The discrete aether pulsed universe has a nice symmetry between its time pulse and the hydrogen time pulse defined by the Bohr time. The universe pulse is a 13.9 Byr sinc function of cosmic time with a Fourier transform that is dominated by the aether particle spectrum. The hydrogen pulse is a sinc function of cosmic time with a Fourier transform mass spectrum of the total universe mass that is 90% hydrogen mass.

# Matter Time, Aethertime

Accelerating light leads to the simple axioms of discrete aether and quantum action. Matter action augments the more limited reality of continuous space, motion, and atomic time. With the quantum action of the Schrödinger equation and a single fundamental aether particle, two constants predict all action and all other physical constants. In the discovery of truth, there are only atoms and quantum action.

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## Wednesday, February 23, 2022

### Discrete Aether Time Pulse

## Sunday, February 20, 2022

### Discrete Aether Predictions

Star decay produces star matter waves that couple the motions of stars with a vector gravitization much like charge motions are coupled with vector magnetization. The two stars, Procyon and Cygni-61, are both 11.6 lyrs away from our sun, which couples their motions and affects the Sun’s convection with an 11.6 year period.

Sunspot activity went into a hiatus around 1680 as the plot shows, which is consistent with the Cygni-61A/Cygni-61B periapsis or closest approach at that time. Cygni-61 is a double star and so its double star orbit plays a role in the sunspot activity of our Sun. Thus, the 678 yr orbit of the Cygni-61A/B double star will reach apeosis again in the year 2358. The Procyon A/B double star has a 40.8 yr orbit and shows up as a 40.8 year shift in sunspot peak and intensity.

9) Since matter decay is equivalent to a force, discrete aether predicts that a matter decay of 83 MW/kg is equivalent to the 1.0 G force of earth’s gravity. The sun radiance is just 1.9e-4 W/kg and it would take a 1 kg U reactor pile 12,000 K to achieve 83 MW/kg. This is equivalent to a 1 kg U shell 22 m diameter radiating at 1,000 K, which is below the U melting point.

## Tuesday, January 18, 2022

### Single Photon Resonance as Fundamental Action

We only really see things that change and then we deduce how things are from how they change. It then seems reasonable that the universe is made up of not only things that change, but also things that are. Single photon resonances are the things that are and make up all change and single photon resonances occur between emitter precursors and absorber outcomes. Single photon spectra make up the fundamentally discrete nature of the universe with emitter and absorber chromophores.

A single photon resonance between emitter and absorber chromophores exists as a cosmic time packet that grows and then decays, which defines its time packet. Atomic time and space emerge from the quantum oscillations of that photon burst from the speed of light and its wavelength. The growth and decay of the photon packet define its location and direction and result in the Lorentzian spectrum that this example shows. The arrow of time emerges as the direction from primordial emitters to black hole absorber destiny outcomes.

The universe itself is then a spectrum of aether whose exponential decay defines not only a cosmic time, but also defines charge, gravity, and all forces along with the quantum oscillations from which atomic time and space emerge.

## Sunday, November 21, 2021

### Gravity Lens and Blueshift from Photon Convergence

## Friday, October 22, 2021

### Gravity Binds Black Holes to the Universe

Gravity is an apparently attractive force that is actually a result of the bonding of each body to a shrinking universe full of black holes. Gravity attraction between two bodies along their line of action is a result of the universe bond gravity shadows of each body on the other. In the idealized gravity between two hydrogen atoms, each atom bonds to the shrinking universe by the emission of its Rydberg photon into the resonance brane between each hydrogen and a black hole. It is then the pulse decay of the shrinking universe that results in the action-centered gravity that accretes all matter, light, and neutrinos into black holes and eventually into the final single black-hole destiny of the universe.

The figure shows that the gravity bond between two hydrogens idealized as two photon exchange bonds between each hydrogen and a black hole. Of course, once the hydrogen atoms get closer than about 70 nm, single photon exchange bonding between hydrogens overwhelms this gravity attraction. It is only for substantial bodies that gravity then overwhelms photon exchange bonding.

The gravity bond is then not due to exchange of a single particle like a biphoton, rather gravity is due to two photon exchanges as a quantum biphoton and so there is really no knew science needed for the quantum gravity. Instead of very complex new graviton math that resists renormalization, matter-action biphoton gravity uses the same photon exchange of quantum electrodynamics. Note that matter-action gravity is now action centered and not body centered, which means that gravity does not have the pesky singularity that precludes gravity renormalization under QED. Therefore, biphoton gravity uses the same renormalization of QED and quantum charge.

Black holes still represent the destinies of all matter, light, and neutrinos, but are simply a different kind of quantum matter action without space or time. Space and time do not exist for black holes, but quantum phase, matter, action, and cosmic time all still exist for black holes. Matter, light, and neutrinos are all matter-action precursors for black-hole outcomes and black holes are the precursors of ever larger black holes. Eventually, a single large black hole is the precursor of the antiverse expansion of aether and the antiverse is then the precursor to yet another universe decay cycle.

An enduring mystery in Science has been the seeming 1/r2 similarity between gravity relativity and quantum charge scaling and yet the very large 1e41 differences in their strengths. The difference in strengths is a result of the difference between the size of an atom and the size of the universe. So bonding black holes to the cosmic microwave background with biphotons is a quantum gravity that scales correctly and finally completes the quantum nature of reality.

## Wednesday, September 29, 2021

### Qubit Atoms, Molecules, and Quantum Computing

In fact, a real qubit decays and that decay limits the qubits. A real qubit is never perfectly isolated from thermal and phase noise environment and also has a limited phase coherence lifetime on the order of 10 microseconds. There are therefore many hurdles to overcome before any practical qubits of quantum computing become a reality. Much like the early days of the practical 0 and 1 bits of semiconductor logic, Science has a long ways to go in order to realize a useful practical qubit that includes not only 0 and 1, but also quantum phase, theta.

The superconducting Josephson junction is a fundamental quantum oscillator that involves electron (Cooper) pairs tunneling through an insulator layer between two superconductors at very low temperature. Instead of the electrons and holes that determine semiconductor 0 and 1 bits, a Cooper pair is inherently a qubit. For a current of 40 nA, about 1e9 electron pairs result and from a 13 microV, a frequency of 6.6 GHz at 0.015 K. The Cooper pair current results from the specific geometry and materials of the junction as well as the applied voltage but the frequency is always just proportional to the applied voltage. In fact, this junction is a quantum oscillator at that frequency where each excited state includes one additional Cooper pair of electrons at a slightly lower frequency due to anharmonicity.

The basic qubit of a quantum computer incorporates not only the 0 and 1 of a classical bit, but also a quantum oscillation between 0 and 1 of the Cooper pair across a junction. A very common qubit is a particular Josephson junction called a transmon that incorporates a shunt capacitor to make the quantum oscillator more stable. The transmon that oscillates at around 6.6 GHz and so its qubits undergo this same quantum oscillation.

Another common qubit is the squid, which involves a loop with two Josephson junction. In any case, a qubit is the excitation of just one Cooper pair, 0 -> 1, across a junction at about 200 MHz lower frequency due to anharmonicity. The quantum anharmonicity also means that the 1 -> 2 transition is 200 MHz less that then 0 -> 1 transition. In fact, useable qubits need to have such isolated transitions and so the anharmonicity is what makes the transmon and the squid useful qubits as the figure shows.

However, there is an additional splitting of each level due to the phase or direction of the electron pair across the junction and that splitting reflects the spin or rotation of the qubit as the figure below shows. Much like electron spin emerges from the complementary rotations of electron charge loop oscillation, the complementary rotations of superconducting loop oscillations in the transmon and squid are then a kind of qubit spin.

*n*. Gate bias increases charge dispersion up to 60 MHz as the figure shows.

_{g}*T*, is therefore usually about 10 microsec, which is long enough for reading and still short enough for resetting, which all involve 10 nsec switches. The dephasing time,

_{1}*T*, is due to the entanglement among other qubit states that is necessary for effective computation. This dephasing time is important for quantum entanglement outcomes and is therefore limited by

_{2}*T*. However, it is then difficult to differentiate dephasing from pure decay.

_{1}## Saturday, September 4, 2021

### Spin as a Loop or 0-Brane String

Unlike a photon resonance between particles, which is a one dimensional D-brane string with Dirichlet boundary conditions, a particle spin has cyclic boundary conditions and so is a 0-brane loop string and not a D-brane string. Since particle spin dimensions do not map directly into 3D space and time, for quantum energy calculations, typically two dimensional Dirac spinors represent spin dimensions separately from 3D space and time. Given that spin resonance energies tend to be much smaller than other quantum orbit resonances, this spin-orbit separation of variables works very well for many energy calculations that include average spin.

When instantaneous quantum phase matching is important, though, the 0-brane loop string is then useful since it shows both mass and charge oscillation as a 0-brane loops as well as the three D-brane magnetic fibers that take a 4𝜋 rotation to return spin magnetic identity. The figure below shows how the spin D-brane fibers do not cross each other and therefore maintain their orthogonality.

Since quantum phase matching is still an issue with the resonance of spin-orbit coupling, the 0-brane spin phase is useful for matching the D-brane orbital phase. In the first excited state of hydrogen, the coupling of the electron spin magnetism to the electron orbit magnetism results in the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. The figure shows three of the many different short-lived electron P-type orbital resonances. There is only a well-defined average electron energy and radius for the hydrogen fine structure.

## Saturday, August 21, 2021

### Photon Geodesics as D-Brane Strings

Photon resonance geodesics are the basic quantum exchange bonds responsible for both quantum charge and quantum gravity. While quantum charge photon exchange is a resonance along the geodesic between two bodies, this photon exchange also bonds all bodies to the universe with quantum photon exchange and so is quantum gravity. The attraction of quantum gravity is then the residual attraction due to geodesic shadows of the universe that the two bodies cast on each other along their line of action.

Gravity waves in space and time represent matter action radiation that can then eventually lead to matter action acceleration as well for very massive objects like black holes and neutron stars. Black hole mergers result in large amounts of matter action acceleration and radiation but very little or no dipole radiation because black holes are charge neutral.

Classical relativistic gravity is a scalar force, since it does not depend on direction and so classical gravity attracts bodies together just like charge is also a scalar force that attracts opposite charges together. Nevertheless, both gravity and charge do act along their lines of action between bodies. In contrast to classical gravity motion, charge *motion *further results in vector force call magnetization that then couples charges together with a force perpendicular to each of their lines of action.

Since matter-action gravity is really just a version of quantum photon exchange, there is also a quantum gravity vector force also exists. However, gravity motion always couples complementary photon pairs as a quadrupole and so vector gravity couples the motions of stars and would also be perpendicular to their lines of action. In fact, vector gravitization is then the precursor to the dark matter force that couples galaxy stars into a constant rotation.

String theory is a very flexible theory of everything and uses branes as either loop branes or D branes with any number of hidden new dimensions. The "D" stands for Dirichlet boundary conditions as two brane endpoints and not a string loop. String theory can then explain any measurement by adding as many new dimensions or parameters as needed to fit measurements of physical reality.

However, a quantum D-brane string in just one dimension has all of the properties of an electron charge and matter oscillation and so a trivial D-brane with just one dimension is consistent with physical reality without any extra added dimensions. A D-brane electron would actually span the universe and not really be microscopic or hidden either. In fact, a photon and any quantum particle is then also equivalent to a trivial D-brane.

Therefore, such trivial D-branes already make up the causal set universe. Such quantum D-branes have the quantum property of oscillation along their lengths and so a D-brane also represents a photon resonance geodesic between two emitters, say Alice and Bob. Thus, D-branes without any new hidden microscopic dimensions form the basis of a quantum causal set universe and so there is no need for any new but hidden microscopic dimensions.

Alice and Bob in a resonant photon exchange represent a D-brane, but now as the resonance or connection between two Dirichlet endpoints or vertices. Of course, such D-branes can and do span the universe as the CMB, but such D branes actually represent the bonds of quantum photon charge exchange as well. Since all bodies have a very large number of D-branes that bond them to the universe, attractive gravity between two bodies is actually a result of the universe collapse and so the universe is not expanding.

After CMB excitation, the Alice-Bob D-brane resonance does not reveal any cause or effect and so this universe is not yet real. A black hole absorption occurs at Bob is what reveals Alice as the emitter precursor and Bob as the outcome absorber. The black hole absorption sets the arrow of time and is what makes the universe real.

There are many things about the universe that D-branes reveal. For example, bodies shadow each other’s D-brane bonds with the universe along their lines of action and so gravity is simply a result of these shadows of the universe collapse as the diagram below shows. String theory is just as fun as causal set theory... however, loop quantum foams do not have branes and so are no as much fun... Tejinder Singh, though, has a great TOE that does use path integrals and cosmic time along with octonions... but we need to get spin involved somehow as well...

## Wednesday, July 7, 2021

### Single Photon Double Slit Diffraction

There are many different ways to show that a single photon is actually a superposition of both slits in the double slit experiment and this was a particular good one.

Double slit single photon with microscope

The author has done a really good job with his double-slit microscope with a HeNe laser and a CCD to image the diffraction pattern. He only missed a few details in his experiment, which also showed excellent single-slit as well as double slit-diffraction. It was very clever to simply lower the beam intensity in order to show single photon behavior and so this is an experiment that I could do with my microscope and laser as well.

In his explanation, he described a dipole source as spherical source in all directions, but of course a dipole is a planar and not a spherical source. This does not really change any of his conclusions.

He did not talk about the fact that the emitter and detector were in resonance for the lifetime of the emitter, which was about 1 ns or so for a 632.8 nm HeNe at 0.3 mW with a 1 GHz bandwidth. Each single photon has a 1/e coherence length of 300 mm and so the emitter and detector are close enough for quantum phase correlation. His diagrams incorrectly show very short photons while the actual HeNe photon is in fact much longer, especially as an amplitude, which is sqrt of the intensity length.

The single photon width corresponds to the 1.5 mm HeNe beam width and so a single photon always goes through both slits as long as the beam diameter covers both slits. Therefore, this is not a mystery at all and the true mystery is why does anything ever behave like a classical particle at all. The simple answer is that it is the decay of the quantum photon resonance that makes a photon classical. That is, it is the decay of this source-detector quantum resonance at the detector that makes the quantum photon a classical particle.

Finally, he mentions that the single slit diffraction also means that the single photon interferes with itself and this is true. He suggests that the single slit acts like a resonant chamber and this is exactly correct. In fact, there is a short and quite measurable delay in the photon transit through a slit because a photon lives longer in the slit.

All in all, a very nice demo!

## Thursday, June 17, 2021

### Quantum Gravity Black Holes

Quantum matter action results in a causal set universe where space and time emerge from a sprinkle of random quantum photon resonant paths. The quantum gravity of matter action is Lorentz invariant and therefore completely consistent with the measurements of Science. However, matter-action interpretations of those measurements are quite different from spacetime interpretations.

This is especially true for the gravity black hole singularity of Science since gravity black hole singularities do not have a basis in quantum gravity until now. This is largely due to the nature of the black-hole singularity and the sprinkled photon resonances from which spacetime emerges do not have any singularities.

Gravity relativity is a body centered force in spacetime that curves or warps spacetime around that body. Thus, bodies follow the straight-line geodesics in warped spacetime and so there is no spacetime gravity force, just gravity warping of spacetime.

In matter action, quantum gravity is a result of the random photon geodesic resonances that complement the quantum geodesic resonances that bind charge matter. The matter-action causal set shows not only the photon geodesic resonances that bind quantum charge, matter action also shows those photon geodesic resonances that bind each body to the universe. Instead of gravity relativity warping spacetime, quantum gravity is the result of bodies shadowing each other's universe geodesic bonds. Thus quantum gravity force occurs along body centerlines and so quantum gravity is then a center-of-mass force and not actually a body-centered force.

A quantum black hole is then consistent with all measurements of black holes, but a quantum black hole is much more interesting than the singularity of a spacetime black hole. Photon geodesic resonances deflect around black holes because of the gravitational red shift and constant speed of light. However, there are still quantum resonances that occur between a black hole and an emitter and absorber of light.

A quantum black hole still has the very slow decay of cosmic time as a spiral decay, which has no meaning in spacetime relativity. The spiral decay in cosmic time of a quantum black hole is very reminiscent of the interpretation of a black hole as an eternal collapsing object without an event horizon. Thus, quantum black holes are the natural outcome of a all collapsing matter in the matter-action universe.

## Tuesday, June 15, 2021

### A Universe from Sprinkled Random Photon Geodesics

Causal set theory involves partially ordered causal sets that represent the discrete structure of the universe with just matter, action, and quantum phase. Space and time then emerge by sprinkling the geneology of random photon geodesics from causal matter, action, and phase from which emerges the manifold of space and time. Space and time then emerge from that sprinkling of random quantum photon geodesics across the universe and the sprinkled random distribution preserves Lorentz invariance, which is the foundation of gravity relativity.

However, it is the quantum action of light that gives matter its action and it is the quantum action of light that links quantum gravity to quantum charge. So sprinkling these random photon geodesics is what makes our quantum reality real and without the action of light, there would be no changes to matter and so it is light that gives matter its action.

The matter-action quantum gravity causal Hasse diagram shows the resonant photon geodesics of both quantum gravity and quantum charge. Quantum gravity bonds results from the bonding of particles of matter like hydrogen to the universe as the diagram shows. Quantum charge bonds result when hydrogens are sufficiently close and overwhelm the quantum gravity bond.

While both quantum gravity and quantum charge are reversible resonant photon geodesics, there are also irreversible nonresonant photon geodesics as heat from blackbodies. Blackbodies absorb resonant photons and then randomize photon phases and frequencies, eventually reemitting heat photons as a quantum blackbody after some time delay. Quantum blackbodies then represent the irreversible arrow of time for gravity relativity with the chaos of a large number of resonant photon geodesics.In matter action there are 1.5e118 aether particles to begin with that make up the causal set matter-action universe with 1.5e118 as condensed into 7.6e76 electrons, protons, and Rydberg photons that make up the dim light of the CMB. Electrons, protons, and photons make up configurations or manifolds within matter action as various quantum particles that photon exchange bond with each other. While single photon exchange is the basic glue for quantum charge, it is quadrupole biphoton exchange that is the basic glue for quantum gravity.

Photon geodesics are what make reality real and we see images as manifolds of sprinkled random photon geodesics from matter to our retinal neurons. An emitter populates a quantum photon state that includes an absorber in resonance with the emitter as shown in the upper figure below for quantum particles. Each emitter, though, also populates a quantum photon state with the universe in resonance with the CMB and there are two photon states, a biphoton, that bond the two emitters as quantum gravity as the lower figure below. Thus, unlike quantum charge, the quantum gravity biphoton exchanges are actually resonances between the universe and each emitter and not resonances between the emitters.

*Causal Sets and the Deep Structure of Spacetime*, arxiv :gr-qc/0508109v1, 2005.

*Quantum Dynamics without the Wave Function*, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 : 3207-3221, 2007.

*Causal Set Approach to Quantum Gravity*, 2018 https://iopscience.iop.org/journal/0264-9381/page/Focus-Issue-on-the-Causal-Set-Approach-to-Quantum-Gravity

*The Causal Set Approach to Quantum Gravity*, arXiv:1903.11544v2 [gr-qc] 28 Aug 2019.

## Sunday, June 6, 2021

### Photon Double Slit Diffraction

The quantum photon represents a fundamental quantum mystery because although a quantum photon is a particle of light, all quantum particles also have the properties of bound waves called wavepackets. Of course, since all quantum particles have this particle-wave duality, the mystery of quantum photons is actually rather the basis of our quantum reality and so not really a mystery at all. The mystery is why the classical reality that we experience shows mostly particles and only shows the bound waves of photons in rainbows and edge and slit diffraction.

Planck in 1901 first proposed the notion of a quantum of light to limit the energy of light of an atom but it was Einstein in 1905 who made the connection between the Planck quantum and photons of light. Einstein connected Planck's quanta of light from measurements of the photoelectric effect, where illumination of a vacuum diode resulted in the detection of single electrons emitted by single photons when the light frequency exceeded a certain threshold. It was somewhat later in 1926 that G.N. Lewis coined the name photon.

The propagation of a photon wavepacket from an emitter through space to an absorber along with its spectrum defines the nature of each photon. Although each photon has a characteristic energy and mass from its frequency as *E = hn*, *m = hn/c ^{2}*, the quantum phase of the photon spectrum also reflects the nature of each matter action emitter and absorber as well as their lifetimes. The emitter-absorber resonance gives a photon its matter and phase spectrum and a matter-action of that excited resonance can spontaneously decay into heat at either the absorber or emitter. However, by definition, the absorber decays to heat faster than the emitter and this is what gives the arrow of time.

The emitter-absorber excited state is really emitter-absorber matter action that defines the photon spectrum and includes any in-between phase shifts due to things like slits and so each photon spectrum is rather unique.

There is no space or time in the two slit quantum causal set, just the mass of 254 nm mercury photon, Planck's action constant, and the quantum phase angle, q. All of the resonant single photon causal vertices are reversible and so split the single photon events 50:50 between the emitter and absorber decays. Each photon has a vertex that includes both slits, which alters the phase of the photon, but not its frequency, energy, or mass.

Gorard has built a hypergraph for the two slit function by propagating 23 bits from the sequence of "o"'s with two “X” amplitudes

oooooooooXoooXooooooooo

down a 10 layer hypergraph to create 75 events for the causal graph below.

However, this is just a classical wave diffraction pattern with a splitting of 16 units and results from two coherent sources or slits spaced 4 units apart with a light wavelength of 4 units and a slit width of 1 unit.

Since this hypergraph is determinate and not probabilistic, it simply represents a classical wave diffraction pattern of two point sources. In other words, this is not a quantum two slit multiway hypergraph since it does not represent any emitter-absorber quantum phase resonances at all.

Each photon event is a quantum resonance path of the hypergraph when the emitter and absorber are in resonance. The figure above shows two possible paths hypergraph paths in red.The resonance therefore is a superposition between the emitter and absorber and occurs because of a quantum phase resonance between the emitter and absorber. The quantum phase resonance also depends on any phase shifts of intervening causal layers like the collimator and two slits, but the emitter and absorber quantum phases are essentially random.

Therefore, the results of these multiway hypergraph layers are simply spatial smoothing functions for the classical two emitter diffraction and has no collimator. Random excitations of graph resonances can occur when the emitters and absorbers are in phase and those result in a photon states that then decay irreversibly. The states release heat to either the absorber or emitter depending on relative decay times to transit times. When a photon decay occurs in the absorber, we call that a photon event and all of the other emitter photons decay in the emitter.

Randomly exciting 1,000 quantum resonances of the two-slit hypergraph will generate the accumulation of single quantum photon results noted above for this case. However, it is a lot easier just to use the two-slit analytic expression in the first place.

## Monday, May 24, 2021

### Quantum Spin

The Stern-Gerlach measurement of silver atoms in 1922 first showed the unexpected up/down magnetism of neutral silver and other atoms that have a single, unpaired electron. The up/down magnetism of quantum electron spin is the basis of the quantum measurement problem in philosophy. Although the spin showed a 50:50 up:down magnetism, the measurement did not indicate that the original neutral atom was magnetized at all. In fact, the measurement itself seems to have affected the outcome of the neutral atom spin magnetism.

Although it was not clear why neutral atoms showed any magnetism at all in the Stern-Gerlach experiment, just two years later in 1924 Pauli proposed that electrons with complementary spin can occupy the same space and time in a superposition that then has no spin magnetism. The math behind quantum spin became more apparent when Schrödinger discovered in 1926 the quantum mechanics equation that, for the first time, explained the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. It then became clear that the spin magnetism of electrons manifests itself in the fine structure of atomic hydrogen and spin magnetism of protons in the hyperfine structure of atomic hydrogen.

The notion of quantum spin was first thought to emerge from a rotating charged particle rotation like like an electron, since charged spheres were well know to induce classical magnetism. However, given the electron charge radius, the rotation velocity would be c/alpha, some 137 times the speed of light. Nevertheless, the notion of a spinning charge continues today as a simple explanation for quantum spin.

However, it is the fundamental quantum oscillations of matter and charge that explains quantum spin. Quantum oscillation of the electron oscillating electric field that then results in spin magnetism perpendicular to the electric field oscillation. Thus, instead of charge rotation, quantum spin is due to the perpetual of quantum wavefunction oscillations that has no meaning for a classical particle of static mass and charge.

When an electric field oscillates around an electron plane, there are two possible spin states as up for left or down for right as the figure shows. In addition to charge oscillation, electron mass also oscillates and so the electron mass amplitude oscillates much more slowly than electron charge amplitude as the figure shows.

The quantum gravity Hasse causal set diagram for the universe shows how space, time, and gravity all emerge from the sprinkling of random photon paths over 4𝜃 steradians of quantum phase.