Search This Blog

Sunday, January 28, 2024

Photon Geodesics

Photon geodesics connect emission and absorption actions between matter particles and between all bodies and the universe. Gravity is then not due to the photon geodesics between bodies, but rather gravity is then actually due to the photon geodesic shadows between bodies that just appears to be a gravity attraction between bodies. Since both charge and gravity are due to photon geodesics, gravity is then quantum and the quantum gravity shows typical quantum properties like superposition, interference, and entanglement.

The quantum gravity of photon geodesics follows gravity relativity since it is photon geodesics that make up space and time and gravitation lensing results from the interactions among photon geodesics, not really from gravity per se. Photon geodesic gravity is then all about the warping of photon geodesics, which is equivalent to the gravity warping of relativistic spacetime.

The means that the gravity that holds our body to Earth is due to the luminosities of our body as well as that of Earth and the luminosity of the universe. Science measures luminosity from the thermodynamic heat of all bodies, but Science does not yet associate that luminosity with gravity relativity. The association of gravity with luminosity of photon geodesics is the key to a quantum gravity that unifies all forces for the first time...


Saturday, August 5, 2023

Quantum Gravity Biphotons

Another way to look at quantum gravity biphotons is to first consider the single photon transfer from an excited source to excite a phase-matched absorber ground state. As long as the source and absorber are close enough given the dephasing lifetime, a superposition forms between source and absorber. This superposition will collapse by dephasing the source and leaving the absorber excited or by dephasing the absorber and leaving the source excited. The superposition can also result in a chemical bond between the source and absorber and a new molecular ground state.

Although gravity appears to be an attraction between two bodies, quadrupole quantum gravity is a result the bonding of each of the bodies to the collapsing universe, not to each other. Quadrupole quantum gravity involves a complementary pair of photons, a biphoton, that bond each of the two bodies to the universe by a phase match that emits each photon. The gravity shadows between the two bodies is the scalar and vector gravity of quadrupole quantum gravity. Essentially, gravity is the pure collapse of the universe that shows up as bodies shadow each other's bonds to the universe.
The quantum gravity between each of the two stars of a binary involves not only scalar gravity, the only gravity of GR, but also vector quantum gravity. Binary stars therefore execute out-of-plane rosette orbits as a result of the combination of scalar and vector gravity unlike the planar orbits of GR binary stars.





Sunday, June 4, 2023

Quantum Gravity Spin and Phase

Quantum gravity has scalar attraction but also both spin and phase and so quantum gravity differs from relativistic gravity, which has only scalar attraction and neither quantum spin nor quantum phase. Quantum electromagnetism (EM) has both spin and phase and so quantum EM has both scalar attraction or repulsion of static charges as well as the vector forces of moving charges. Quantum gravity then has the scalar attraction of bodies as well as the vector forces of moving bodies.

The collapsing quantum aether universe drives both quantum gravity and quantum EM and while it is the oscillation of quantum aether that drives EM, it is the collapse of quantum aether that drives quantum gravity. All bodies in the collapsing universe lose mass by dephasing and radiation and so stars that lose mass by radiation have even more vector gravity than cooler bodies. Star radiation leads to coupling of star motions around their centers of mass that contributes to scalar gravity and so vector gravity is not apparent with a simple binary star. However, star clusters and galaxies show the added velocities of vector gravity that Science now associates with dark matter.

Like neutron spin and phase, the spin and phase of the universe does not really depend on the motion of charges. However, the universe spin phase does couple with the spin phase of local matter and so there is a slight asymmetry to all universe matter spin phases.


It is quantum gravity that results in the asymmetry of universe spin phase and shows up as a quadrupole asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background. The Mollweide diagram shows the entire sky with the Milky Way along the axis, giving our ecliptic motion as an "s" shape.




Monday, May 8, 2023

Five Great Issues of Science

 Five Great Issues of Science

The five great issues of Science represent the purest Science driven by our curiosity, often termed basic research. These great issues represent the collective curiosity of humanity for all of recorded history and the economic sector Knowledge represents these great issues. In fact, the five great issues of Science are perpetual issues that Science will never completely resolve.

There are two great motions of the five issues of matter, action, life, free choice, and cosmos. The figure shows the motion of quantum phase coherence orders the complementary chaotic motion of classical entropy from the cosmic microwave background to the blackhole destiny. Matter is what makes up the universe while action is how the universe changes matter. Life is an evolution from the chaos of the disordered CMB matter to the ordered life of quantum coherence that gives us the feeling of free choice. We wonder about the origin of the cosmos since the chaos of entropy as well as the coherence of quantum phase make up the universe as complementary matter and action.

There are also many great problems of Science, that Science will eventually solve and so differ from the perpetual nature of the five great issues. The problems of Science are called applied Science, but some are also called basic Science. Among the problems of Science are:

1) Treating Cancer (Health);
2) Treating Heart Disease (Health);
3) Treating other Diseases (Health);
4) Placing People into Space (Knowledge);
5) Reducing Energy Costs (Energy);
6) Improving Transportation (Transportation);
7) Cleaning Up Defense Wastes (Security);
8) Maintaining Economic Stability (Money);
9) Reducing Human Environmental Impact (Environment);
10) Stabilizing Population Growth (Environment);
11) Maintaining World Peace (Security);
12) Maintaining National Defense (Security);
13) Harnessing Nuclear Energy (Energy);
14) Reducing Crime and Faction Conflicts (Security).

Civilization addresses the five issues and many problems of Science for innovation that improves wellbeing. After all, wellbeing includes the habitats of environment as well as the comforts of civilization.

Tuesday, April 18, 2023

Inflation from Printing Money Pays Debts

When the government prints money, inflation results 6 mos later as the figure shows and that inflation pays down government debt due to spending in excess of taxes. However, when you spend more than you make, inflation also helps you pay your debts to purchase things that benefit your future. A mortgage for a house or a loan for a car are both examples of debt financed purchases that benefit your future as long as your income less expenses is enough to make the loan payments. When your debt payments exceed income less expenses, you then become bankrupt and need to sell your house and car in order to survive. If you take on even more debt to remain solvent, that can only be a temporary solution since you would increasing total debt by using the new debt to repay the old debt.

A government collects taxes and other revenues to pay for its spending and borrows money to pay for its big projects. A government prints money and loans that money to banks for a small interest payment that then pays for printing and distributing the money. Banks then use that money for loans that the Banks charge interest and withdrawals that the banks pay interest. When a government spends more than its revenues, it must borrow money just to pay for  that excessive spending. The government prints money called bonds with a promise to pay interest in the future despite the extra cost of debt interest payments, which the government pays for with taxes and inflation. Roads, bridges, dams, and government buildings are all examples of debt purchases that benefit the future as long as taxes less expenses represents tolerable inflation. When government debt payments exceed taxation, government can then raise taxes or take on new debt to repay the old debt. A government takes on debt by simply printing money because the government bond debt is actually equivalent to printing money.

Banks need government printed money as cash to support consumer buying and selling and so banks must take on government debt just to support a producer-consumer economy. The cost of that government debt is in the interest payments for its bonds as well as in the inflation of consumer goods and services. In other words, in the absence of government taxation, inflation is how the producer consumer pays for government spending.

Both government taxes and inflation pay for government spending and so money is just the same promise to pay as are government bonds. While an investor must hold a bond until it matures before reclaiming it as cash, cash is then simply a government bond as money that a consumer can immediately reclaim as goods and services less inflation. The government withholds taxes on every paycheck and so holds that cash for the year.

When debt is inexpensive, producers and consumers borrow more and are therefore willing to pay more for goods and services and that increases inflation. However, producer borrowing more also increases economic growth just as consumer spending more also increases economic growth.

When debt cost is expensive, producers and consumers borrow less and so have less to spend for goods and services and that decreases inflation.

When the government prints money for spending in excess of revenues, inflation occurs as a government tax on producers and consumers to pay for that excessive government spending. A government printing more money than its economic growth will cause excess inflation until the government prints just enough money to sustain growth with acceptable inflation.

Acceptable inflation occurs when the economy is growing and producers and consumers believe the government is not printing money in excess of economic growth.

When the government spends more than its revenues, the government prints more money to pay for that excessive spending and that increases inflation, which then pays for that excessive spending.

When the government spends less than revenues, the government prints less money and that decreases inflation.

When government increases its interest rate, that makes consumer debt more expensive and so decreases inflation.

When government lowers its overnight interest rate, that makes producer and consumer debt less expensive and so increases inflation, but also growth.

Acceptable inflation occurs when the economy is growing and consumers believe the government can repay its debt. Inflation then is just enough to pay for the cost of money and to allow enough excess money for economic growth.

Saturday, February 25, 2023

Update on discrete aether sunspot number prediction... beating NOAA like a rug...

 


The reported cycle 25 sunspot number agrees very well with the discrete aether prediction. The 11.4 lyr distances of Procyon and 61Cygni from the sun are responsible for the 11.4 yr convection cycle of sunspot activity that has been tracked since 1600.

The well-known dearth of sunspots at the Maunder Minimum in 1680 coincided with a very cold period known as the little ice age. The discrete aether model shows that the Maunder Minimum was due to a particular alignment of the 61Cygni double star orbit.


Saturday, February 18, 2023

Variation of Fine-Structure Constant over Cosmic Time

In a collapsing universe, cosmic time is different from an atom time since atom time is never at rest given the evolution of collapse rate from zero at the cmb creation to the speed of light at the final blackhole destiny. The red shifts of galaxy look-back spectra in the collapsing universe, unlike an expanding universe, are then due to both galaxy cosmic age as well as the velocity of universe collapse. Blackhole horizons in the collapsing universe are no longer singularities even though they still stop atom time and still exist in the flow of cosmic time of collapse.

In the expanding universe of contemporary Science, cosmic time is the same as atom time at rest with a constant expansion, but atom time does depend on relative velocity and acceleration. According to Science, the red shifts of galaxy spectra are then due to increasing galaxy velocities with look-back time in the expanding universe. Blackhole singularity horizons, though, do stop atom time and yet still exist in the flow of cosmic time expansion.

While some constants of Science are constants in the collapsing universe, the fine-structure constant as well as the speed of light do vary with universe collapse, but the fine-structure splittings of distant galaxies still remain proportional to contemporary splittings. Many argue against universe collapse since the fine-structure splittings of distant galaxies are proportional to contemporary fine-structure splittings. However, the fine-structure splittings are proportional to ratio of transition energy and relativistic electron energy, En/(mec2), and this ratio is constant in the collapsing universe [see Griffiths and Schroeter, Introduction to QM, 2018, 7.3.2]. This is because while Eand c both increase in the collapsing universe, mdecreases over cosmic time.

The collapsing universe is Lorentz invariant and maintains the equivalence of mass and energy just as does the expanding universe relativity. But the speed of light varies in the collapsing universe since the speed of light reflects the universe collapse rate for each epoch and not for all epochs as in the expanding universe. The classical electron spin rate, c/α, in the collapsing universe is constant and so α the fine-structure constant varies in the same way as does c.



Tuesday, December 20, 2022

Radiant Quantum Gravity of the Milky Way

The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy made up of a supermassive black hole center, a central bar or bulge, and an outer spiral disk that is about three times the long axis of the inner bar. The Figure shows the bar and disk both simplified as rotating body pairs that radiate both scalar and vector gravity waves. The scalar gravity waves radiate outward from both bar and disk while the vector gravity waves couple disk to bar stars. The radiant vector gravity waves of the inner bar accelerate the outer disk stars and the radiant vector gravity wave of the disk decelerates the inner bar star rotations. The coupling of vector gravity then transfers angular momentum from slowing bar star rotations by accelerating disk star rotations. 

Thus, radiant quantum gravity satisfies the virial theorem without dark matter by transferring momentum from the bar to the disk stars. So no cold dark matter halo is needed around the galaxy to satisfy the virial theorem and instead, it is the coupling of vector gravity waves from bar to disk that satisfies the virial theorem without dark matter.

Unlike the very short range quantum forces of dipole radiation and single photon exchange, quantum gravity is a very long range force at the cosmic scale with quadrupole radiation and biphoton exchange. Quantum gravity includes not only scalar forces of mass between stars, but quantum gravity also includes vector forces that couple the motions of radiating stars.

The virial theorem is a simple statement that the potential energy bonding a set of bodies together must be equal to the kinetic energy of those bonded bodies. There are many cosmic examples like galaxies where the kinetic energies of stars of a galaxy do exceed the potential energy of Keplerian gravity, but do not exceed quantum gravity. Science has thus concluded that dark matter halos must make up over 95% of the mass of a galaxy even though there is no measurement for dark matter.

The relative motions of star matter gradients in the Milky Way result in gravity wave emission limited by the speed of light. It is the quadrupole wave emission of a moving mass gradient for Keplerian gravity that is also quantum vector gravity. Vector gravity couples the relative motions of Milky Way stars due to the matter gradient of star emissions and motion.

The Table shows matter gradient gravity waves from both static matter gradients as well as dynamic matter gradients from star emission. With just Keplerian gravity, the mass of the bar is 15% greater while its dipole emission is 21% lower than for quantum gravity. This results in a 10% increase in disk rotation velocity and an -8% decrease in bar rotation velocity.


The universe mass shell in effect maps all matter in the universe onto a two dimensional shell or hologram. As per the holographic principle, all of the information of the universe 3D volume encodes onto the 2D shell that is the universe boundary. Quantum gravity follows from this holographic principle.








Friday, November 11, 2022

Discrete Aether Quantum Gravity Radiation

 

Discrete aether quantum gravity between two bodies involves the photon exchange bonding of each body to the universe mass shell as the figure shows. Instead of gravity being a primary gravity field between bodies, aether quantum gravity is instead a residual force that emerges from the electromagnetic dispersive dipole-induced-dipole bonding of each body to the universe mass shell. When the two bodies orbit, like two blackholes or any two bodies, the rotation of their complementary binding photons results in emission of quadrupole radiation. The equation for discrete aether quantum gravity radiation is then the same as for quadrupole emission of gravity relativity. This shows that gravity relativity is completely consistent with the the quantum gravity of discrete aether.

The quadrupole radiation of a gravity orbit is inherently electromagnetic photon exchange in discrete aether and so there is no need for gravitons different from photons in discrete aether. Relativistic gravity radiation is then a dark radiation from discrete aether quadrupoles that have their dipole fields spread over the whole universe. This is because the complementary dipole photon separation for the quadrupole is on the order of the radius of the universe, 7.4e25 m.

The quadrupole radiation of a gravity orbit depends on its mass gradient, (m/a)5, as well as, to a lesser extent, the eccentricity of its orbit, ϵ. Spherical orbits have ϵ = 0 and so a rotating binary of equal masses has a simple expression where gravity radiation goes as the fifth power of its mass gradient.

For two orbiting bodies of very different masses like the Sun and Mercury or the stars of a galaxy, the expression becomes

For two radiating and orbiting bodies like a binary star of equal masses, there is an additional vector gravity term that is the ratio of radiation and relative velocity.

Table 1 shows characteristic dipole and quadruple emissions of the orbits of Sun-Mercury, Milky Way stars, blackhole merger, and the Sun in the Milky Way.


Mercury has the largest eccentricity of any planet in its orbit with the Sun and the perihelion advance of Mercury has long validated Einstein’s relativity. Mercury’s perihelion advance is a result of gravity quadrupole radiation as Table 1 shows that decays its orbit and increases its velocity. 

The emission of 5.2e-15 kg/s gravity quadrupole results in the Mercury orbit decay that is the perihelion advance. Since the same quadrupole emission occurs for discrete aether, the Mercury perihelion advance also validates discrete aether.

The Milky Way galaxy has a dipole luminosity of 4.3e19 kg/s, which is 1e10 x the Sun luminosity and due to its 2.5e11 stars. The gravity quadrupole Milky Way luminosity is much smaller at 1.3e15 kg/s than the dipole luminosity, but the much larger dipole luminosity also results in a quadrupole luminosity of 1.4e14 kg/s. This 13% increase in gravity wave emission decays all star orbits and therefore increases their orbital velocities just like the perihelion advance of Mercury.

The merger of two 6.0e31kg blackholes over 0.25 s results in quadrupole emissions of 3.0e29 kg/s at 1% of the total mass loss of the event. The onset of the inspiral occurs at r = 7.6e12 m, which is the point when the quadrupole radiation is just 1% of the total. There is also dipole emission from gravitation, but that emission is spread all over the universe.





Monday, October 10, 2022

Quantum Gravity of Discrete Aether

Quantum gravity is just a residual force of the quantum causal set, which exists outside of space and time. Instead of matter and action in space and time, space and time emerge from matter action of a causal set. Space as distance and time as relative quantum phases of the quantum photon exchange bonds emerge from neutral bodies like hydrogen atoms. Beyond a certain distance, about 70 nm for two hydrogens, quantum gravity is greater than the dispersion of quantum photon exchange. Quantum gravity between two hydrogen atoms is just the dispersion of quantum photon exchange of each atom with the rest of the universe.

Gravity relativity emerges from the fundamental equivalence of mass and energy for particles that exist in relativistic spacetime. To first order, the Lorentz invariance of the speed of light to velocity of a particle distorts space and time by the classic sqrt(1/(1 - v^2/c^2)). There are higher order terms that converge to the Einstein tensor as proportional to the energy-momentum tensor,

All of the complexity of general relativity reduces to this tensor equation and yet there is no accepted quantum gravity in spacetime. This is because each particle of matter introduces a singularity at r = 0 in spacetime that precludes a quantum electrodynamics exchange particle for gravity. 

One consequence of GR is the black hole singularity that are widely accepted in general relativity but have no quantum meaning in QED.  A black hole has mass and spin just like any other particle in the quantum causal set universe and black holes bond to the universe with photon exchange just like all matter particles. Thus, black holes are just another matter particle in a quantum causal set, which is about each matter body bonding to the rest of the universe with quantum photon exchange.

The space between two hydrogens emerges from the strength of the quantum photon exchange interaction between two hydrogen atoms. The time for the two hydrogens emerges from the relative quantum phases between the two hydrogen atoms. Ironically, space and time emerge from quantum photon exchange and at large separations, the quantum gravity photon exchange of each atom with the universe then dominates over just quantum photon exchange between the two atoms.

Thursday, July 21, 2022

Large Scale Structures in the Cosmic Microwave Background

 The cosmic microwave background (CMB) multipole analysis shows an angular scale consistent with a combination of 4.9% ordinary matter, 27% dark matter, and 68% dark energy expanding at 68 km/s. 

However, this cosmology does not include quantum gravity at all and so there is no way to measure the absolute expansion rate of the universe. Although the small scale CMB structures are consistent with the cosmology without quantum gravity, there is an inconsistency in the large scale CMB structures of the universe as the figure shows.

A collapsing universe cosmology shows quantum gravity and a universe of ordinary matter that is only 1.1e-7 kg/kgAether, 8.7e-69 kg/aether, and 8.4e-61 kg.kgAether action collapsing at the rate of 77 km/s. The universe collapse quantum cosmology shows both a static gravity as well as a radiant vector gravity  and the large scale CMB structures are consistent with radiant vector gravity.


Since the collapsing universe quantum gravity bonds with quadrupole biphoton exchange, there is now a vector component to gravity along with the Newtonian scalar gravity. Vector gravity couples the relative motions of stars much like magnetism couples the relative motions of charge. Since universe collapse is a matter decay that is the source of gravity, the matter decay of star radiation couples star motions as well as star convection.

Sunday, June 12, 2022

Scalar Static Matter and Vector Radiant Matter Gravity

Since matter-action gravitons are biphotons, which are entangled photons, there is not only scalar gravity due to static matter graviton shadows, but also a radiant vector gravity due to radiant matter. In other words, the radiation of stars entangles their motions with other stars and this entanglement results in radiant vector gravity.

Here is a diagram that shows scalar gravity shadows that results from the matter body bonds to the universe along with the radiant vector gravity that transfers momentum from inner to outer stars. Radiant vector gravity transfers momentum from stars inside the CofM to stars outside the CofM. This radiant momentum transfer is what keeps spiral galaxies rotating at constant velocity instead of at their Keplerian velocities.

The plot below shows the velocity profile of the Milky Way along with the observed Sun as opposed to the Keplerian Sun. The actual Sun velocity is about 29% greater than the Keplerian Sun velocity reported by Sofue et al, 251 vs. 194 km/s. The Keplerian gravity force at the Sun at 8.0 kpc is 8.4e14 kg m/s^2, which is consistent with a Sun velocity of 194 km/s as opposed to the actual Earth velocity of 251 km/s. 

However, there is a radiant vector gravity force in matter action that couples star motions and transfers momentum from inner to outer stars. The Sun radiance is 4.2e9 kg/s and results in a radiant vector force of 4.2e9 kg/s x 2.51e5 m/s / 2 = 5.5e14 kg m/s^2. Thus the scalar plus vector gravity of the Sun is actually 1.4e15 kg m/s^2, which is now consistent with the 29% increase in Sun velocity as sqrt(1.4e15/8.4e14) = 1.29. Radiant vector gravity now completes the virial energy theorem for galaxies without any need for dark matter.

Thus, radiant vector gravity is completely consistent with the momentum transfer that occurs from stars inside to outside the CofM for constant galaxy rotation. Radiant vector gravity completely explains galaxy rotation without any dark matter at all.

The figure above shows the biphoton shadows of scalar gravity along with the radiant vector gravity momentum transfers from inner to outer stars. Since the Sun is quite a bit more luminous than the average MW star, the Sun rotates faster than the galaxy average. The MW average rotation velocity is 204 km/s at r = 8 kpc while the Sun rotation is 251 km/s, which suggests that the Sun is 251 / 204 = 23% greater than the average stellar MW luminosity. 

Since the average stellar luminosity is 2.1e10 Lsun / Nstars, this result further suggests that the number of MW stars is 91 billion as Nstars = 2.1e10 / 0.23, which assumes that MW stars at r = 8.0 kpc are representative of the whole MW. This MW 91 billion star estimate is at the lower end of the typical 100-400 billion star number estimate often cited.

Radiant vector gravity is also consistent with the Bullet Cluster 1E 0657-56 galaxy collision that displaced large gas clouds that were 10-15% of galaxy matter from the two galaxies shown. Despite the matter displacement of 10-15%, the weak-lensing contours of each of the two galaxies still align to the galaxy's radiant stars. These results show clearly that vector radiant gravity as well as static scalar gravity are both lensing the Bullet cluster.


https://astrobites.org/2016/11/04/the-bullet-cluster-a-smoking-gun-for-dark-matter/


Wednesday, June 1, 2022

Graviton Noise of Quantum Gravity

We live in an ocean of graviton noise and so it is graviton noise that is what makes things happen in our quantum reality. Entangled photons, biphotons, make up gravitons and are what bind each body to the universe of black holes. Black holes are the penultimate heat sink for all of our reality and what we see as gravity attraction is actually just the collapse of the universe matter.

The destiny of all black holes is then a single black hole that is the destiny of this cycle of the universe. In other words, bodies do not really bond to each other with gravity. Instead each body bonds to the universe of black holes and we see gravity attraction as the universe collapse.

The graviton noise of the universe is what makes all wavefunctions collapse and so is what makes reality real...

Blackholes eventually anchor all CMB photons and it is biphoton eternal exchange that results in the apparent gravity between blackholes. What we call gravity photon deflection is actually photon-photon deflection and so gravity lenses are really photon lenses...




Wednesday, February 23, 2022

Discrete Aether Time Pulse

The discrete aether pulsed universe has a nice symmetry between its time pulse and the hydrogen time pulse defined by the Bohr time. The universe pulse is a 13.9 Byr sinc function of cosmic time with a Fourier transform that is dominated by the aether particle spectrum. The hydrogen pulse is a sinc function of cosmic time with a Fourier transform mass spectrum of the total universe mass that is 90% hydrogen mass.



While the aether particle mass determines the universe pulse in cosmic time, it is the total universe mass that determines the hydrogen pulse also in cosmic time.


Sunday, February 20, 2022

Discrete Aether Predictions

 

1) In contrast to the dependence on radius for Newton's gravity orbit velocities, galaxy rotation velocities are constant do not depend on distance from the galaxy center. Science explains this discrepancy by adding a cold, dark halo of invisible dark matter around each galaxy disk.

In the matter-action pulsed universe, universe matter decay determines gravity and so the extra matter decay as star radiation results in a star matter waves. These star matter waves couple star motions as a vector gravitization that is consistent with radial independent galaxy rotation as the plot shows.

2) Star matter waves couple into galaxy spiral density waves that periodically decelerate and accelerate the orbit velocity of the Sun in its orbit around the galaxy.

3) Moreover, the galaxy spiral matter waves correlate with known matter extinctions as the plot below shows.

4) The discrete aether pulse universe is in mass decay and therefore also in force growth, which means that measuring mass with an action will not show either matter decay or force growth. However, certain kinds of measurements of mass do show the decay and the international kilogram standard, IPK, has decayed over the last 100 years relative to its many secondary standards as the plot shows.

The secondary standards are routinely cleaned with use and the cleaning process results in adding mass so as to keep the secondary standards constant mass. The IPK primary is not subject to the same periodic cleaning and is only been used three times as the plot shows. The matter decay of the IPK matches that of the pulsed universe, which is the collapse of aether equivalent to charge force.

5) Earth’s spin as the length of the day varies over the course of the year because of a variety of reasons. There is also an average long term decay in earth’s spin as the plot shows. Science attributes all of this decay to tidal friction of the oceans, but the pulse universe predicts about one half of this decay is intrinsic to the universe pulse decay.

6) There is a universe pulse decay line that is consistent with many measurements of decay at the slope of 0.255 ppb/yr. In particular, the msec pulsar decays, earth spin decay, earth moon orbit growth, and Andromeda galaxy to Milky Way galaxy separation decay.

7) The sunspot cycle has been measured for 400 years as a 11.6 year variation in sunspot number per month as the plots below show. There is currently no explanation for the sunspot cycle, but with the universe pulse decay, there are matter waves associated with the star decay.

Star decay produces star matter waves that couple the motions of stars with a vector gravitization much like charge motions are coupled with vector magnetization. The two stars, Procyon and Cygni-61, are both 11.6 lyrs away from our sun, which couples their motions and affects the Sun’s convection with an 11.6 year period.

Sunspot activity went into a hiatus around 1680 as the plot shows, which is consistent with the Cygni-61A/Cygni-61B periapsis or closest approach at that time. Cygni-61 is a double star and so its double star orbit plays a role in the sunspot activity of our Sun. Thus, the 678 yr orbit of the Cygni-61A/B double star will reach apeosis again in the year 2358. The Procyon A/B double star has a 40.8 yr orbit and shows up as a 40.8 year shift in sunspot peak and intensity.



8) The spectrum of muonic hydrogen in the plot does not agree with predictions from quantum theory and H spectroscopy shown shifted in the plot. However, the muon lifetime is only 2.2 micros and in the discrete aether pulsed universe, the short muon lifetime is an increased matter decay rate that shifts its spectrum as shown. With the muon decay rate included, the muon and hydrogen spectra now agree as the plot shows.

9) Since matter decay is equivalent to a force, discrete aether predicts that a matter decay of 83 MW/kg is equivalent to the 1.0 G force of earth’s gravity. The sun radiance is just 1.9e-4 W/kg and it would take a 1 kg U reactor pile 12,000 K to achieve 83 MW/kg. This is equivalent to a 1 kg U shell 22 m diameter radiating at 1,000 K, which is below the U melting point.

10) Matter decay couples the Sun radiance to the galaxy spiral density waves to accelerate the Sun to its present 251 km/s from the 204 km/s spiral wave velocity, and increase of 47 km/s over 49 Myrs. This is an average force of 4.1e-7 G that acts over 49 Myrs and predicts that a radiant source can surf on galaxy spiral waves as well.




Tuesday, January 18, 2022

Single Photon Resonance as Fundamental Action

We only really see things that change and then we deduce how things are from how they change. It then seems reasonable that the universe is made up of not only things that change, but also things that are. Single photon resonances are the things that are and make up all change and single photon resonances occur between emitter precursors and absorber outcomes. Single photon spectra make up the fundamentally discrete nature of the universe with emitter and absorber chromophores.

A single photon resonance between emitter and absorber chromophores exists as a cosmic time packet that grows and then decays, which defines its time packet. Atomic time and space emerge from the quantum oscillations of that photon burst from the speed of light and its wavelength. The growth and decay of the photon packet define its location and direction and result in the Lorentzian spectrum that this example shows. The arrow of time emerges as the direction from primordial emitters to black hole absorber destiny outcomes.



The universe itself is then a spectrum of aether whose exponential decay defines not only a cosmic time, but also defines charge, gravity, and all forces along with the quantum oscillations from which atomic time and space emerge.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the first light of creation as a result of a small fraction of aether condensing into hydrogen and other primordial elements. The primordial elements, along with their electrons, protons, neutrons, and neutrinos are what begin the action of the single photon resonances from which the universe evolves.


Sunday, November 21, 2021

Gravity Lens and Blueshift from Photon Convergence

 

The quantum gravity of matter action first bonds all matter to the universe with photon exchange and so the apparent attraction of gravity is really due to the gravity shadows between bodies that show gravity attraction as universe collapse. Thus, quantum gravity is just an apparently attractive force that is actually a result of the bonding of each body to a shrinking universe full of blackholes. Gravity attraction between two bodies along their line of action is then a result of the quantum gravity shadows of each body on the other's universe bonds. 

Gravity deflection of light near bodies like the sun is one of the fundamental hallmarks of general relativity. Another fundamental hallmark of general relativity is the blue shift of light near bodies like the sun. In matter action, though, it is actually photon convergence near any body that both blue shifts and deflects light as the figure shows photon brane convergence means that gravity action is really quantum action due to quantum bonds and gravity is not due to a field after all. The convergence of photon brane resonances near a gravity body causes both the blue shift and deflection of light that occurs near any body. 

In fact, both matter and photon blue shifts and deflections make up blackholes because of the eternal nature of blackhole light absorption. A blackhole never really absorbs light like ordinary matter and instead, a blackhole traps light along along with light's space and atomic time in an eternal collapse in cosmic or universe time. This is in contrast to ordinary matter's absorption and emission of light by matter dipoles instead of a blackhole eternal collapse trapping light.

The eternal collapse of blackhole light is then the glue that binds the universe together and represents the destiny of all light, matter, and neutrinos.

Friday, October 22, 2021

Gravity Binds Black Holes to the Universe

Gravity is an apparently attractive force that is actually a result of the bonding of each body to a shrinking universe full of black holes. Gravity attraction between two bodies along their line of action is a result of the universe bond gravity shadows of each body on the other. In the idealized gravity between two hydrogen atoms, each atom bonds to the shrinking universe by the emission of its Rydberg photon into the resonance brane between each hydrogen and a black hole. It is then the pulse decay of the shrinking universe that results in the action-centered gravity that accretes all matter, light, and neutrinos into black holes and eventually into the final single black-hole destiny of the universe.

The figure shows that the gravity bond between two hydrogens idealized as two photon exchange bonds between each hydrogen and a black hole. Of course, once the hydrogen atoms get closer than about 70 nm, single photon exchange bonding between hydrogens overwhelms this gravity attraction. It is only for substantial bodies that gravity then overwhelms photon exchange bonding.

The gravity bond is then not due to exchange of a single particle like a biphoton, rather gravity is due to two photon exchanges as a quantum biphoton and so there is really no knew science needed for the quantum gravity. Instead of very complex new graviton math that resists renormalization, matter-action biphoton gravity uses the same photon exchange of quantum electrodynamics. Note that matter-action gravity is now action centered and not body centered, which means that gravity does not have the pesky singularity that precludes gravity renormalization under QED. Therefore, biphoton gravity uses the same renormalization of QED and quantum charge.

Black holes still represent the destinies of all matter, light, and neutrinos, but are simply a different kind of quantum matter action without space or time. Space and time do not exist for black holes, but quantum phase, matter, action, and cosmic time all still exist for black holes. Matter, light, and neutrinos are all matter-action precursors for black-hole outcomes and black holes are the precursors of ever larger black holes. Eventually, a single large black hole is the precursor of the antiverse expansion of aether and the antiverse is then the precursor to yet another universe decay cycle. 

An enduring mystery in Science has been the seeming 1/r2 similarity between gravity relativity and quantum charge scaling and yet the very large 1e41 differences in their strengths. The difference in strengths is a result of the difference between the size of an atom and the size of the universe. So bonding black holes to the cosmic microwave background with biphotons is a quantum gravity that scales correctly and finally completes the quantum nature of reality. 



Wednesday, September 29, 2021

Qubit Atoms, Molecules, and Quantum Computing

The next generation of quantum computers will read and write idealized quantum oscillators called qubits. These idealized qubits do not decay, are perfectly isolated from their environment, have an unlimited coherence lifetime, and can selectively entangle with any number of other oscillating quantum qubits. Of course, there are no such qubit ideals and there are all kinds of practical limits to qubits not unlike the practical limits of 0's and 1's in the early days of semiconductor logic bits.

In fact, a real qubit decays and that decay limits the qubits. A real qubit is never perfectly isolated from thermal and phase noise environment and also has a limited phase coherence lifetime on the order of 10 microseconds. There are therefore many hurdles to overcome before any practical qubits of quantum computing become a reality. Much like the early days of the practical 0 and 1 bits of semiconductor logic, Science has a long ways to go in order to realize a useful practical qubit that includes not only 0 and 1, but also quantum phase, theta.

The superconducting Josephson junction is a fundamental quantum oscillator that involves electron (Cooper) pairs tunneling through an insulator layer between two superconductors at very low temperature. Instead of the electrons and holes that determine semiconductor 0 and 1 bits, a Cooper pair is inherently a qubit. For a current of 40 nA, about 1e9 electron pairs result and from a 13 microV, a frequency of 6.6 GHz at 0.015 K. The Cooper pair current results from the specific geometry and materials of the junction as well as the applied voltage but the frequency is always just proportional to the applied voltage. In fact, this junction is a quantum oscillator at that frequency where each excited state includes one additional Cooper pair of electrons at a slightly lower frequency due to anharmonicity.

The basic qubit of a quantum computer incorporates not only the 0 and 1 of a classical bit, but also a quantum oscillation between 0 and 1 of the Cooper pair across a junction. A very common qubit is a particular Josephson junction called a transmon that incorporates a shunt capacitor to make the quantum oscillator more stable. The transmon that oscillates at around 6.6 GHz and so its qubits undergo this same quantum oscillation. 

Another common qubit is the squid, which involves a loop with two Josephson junction. In any case, a qubit is the excitation of just one Cooper pair, 0 -> 1, across a junction at about 200 MHz lower frequency due to anharmonicity. The quantum anharmonicity also means that the 1 -> 2 transition is 200 MHz less that then 0 -> 1 transition. In fact, useable qubits need to have such isolated transitions and so the anharmonicity is what makes the transmon and the squid useful qubits as the figure shows.

However, there is an additional splitting of each level due to the phase or direction of the electron pair across the junction and that splitting reflects the spin or rotation of the qubit as the figure below shows. Much like electron spin emerges from the complementary rotations of electron charge loop oscillation, the complementary rotations of superconducting loop oscillations in the transmon and squid are then a kind of qubit spin.

The charge dispersion of the even(+) and odd(-) states depends on many different factors including biasing the gate ng. Gate bias increases charge dispersion up to 60 MHz as the figure shows.
There are literally dozens of other qubit schemes based on Josephson junctions because there are all kinds of practical considerations for reading, writing, and error checking qubits and, of course, adjusting their couplings. For example, it is desirable to have qubit lifetime long enough to allow for useful computation, but short enough to also be quickly reset. So superposition states result from rotating quantum phase by pi/2 or 90d.

The Google Sycamore chip incorporates 27 squid qubit pairs with 88 transmon couplers in a 6x9 zig-zag grid. There is a stability associated with such complementary qubits that is not unlike the bond between two hydrogen atoms. For example, there are many undesirable couplings among qubits simply due to their proximities. Coupling adjacent qubits with complementary spins forms the basis of a swap gate.

The qubit lifetime, T1, is therefore usually about 10 microsec, which is long enough for reading and still short enough for resetting, which all involve 10 nsec switches. The dephasing time, T2, is due to the entanglement among other qubit states that is necessary for effective computation. This dephasing time is important for quantum entanglement outcomes and is therefore limited by T1. However, it is then difficult to differentiate dephasing from pure decay.

Arrays of coupled qubits then become the molecules of the quantum computer and excitations of those molecules are the qubits. It is the evolution of those qubit excitations from an initial to a final state that is the nature of quantum computation. Eventually, the excitation decays completely into incoherent heat and the whole key is to get a useful result before the inevitable decay to incoherence.

The quantum Fourier transform is perhaps the most fundamental quantum computation that shows quantum supremacy over the discrete Fourier transform of a classical digital computer. Although both quantum and classical FT's decompose a bit sequence into a bit spectrum, the quantum time needed is drastically less than the classical time. While the classical time needed is exponential, the quantum time needed is polynomial.

Below are three qubit sequences along with their FT qubit spectra for a qubit sequence at the Nyquist limit, a sinc pulse, and at the low frequency limit. Unlike a digital FT that evolves in exponential time, a quantum FT evolves from a series of operations in polynomial time to factor odd bit sequences by that evolution. Of course, the larger the number, the greater the number of operations needed to factor the number. Currently, 15 is the largest number that quantum computers have factored because of the current limits of coherence and error.





Saturday, September 4, 2021

Spin as a Loop or 0-Brane String

Unlike a photon resonance between particles, which is a one dimensional D-brane string with Dirichlet boundary conditions, a particle spin has cyclic boundary conditions and so is a 0-brane loop string and not a D-brane string. Since particle spin dimensions do not map directly into 3D space and time, for quantum energy calculations, typically two dimensional Dirac spinors represent spin dimensions separately from 3D space and time. Given that spin resonance energies tend to be much smaller than other quantum orbit resonances, this spin-orbit separation of variables works very well for many energy calculations that include average spin.

When instantaneous quantum phase matching is important, though, the 0-brane loop string is then useful since it shows both mass and charge oscillation as a 0-brane loops as well as the three D-brane magnetic fibers that take a 4𝜋 rotation to return spin magnetic identity. The figure below shows how the spin D-brane fibers do not cross each other and therefore maintain their orthogonality.


The 0-brane spin resonance then matches the D-brane string resonance of the electron and proton for both electric and magnetic fields. There are many different short-lived D-brane resonances that make up the hydrogen atom states and it is only an average that gives a well-defined energy and radius for each state.

Since quantum phase matching is still an issue with the resonance of spin-orbit coupling, the 0-brane spin phase is useful for matching the D-brane orbital phase. In the first excited state of hydrogen, the coupling of the electron spin magnetism to the electron orbit magnetism results in the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. The figure shows three of the many different short-lived electron P-type orbital resonances. There is only a well-defined average electron energy and radius for the hydrogen fine structure.


The brane formalism is therefore a very convenient way to show spin 0-brane spin resonance phase coupling with the very different D-branes of orbital resonances. In contrast, Dirac spinors show only the average spin-orbit coupling and do not show the instantaneous quantum phase matching of each QED brane resonance. The 0-brane to D-brane formalism shows the instantaneous phase matching of resonances that even wavefunctions do not represent very well.