabilizing Population Growth (Environment);

11) Maintaining World Peace (Security);

12) Maintaining National Defense (Security);

13) Harnessing Nuclear Energy (Energy);

14) Reducing Crime and Faction Conflicts (Security).

## Tuesday, April 18, 2023

### Printed Money Inflation Pays Debts

A government collects taxes and other revenues to pay for its spending and borrows money to pay for its big projects. A government prints money and loans that money to banks for a small interest payment that then pays for printing and distributing the money. Banks then use that money for loans that the Banks charge interest and withdrawals that the banks pay interest. When a government spends more than its revenues, it must borrow money just to pay for that excessive spending. The government prints money called bonds with a promise to pay interest in the future despite the extra cost of debt interest payments, which the government pays for with taxes and inflation. Roads, bridges, dams, and government buildings are all examples of debt purchases that benefit the future as long as taxes less expenses represents tolerable inflation. When government debt payments exceed taxation, government can then raise taxes or take on new debt to repay the old debt. A government takes on debt by simply printing money because the government bond debt is actually equivalent to printing money.

Banks need government printed money as cash to support consumer buying and selling and so banks must take on government debt just to support a producer-consumer economy. The cost of that government debt is in the interest payments for its bonds as well as in the inflation of consumer goods and services. In other words, in the absence of government taxation, inflation is how the producer consumer pays for government spending.

Both government taxes and inflation pay for government spending and so money is just the same promise to pay as are government bonds. While an investor must hold a bond until it matures before reclaiming it as cash, cash is then simply a government bond as money that a consumer can immediately reclaim as goods and services less inflation. The government withholds taxes on every paycheck and so holds that cash for the year.

When debt is inexpensive, producers and consumers borrow more and are therefore willing to pay more for goods and services and that increases inflation. However, producer borrowing more also increases economic growth just as consumer spending more also increases economic growth.

When the government prints money for spending in excess of revenues, inflation occurs as a government tax on producers and consumers to pay for that excessive government spending. A government printing more money than its economic growth will cause excess inflation until the government prints just enough money to sustain growth with acceptable inflation.

Acceptable inflation occurs when the economy is growing and producers and consumers believe the government is not printing money in excess of economic growth.

When the government spends more than its revenues, the government prints more money to pay for that excessive spending and that increases inflation, which then pays for that excessive spending.

When the government spends less than revenues, the government prints less money and that decreases inflation.

When government increases its interest rate, that makes consumer debt more expensive and so decreases inflation.

When government lowers its overnight interest rate, that makes producer and consumer debt less expensive and so increases inflation, but also growth.

Acceptable inflation occurs when the economy is growing and consumers believe the government can repay its debt. Inflation then is just enough to pay for the cost of money and to allow enough excess money for economic growth.

## Saturday, February 25, 2023

### Update on discrete aether sunspot number prediction... beating NOAA like a rug...

## Saturday, February 18, 2023

### Variation of Fine-Structure Constant over Cosmic Time

In a collapsing universe, cosmic time is different from an atom time since atom time is never at rest given the evolution of collapse rate from zero at the cmb creation to the speed of light at the final blackhole destiny. The red shifts of galaxy look-back spectra in the collapsing universe, unlike an expanding universe, are then due to both galaxy cosmic age as well as the velocity of universe collapse. Blackhole horizons in the collapsing universe are no longer singularities even though they still stop atom time and still exist in the flow of cosmic time of collapse.

In the expanding universe of contemporary Science, cosmic time is the same as atom time at rest with a constant expansion, but atom time does depend on relative velocity and acceleration. According to Science, the red shifts of galaxy spectra are then due to increasing galaxy velocities with look-back time in the expanding universe. Blackhole singularity horizons, though, do stop atom time and yet still exist in the flow of cosmic time expansion.

While some constants of Science are constants in the collapsing universe, the fine-structure constant as well as the speed of light do vary with universe collapse, but the fine-structure splittings of distant galaxies still remain proportional to contemporary splittings. Many argue against universe collapse since the fine-structure splittings of distant galaxies are proportional to contemporary fine-structure splittings. However, the fine-structure splittings are proportional to ratio of transition energy and relativistic electron energy, *E _{n}/(m_{e}c^{2})*, and this ratio is constant in the collapsing universe [see Griffiths and Schroeter, Introduction to QM, 2018, 7.3.2]. This is because while

*E*and c both increase in the collapsing universe,

_{n }*m*decreases over cosmic time.

_{e }The collapsing universe is Lorentz invariant and maintains the equivalence of mass and energy just as does the expanding universe relativity. But the speed of light varies in the collapsing universe since the speed of light reflects the universe collapse rate for each epoch and not for all epochs as in the expanding universe. The classical electron spin rate, *c/α*, in the collapsing universe is constant and so *α* the fine-structure constant varies in the same way as does *c*.

## Tuesday, December 20, 2022

### Radiant Quantum Gravity of the Milky Way

The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy made up of a supermassive black hole center, a central bar or bulge, and an outer spiral disk that is about three times the long axis of the inner bar. The Figure shows the bar and disk both simplified as rotating body pairs that radiate both scalar and vector gravity waves. The scalar gravity waves radiate outward from both bar and disk while the vector gravity waves couple disk to bar stars. The radiant vector gravity waves of the inner bar accelerate the outer disk stars and the radiant vector gravity wave of the disk decelerates the inner bar star rotations. The coupling of vector gravity then transfers angular momentum from slowing bar star rotations by accelerating disk star rotations.

## Friday, November 11, 2022

### Discrete Aether Quantum Gravity Radiation

*(m/a)*, as well as, to a lesser extent, the eccentricity of its orbit,

^{5}*ϵ*. Spherical orbits have ϵ = 0 and so a rotating binary of equal masses has a simple expression where gravity radiation goes as the fifth power of its mass gradient.

For two orbiting bodies of very different masses like the
Sun and Mercury or the stars of a galaxy, the expression becomes

For two radiating and orbiting bodies like a binary star of
equal masses, there is an additional vector gravity term that is the ratio of
radiation and relative velocity.

Mercury has the largest eccentricity of any planet in its orbit with the Sun and the perihelion advance of Mercury has long validated Einstein’s relativity. Mercury’s perihelion advance is a result of gravity quadrupole radiation as Table 1 shows that decays its orbit and increases its velocity.

The emission of 5.2e-15 kg/s gravity quadrupole results in the Mercury orbit decay that is the perihelion advance. Since the same quadrupole emission occurs for discrete aether, the Mercury perihelion advance also validates discrete aether.

The Milky Way galaxy has a dipole luminosity of 4.3e19 kg/s, which is 1e10 x the Sun luminosity and due to its 2.5e11 stars. The gravity quadrupole Milky Way luminosity is much smaller at 1.3e15 kg/s than the dipole luminosity, but the much larger dipole luminosity also results in a quadrupole luminosity of 1.4e14 kg/s. This 13% increase in gravity wave emission decays all star orbits and therefore increases their orbital velocities just like the perihelion advance of Mercury.

The merger of two 6.0e31kg blackholes over 0.25 s results in quadrupole emissions of 3.0e29 kg/s at 1% of the total mass loss of the event. The onset of the inspiral occurs at r = 7.6e12 m, which is the point when the quadrupole radiation is just 1% of the total. There is also dipole emission from gravitation, but that emission is spread all over the universe.

## Monday, October 10, 2022

### Quantum Gravity of Discrete Aether

Quantum gravity is just a residual force of the quantum causal set, which exists outside of space and time. Instead of matter and action in space and time, space and time emerge from matter action of a causal set. Space as distance and time as relative quantum phases of the quantum photon exchange bonds emerge from neutral bodies like hydrogen atoms. Beyond a certain distance, about 70 nm for two hydrogens, quantum gravity is greater than the dispersion of quantum photon exchange. Quantum gravity between two hydrogen atoms is just the dispersion of quantum photon exchange of each atom with the rest of the universe.

Gravity relativity emerges from the fundamental equivalence of mass and energy for particles that exist in relativistic spacetime. To first order, the Lorentz invariance of the speed of light to velocity of a particle distorts space and time by the classic sqrt(1/(1 - v^2/c^2)). There are higher order terms that converge to the Einstein tensor as proportional to the energy-momentum tensor,

All of the complexity of general relativity reduces to this tensor equation and yet there is no accepted quantum gravity in spacetime. This is because each particle of matter introduces a singularity at r = 0 in spacetime that precludes a quantum electrodynamics exchange particle for gravity.

One consequence of GR is the black hole singularity that are widely accepted in general relativity but have no quantum meaning in QED. A black hole has mass and spin just like any other particle in the quantum causal set universe and black holes bond to the universe with photon exchange just like all matter particles. Thus, black holes are just another matter particle in a quantum causal set, which is about each matter body bonding to the rest of the universe with quantum photon exchange.

## Thursday, July 21, 2022

### Large Scale Structures in the Cosmic Microwave Background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) multipole analysis shows an angular scale consistent with a combination of 4.9% ordinary matter, 27% dark matter, and 68% dark energy expanding at 68 km/s.

However, this cosmology does not include quantum gravity at all and so there is no way to measure the absolute expansion rate of the universe. Although the small scale CMB structures are consistent with the cosmology without quantum gravity, there is an inconsistency in the large scale CMB structures of the universe as the figure shows.

A collapsing universe cosmology shows quantum gravity and a universe of ordinary matter that is only 1.1e-7 kg/kgAether, 8.7e-69 kg/aether, and 8.4e-61 kg.kgAether action collapsing at the rate of 77 km/s. The universe collapse quantum cosmology shows both a static gravity as well as a radiant vector gravity and the large scale CMB structures are consistent with radiant vector gravity.

Since the collapsing universe quantum gravity bonds with quadrupole biphoton exchange, there is now a vector component to gravity along with the Newtonian scalar gravity. Vector gravity couples the relative motions of stars much like magnetism couples the relative motions of charge. Since universe collapse is a matter decay that is the source of gravity, the matter decay of star radiation couples star motions as well as star convection.

## Sunday, June 12, 2022

### Scalar Static Matter and Vector Radiant Matter Gravity

Since matter-action gravitons are biphotons, which are entangled photons, there is not only scalar gravity due to static matter graviton shadows, but also a radiant vector gravity due to radiant matter. In other words, the radiation of stars entangles their motions with other stars and this entanglement results in radiant vector gravity.

Here is a diagram that shows scalar gravity shadows that results from the matter body bonds to the universe along with the radiant vector gravity that transfers momentum from inner to outer stars. Radiant vector gravity transfers momentum from stars inside the CofM to stars outside the CofM. This radiant momentum transfer is what keeps spiral galaxies rotating at constant velocity instead of at their Keplerian velocities.

The plot below shows the velocity profile of the Milky Way along with the observed Sun as opposed to the Keplerian Sun. The actual Sun velocity is about 29% greater than the Keplerian Sun velocity reported by Sofue et al, 251 vs. 194 km/s. The Keplerian gravity force at the Sun at 8.0 kpc is 8.4e14 kg m/s^2, which is consistent with a Sun velocity of 194 km/s as opposed to the actual Earth velocity of 251 km/s.*2.1e10 Lsun / Nstars*, this result further suggests that the number of MW stars is 91 billion as Nstars = 2.1e10 / 0.23, which assumes that MW stars at r = 8.0 kpc are representative of the whole MW. This MW 91 billion star estimate is at the lower end of the typical 100-400 billion star number estimate often cited.

## Wednesday, June 1, 2022

### Graviton Noise of Quantum Gravity

We live in an ocean of graviton noise and so it is graviton noise that is what makes things happen in our quantum reality. Entangled photons, biphotons, make up gravitons and are what bind each body to the universe of black holes. Black holes are the penultimate heat sink for all of our reality and what we see as gravity attraction is actually just the collapse of the universe matter.

The destiny of all black holes is then a single black hole that is the destiny of this cycle of the universe. In other words, bodies do not really bond to each other with gravity. Instead each body bonds to the universe of black holes and we see gravity attraction as the universe collapse.

The graviton noise of the universe is what makes all wavefunctions collapse and so is what makes reality real...

## Wednesday, February 23, 2022

### Discrete Aether Time Pulse

The discrete aether pulsed universe has a nice symmetry between its time pulse and the hydrogen time pulse defined by the Bohr time. The universe pulse is a 13.9 Byr sinc function of cosmic time with a Fourier transform that is dominated by the aether particle spectrum. The hydrogen pulse is a sinc function of cosmic time with a Fourier transform mass spectrum of the total universe mass that is 90% hydrogen mass.

## Sunday, February 20, 2022

### Discrete Aether Predictions

Star decay produces star matter waves that couple the motions of stars with a vector gravitization much like charge motions are coupled with vector magnetization. The two stars, Procyon and Cygni-61, are both 11.6 lyrs away from our sun, which couples their motions and affects the Sun’s convection with an 11.6 year period.

Sunspot activity went into a hiatus around 1680 as the plot shows, which is consistent with the Cygni-61A/Cygni-61B periapsis or closest approach at that time. Cygni-61 is a double star and so its double star orbit plays a role in the sunspot activity of our Sun. Thus, the 678 yr orbit of the Cygni-61A/B double star will reach apeosis again in the year 2358. The Procyon A/B double star has a 40.8 yr orbit and shows up as a 40.8 year shift in sunspot peak and intensity.

9) Since matter decay is equivalent to a force, discrete aether predicts that a matter decay of 83 MW/kg is equivalent to the 1.0 G force of earth’s gravity. The sun radiance is just 1.9e-4 W/kg and it would take a 1 kg U reactor pile 12,000 K to achieve 83 MW/kg. This is equivalent to a 1 kg U shell 22 m diameter radiating at 1,000 K, which is below the U melting point.

## Tuesday, January 18, 2022

### Single Photon Resonance as Fundamental Action

We only really see things that change and then we deduce how things are from how they change. It then seems reasonable that the universe is made up of not only things that change, but also things that are. Single photon resonances are the things that are and make up all change and single photon resonances occur between emitter precursors and absorber outcomes. Single photon spectra make up the fundamentally discrete nature of the universe with emitter and absorber chromophores.

A single photon resonance between emitter and absorber chromophores exists as a cosmic time packet that grows and then decays, which defines its time packet. Atomic time and space emerge from the quantum oscillations of that photon burst from the speed of light and its wavelength. The growth and decay of the photon packet define its location and direction and result in the Lorentzian spectrum that this example shows. The arrow of time emerges as the direction from primordial emitters to black hole absorber destiny outcomes.

The universe itself is then a spectrum of aether whose exponential decay defines not only a cosmic time, but also defines charge, gravity, and all forces along with the quantum oscillations from which atomic time and space emerge.

## Sunday, November 21, 2021

### Gravity Lens and Blueshift from Photon Convergence

## Friday, October 22, 2021

### Gravity Binds Black Holes to the Universe

Gravity is an apparently attractive force that is actually a result of the bonding of each body to a shrinking universe full of black holes. Gravity attraction between two bodies along their line of action is a result of the universe bond gravity shadows of each body on the other. In the idealized gravity between two hydrogen atoms, each atom bonds to the shrinking universe by the emission of its Rydberg photon into the resonance brane between each hydrogen and a black hole. It is then the pulse decay of the shrinking universe that results in the action-centered gravity that accretes all matter, light, and neutrinos into black holes and eventually into the final single black-hole destiny of the universe.

The figure shows that the gravity bond between two hydrogens idealized as two photon exchange bonds between each hydrogen and a black hole. Of course, once the hydrogen atoms get closer than about 70 nm, single photon exchange bonding between hydrogens overwhelms this gravity attraction. It is only for substantial bodies that gravity then overwhelms photon exchange bonding.

The gravity bond is then not due to exchange of a single particle like a biphoton, rather gravity is due to two photon exchanges as a quantum biphoton and so there is really no knew science needed for the quantum gravity. Instead of very complex new graviton math that resists renormalization, matter-action biphoton gravity uses the same photon exchange of quantum electrodynamics. Note that matter-action gravity is now action centered and not body centered, which means that gravity does not have the pesky singularity that precludes gravity renormalization under QED. Therefore, biphoton gravity uses the same renormalization of QED and quantum charge.

Black holes still represent the destinies of all matter, light, and neutrinos, but are simply a different kind of quantum matter action without space or time. Space and time do not exist for black holes, but quantum phase, matter, action, and cosmic time all still exist for black holes. Matter, light, and neutrinos are all matter-action precursors for black-hole outcomes and black holes are the precursors of ever larger black holes. Eventually, a single large black hole is the precursor of the antiverse expansion of aether and the antiverse is then the precursor to yet another universe decay cycle.

An enduring mystery in Science has been the seeming 1/r2 similarity between gravity relativity and quantum charge scaling and yet the very large 1e41 differences in their strengths. The difference in strengths is a result of the difference between the size of an atom and the size of the universe. So bonding black holes to the cosmic microwave background with biphotons is a quantum gravity that scales correctly and finally completes the quantum nature of reality.

## Wednesday, September 29, 2021

### Qubit Atoms, Molecules, and Quantum Computing

In fact, a real qubit decays and that decay limits the qubits. A real qubit is never perfectly isolated from thermal and phase noise environment and also has a limited phase coherence lifetime on the order of 10 microseconds. There are therefore many hurdles to overcome before any practical qubits of quantum computing become a reality. Much like the early days of the practical 0 and 1 bits of semiconductor logic, Science has a long ways to go in order to realize a useful practical qubit that includes not only 0 and 1, but also quantum phase, theta.

The superconducting Josephson junction is a fundamental quantum oscillator that involves electron (Cooper) pairs tunneling through an insulator layer between two superconductors at very low temperature. Instead of the electrons and holes that determine semiconductor 0 and 1 bits, a Cooper pair is inherently a qubit. For a current of 40 nA, about 1e9 electron pairs result and from a 13 microV, a frequency of 6.6 GHz at 0.015 K. The Cooper pair current results from the specific geometry and materials of the junction as well as the applied voltage but the frequency is always just proportional to the applied voltage. In fact, this junction is a quantum oscillator at that frequency where each excited state includes one additional Cooper pair of electrons at a slightly lower frequency due to anharmonicity.

The basic qubit of a quantum computer incorporates not only the 0 and 1 of a classical bit, but also a quantum oscillation between 0 and 1 of the Cooper pair across a junction. A very common qubit is a particular Josephson junction called a transmon that incorporates a shunt capacitor to make the quantum oscillator more stable. The transmon that oscillates at around 6.6 GHz and so its qubits undergo this same quantum oscillation.

Another common qubit is the squid, which involves a loop with two Josephson junction. In any case, a qubit is the excitation of just one Cooper pair, 0 -> 1, across a junction at about 200 MHz lower frequency due to anharmonicity. The quantum anharmonicity also means that the 1 -> 2 transition is 200 MHz less that then 0 -> 1 transition. In fact, useable qubits need to have such isolated transitions and so the anharmonicity is what makes the transmon and the squid useful qubits as the figure shows.

However, there is an additional splitting of each level due to the phase or direction of the electron pair across the junction and that splitting reflects the spin or rotation of the qubit as the figure below shows. Much like electron spin emerges from the complementary rotations of electron charge loop oscillation, the complementary rotations of superconducting loop oscillations in the transmon and squid are then a kind of qubit spin.

*n*. Gate bias increases charge dispersion up to 60 MHz as the figure shows.

_{g}*T*, is therefore usually about 10 microsec, which is long enough for reading and still short enough for resetting, which all involve 10 nsec switches. The dephasing time,

_{1}*T*, is due to the entanglement among other qubit states that is necessary for effective computation. This dephasing time is important for quantum entanglement outcomes and is therefore limited by

_{2}*T*. However, it is then difficult to differentiate dephasing from pure decay.

_{1}## Saturday, September 4, 2021

### Spin as a Loop or 0-Brane String

Unlike a photon resonance between particles, which is a one dimensional D-brane string with Dirichlet boundary conditions, a particle spin has cyclic boundary conditions and so is a 0-brane loop string and not a D-brane string. Since particle spin dimensions do not map directly into 3D space and time, for quantum energy calculations, typically two dimensional Dirac spinors represent spin dimensions separately from 3D space and time. Given that spin resonance energies tend to be much smaller than other quantum orbit resonances, this spin-orbit separation of variables works very well for many energy calculations that include average spin.

When instantaneous quantum phase matching is important, though, the 0-brane loop string is then useful since it shows both mass and charge oscillation as a 0-brane loops as well as the three D-brane magnetic fibers that take a 4𝜋 rotation to return spin magnetic identity. The figure below shows how the spin D-brane fibers do not cross each other and therefore maintain their orthogonality.

Since quantum phase matching is still an issue with the resonance of spin-orbit coupling, the 0-brane spin phase is useful for matching the D-brane orbital phase. In the first excited state of hydrogen, the coupling of the electron spin magnetism to the electron orbit magnetism results in the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. The figure shows three of the many different short-lived electron P-type orbital resonances. There is only a well-defined average electron energy and radius for the hydrogen fine structure.