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Sunday, June 6, 2021

Photon Double Slit Diffraction

The quantum photon is a classic quantum mystery because although a quantum photon is a particle of light, all quantum particles also have the properties of waves. Of course, since all quantum particles have this particle-wave duality, this quantum mystery is actually rather the basis of our quantum reality and so not really a mystery at all.

Planck first proposed in 1901 the notion of the quantum of light to limit the energy of light of an atom but it was Einstein in 1905 who made the connection between Planck quantum and photons of light. Einstein connected Planck's quanta of light from measurements of the photoelectric effect, where illumination of a vacuum diode resulted in the detection of single electrons when the light frequency exceeded a certain threshold. It was somewhat later in 1926 that G.N. Lewis coined the name photon in 1926.

The propagation of a photon wavepacket from an emitter through space to an absorber along with its spectrum defines the nature of each photon. Although each photon has a characteristic energy and mass from its frequency as E = hn, m = hn/c2, the quantum phase of the spectrum of that photon also reflects the nature of each matter action emitter and absorber as well as their lifetimes. The emitter and absorber resonance gives a photon phase spectrum and a matter-action of that excited resonance can spontaneously decay into heat at either the absorber or emitter. 

The emitter-absorber excited state is really emitter and absorber matter action that defines the photon spectrum that includes any in between phase shifts and so each photon spectrum is rather unique.


For the classic two-slit experiment, supposedly there is a classic mystery about which of the two slits the single quantum photon goes through as shown below. But, a single photon exists in a superposition of both slits just as that quantum photon exists as a superposition of emitter and absorber as well. In fact, the photon is a superposition of two polarizations as well. Thus, a quantum particle carries information as both frequency amplitude and phase and so even a "free" photon is a superposition of oscillating electric and magnetic fields as well as two oscillating polarizations or spins. 

In the double slit experiment, the electric field amplitude of a 500 nm single photon is in a superposition between the two slits as shown below. Although the frequency of the photon does not change, the phase of the single photon changes due to interference with itself. In effect, the two slits form a cavity resonance with each single photon and the changed single photon emerges with different phase angles due to the differences in phase input for each photon. In fact, all quantum particles can exist in such spatial superpositions and this property is the basis of chemical bonds.


There are a number of different ways to do the single photon counting two slit experiment. Hamamatsu did the one below in 1982 with 0.254 micron light from mercury atom plasma lamp and a 100 micron slit collimation followed by two 50 micron slits at 250 microns separation. This is a typical setup for the two slit experiment where the slits are 200 times the wavelength and the separation 2,000 times the wavelength and results in 6 fringes on the screen. Since each photon enters the two slits with different phases, the photon exits the two slits at different phase angles and therefore directions depending on the emitter and absorber phase matching, which is essentially random.

The single photon two slit experiment shows the interference of each photon with itself to result in a well-defined but random path for each single photon. Since this photon coherence length is 125' per 1/e and so each photon results in a very clear resonant phase between the emitter and absorber. The relative phase matching between the emitter and absorber is basically random and sets the particular photon path. 

The figure below shows the two-slit causal set and its spectrum of sprinkled random red vertex resonant photons that, after some time of photon accumulation, converge to the analytic diffraction function also shown. The red vertex resonant photons irreversibly decay into heat at the absorber. The black vertex nonresonant reversible photons decay as heat at the emitter.


There is no space or time in the two slit quantum causal set, just the mass of 254 nm mercury photon, Planck's action constant, and the quantum phase angle, q. All of the resonant single photon causal vertices are reversible and so split the single photon events 50:50 between the emitter and absorber decays. Each photon has a vertex that includes both slits, which alters the phase of the photon, but not its frequency, energy, or mass.

The sprinkling of many random single photon events defines the diffraction pattern spectrum as the figure shows with just 1000 photons that decay into heat at the absorber. Many more photons decay as heat at the emitter, including nonresonant photon vertices. Space and time both emerge from this random sprinkling since the diffraction splitting defines the slit separation relative to the photon wavelength. Of course, time emerges from the photon oscillation and the speed of light, c, and so this sprinkling of random but resonant vertices is what defines the space and time of our physical reality.

two slit experiment


Gorard has built a hypergraph for the two slit function by propagating 23 bits from the sequence of "o"'s with two “X” amplitudes


oooooooooXoooXooooooooo


down a 10 layer hypergraph to create 75 events for the causal graph below.




This multiway hypergraph results in 75 points that represent the algebraic average for the two slit
diffraction pattern by summing all of the layer reverse weights as

However, this is just a classical wave diffraction pattern with a splitting of 16 units and results from two coherent sources or slits spaced 4 units apart with a light wavelength of 4 units and a slit width of 1 unit.


Since this hypergraph is determinate and not probabilistic, it simply represents a classical wave diffraction pattern of two point sources. In other words, this is not a quantum two slit multiway hypergraph since it does not represent any emitter-absorber quantum phase resonances at all.


Each photon event is a quantum resonance path of the hypergraph when the emitter and absorber are in resonance. The figure above shows two possible paths hypergraph paths in red.The resonance therefore is a superposition between the emitter and absorber and occurs because of a quantum phase resonance between the emitter and absorber. The quantum phase resonance also depends on any phase shifts of intervening causal layers like the collimator and two slits, but the emitter and absorber quantum phases are essentially random.


Therefore, the results of these multiway hypergraph layers are simply spatial smoothing functions for the classical two emitter diffraction and has no collimator. Random excitations of graph resonances can occur when the emitters and absorbers are in phase and those result in a photon states that then decay irreversibly. The states release heat to either the absorber or emitter depending on relative decay times to transit times. When a photon decay occurs in the absorber, we call that a photon event and all of the other emitter photons decay in the emitter.


Randomly exciting 1,000 quantum resonances of the two-slit hypergraph will generate the accumulation of single quantum photon results noted above for this case. However, it is a lot easier just to use the two-slit analytic expression in the first place.












Monday, May 24, 2021

Quantum Spin

The Stern-Gerlach measurement of silver atoms in 1922 first showed the unexpected up/down magnetism of neutral silver and other atoms that have a single, unpaired electron. The up/down magnetism of quantum electron spin is the basis of the quantum measurement problem in philosophy. Although the spin showed a 50:50 up:down magnetism, the measurement did not indicate that the original neutral atom was magnetized at all. In fact, the measurement itself seems to have affected the outcome of the neutral atom spin magnetism.

Although it was not clear why neutral atoms showed magnetism at all, just two years later in 1924 Pauli proposed that electrons with complementary spin can occupy the same space and time in a superposition. The math behind quantum spin became more apparent when Schrödinger discovered in 1926 the quantum mechanics equation that, for the first time, explained the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. It then became clear that the spin magnetism of electrons manifests itself in the fine structure of atomic hydrogen and spin magnetism of protons in the hyperfine structure of atomic hydrogen.

The notion of quantum spin was first thought to emerge from a rotating charged particle rotation like  like an electron, since charged spheres were well know to induce classical magnetism. However, given the electron charge radius, the rotation velocity would be c/alpha, some 137 time the speed of light. Nevertheless, the notion of a spinning charge continues today as a simple explanation for quantum spin.

However, it is the fundamental quantum oscillation of matter that explains quantum spin. Quantum oscillation provides the electron oscillating electric field that then results in spin magnetism perpendicular to the electric field. Thus, instead of charge rotation, quantum spin is due to a perpetual oscillation of quantum wavefunctions that has no meaning for a classical particle of static mass and charge.

When the electron electric field oscillates in plane, there are two possible spin states as up for left or down for right as the figure shows. In addition to charge oscillation, electron mass also oscillates and so the electron mass amplitude oscillates much more slowly than electron charge amplitude as the figure shows.


The electron electric field oscillation is bound in contrast to the unbound photon neutral electric field oscillation in the next figure. The oscillating photon electric field also induces a perpendicular oscillating magnetic field for both the unbound photon just like it does for the bound electron. Quantum charge oscillation is then the origin of magnetic spin.

All quantum matter wavefunctions oscillate in matter amplitude and there is a perpendicular action amplitude oscillation as well as the next figure shows. All quantum particles also interact with themselves and quantum self energy plays an important role in quantum spin.
The only fundamental particle in the matter-action universe is aether and so aether matter-action makes up all matter particles. All change is a result of the gain or loss of aether and the fundamental decay of aether is the source of both quantum charge and quantum gravity.

Quantum charge bonds by the exchange of a spin = 1 photon while quantum gravity bonds by the exchange of a spin = 2 complementary biphoton. The causal set plot shows the CMB precursor aether that ends up as quarks and neutrons that decay to the electrons and protons of neutral hydrogen.


The Rydberg biphoton is the CMB emitted photon entangled with the hydrogen binding exchange photon. The biphoton provides a very small additional binding for charge, but is significant for large matter accretions like stars and planets.



Thursday, May 13, 2021

No Space and No Time...How the Universe Really Works

No Space and No Time

How the Universe Really Works

Stephen F. Agnew, Ph.D.


This book describes a new reality of discrete aether decay and with the polar opposites of the chaos of discrete quantum aether versus the order of discrete quantum action. This is a really different reality from what most people and indeed from what mainstream science thinks. The universe of discrete quantum aether decay begins with the chaos of matter and evolves according to the order of action.

Instead of the notion of a big bang expanding with a continuous unidirectional time into a spacetime universe, the matter-action creation is of a large amount of very cold aether. Instead of the spacetime universe being just a little bit of matter and energy in a largely empty and continuous universe of space, the discrete aether universe is filled with the action of aether, which is both light and matter.

My notions of discrete aether began in 2006 and entangled my path with the very different paths of cosmology and grand unification. Discrete aether also includes a discussion of consciousness, neo-alchemy, and the archetypes of ancient religions. Not only are quantum charge and quantum gravity bonds important for reality, quantum free choice drives the social bonds and conflicts of civilization.


There are 48 fantastic full color as well as 15 B/W figures and plots in 324 pp as both paperback and Kindle eBook...




Wednesday, April 21, 2021

Electrons, Photons, Quarks, and Neutrinos

A theory of everything like matter action is a simple set of particles and exchanges and so a TOE must first define the matter and action of its particles. The matter-action universe has only one fundamental particle, aether, but aether manifests as four really illustrative matter-action particles: electrons, photons, quarks, and neutrinos. Atoms make up the matter of the universe as electrons, protons, and neutrons while photons and neutrinos fill the space in between matter accretions. 

Quark pairs are what make up protons and neutrons and so the electrons and quarks are what make up the atomic matter of the universe. Thus the particles of electrons and quarks make up matter with the particles of photons and neutrinos make up the action or forces that bond electrons and quarks into matter.



An electron is a quantum oscillation of both matter and charge and so the electron comes into and goes out of existence with a frequency 𝜈m. However, an electron is also quantum oscillation of charge with a frequency 𝜈e, and perpendicular to that charge oscillation is a quantum oscillation of magnetism called spin.


Electron properties are a result of both matter and charge oscillations with charge oscillation about 18,700 times that of mass oscillation. This means that the electron charge oscillation is quite independent of its matter oscillation and therefore that electron spin magnetism, which comes from charge motion, is also quite independent from its matter oscillation. Thus, spin dimensions are usually separated out in any equation of motion in the four dimensions of space and time.

Another electron property is that of gravity due to its mass and yet there is no sense to electron matter oscillation or electron amplitude and phase in gravity relativity. Mainstream Science gravity relativity is a static distortion of space and time due to a static mass and so gravity relativity does not oscillate at all. However, space and time emerge from the matter-action oscillation of electron charge amplitude so space and time both do oscillate with electron charge oscillation. Note that there is no such time oscillation of the Ricci tensor of gravity relativity.


The quantum oscillation of matter is not consistent with static gravity relativity since quantum gravity  oscillates with phase and amplitude as well as having a quantum average mass. Gravity waves exist in space and time with phase and amplitude, but are very small except near black holes. However, a hydrogen atom results from the oscillating bond of an electron to a proton, all three with oscillating mass and charge. However, the proton and electron charge oscillations are of the same frequency while their matter oscillations are 1833 times different. The hydrogen atom forms from the emission of a Rydberg photon mass at 4.85e-35 kg that is entangled with the Rydberg photon of the same mass exchange that bonds the electron and proton.

This Rydberg biphoton mass entanglement represents the quadrupole dispersive force of attraction that is quantum gravity and so quantum gravity does oscillate at the frequency of quantum charge. All neutral matter gravity bonds by emission photons entangled with bonding photons and so all neutral matter shows the dispersive attraction that is gravity. Since space and time emerge from matter action, emergent space and time both show distortions of quadrupole dispersive gravity. While charge bonds are single photon exchanges, gravity bonds are biphoton exchanges. Since mass increases with the energy of motion, the fields that emerge are Lorentz invariant.

Unlike the dipole oscillations of single photon exchange bonds, which can either attract or repel, the ever so much weaker biphoton exchange bonds of gravity are always attractive since they are quadrupole oscillation bonds. Quantum gravity bonds involve the correlated exchange of Rydberg binding photons as well as exchange of Rydberg emitted photons. Of course, once two atoms get close enough, charge dispersion dominates over gravity and charge dispersion involves single photon exchange. Gravity is important once an object is massive enough to generate a density of states that allows gravity quadrupole biphoton exchange to act over large separations. Once an atom contacts the large body, quantum charge single photon exchange once again dominates.

Matter action then describes both charge and gravity with the exchange of quantum photons as quantum charge bond, quantum gravity bond, and social bond outcomes as well as the complementary scattering and conflict outcomes. Quarks and neutrinos are then just manifestations of the same matter-action exchange principle that emerges from a more fundamental principle of quantum aether exchange. The unbreakable gluon exchange bond of two quarks somehow reflects the nature of the whole universe. The odd neutrality of neutrinos that do not interact very much with matter and yet neutrino shine is present everywhere.

Quark pairs are the basic building block of protons and neutrons and there is no force in the universe that can break a quark pair bond. While the proton lifetime is the same as the universe, the neutron only lives about 15 minutes and decomposes into an electron, proton, and neutrino. Therefore, the neutrino is the basic matter-action exchange that bonds a proton to an electron. 

We exist in a background of neutrino shine from stars along with CMB photon and neutrino shine from our universe creation. In a very real sense, both neutrino shine and CMB photon shine represent the basic aether exchange that bonds the matter-action universe. The basic principle of quantum aether resonance and exchange is then the single fundamental particle that makes up all matter as well as all action as aether exchange.

The resonance that drives the universe is the Rydberg mass resonance of the hydrogen atom, mR = 4.85e-35 kg with a 6.59e16 Hz resonance, which also sets the proton to electron mass ratio, 1833. The Higgs mass resonance at 125.1 GeV/c2, 2.23e-25 kg, and 3.03e25 Hz sets the proton mass as a resonance of three quarks, that comes from the Higg’s boson mass equal to the proton mass divided by the fine-structure constant plus the helium atom, mp / α + 4He.

The photon is an electromagnetic pulse in time and frequency moving at the speed of light, c, with average frequency, no, and polarization. A photon is a superposition of two orthogonal polarizations, which are correlated for a polarized photon or uncorrelated for an unpolarized photon. Photon exchange is the basic glue that binds all matter and so a matter A photon emission origin and a matter B photon absorption destiny B binds matter A and B.







Friday, April 16, 2021

Muon g-Value Anomaly

Muon g-Value and Muonium Anolmalies

Quantum spin magnetism is really one of the most enduring quantum mysteries and yet it is still not very well explained. And yet, spin is at the root of both the anomalous g-value as well as the fine-structure constant of spin magnetism. All quantum particles have spin magnetism as well as charge and classically, that magnetism is due to the classical spin of a sphere of surface charge. However, the quantum definition of spin is much more mysterious and luxurious.

A classical particle as a charged sphere does not have any magnetism unless it is moving...or spinning. However, a classical spinning particle does not also oscillate in spin amplitude nor show any quantization of spin. The magnitude of quantum spin magnetism is also twice that of a spinning classical sphere of equivalent charge… thus the luxurious quantum mystery of spin. Like the fine-structure constant, the g-value, g = 2, has a long quantum history and the g-value is also twice the classical magnetism due to the velocity of the spinning classical sphere surface, which turns out to be the speed of light divided by the fine-structure constant, c/𝛼.

Well, quantum electrodynamics, QED, precisely predicts the g-value = 2 (1 + 𝛼 / (2𝜋) +...) as a perturbation series and so the anomalous g-value prediction was and still is the most significant validation of QED and therefore of the standard model of nuclear physics as well. Schwinger in 1948 and Feynman in 1950 independently showed that the anomalous electron magnetic spin was due to the self energy of the electron magnetism. The electric field of the electron oscillates and that electric field change generates the spin magnetic field and both of those fields affect themselves as well. Gravity has no self-energy correction since gravity is a distortion of space and time and really not a field. Quantum electrodynamics precisely predicts the g-value as a perturbation series of a progression of Feynman diagrams, whose integrals predict the g-value to an arbitrary precision.


2.00233184122(82), muon measured g-value
2.00233183620(86), muon g-value by QED calc

2.00231930436256(35), electron g-value by QED calc
2.0023193043617(15), electron measured g-value

The muon is a second generation lepton that is much heavier than the electron but as a quantum particle, its wavefunction should still have the analogous QED self-energy correction given the mass difference with the electron. So the small difference between the muon measured and calculated g-values represents a great challenge to QED and the standard model.

One of the possible reasons for a difference is that the muon has a quite short lifetime of 2.2 microseconds. However, the lifetime of a particle should not affect the standard model QED calculation of the muon g-value...unless of course, this is the missing link for grand unification between charge and gravity forces.

A similar discrepancy showed up with precision measurement of muon hydrogen, the short-lived atom formed from the muon bonded to a proton. Despite it increased mass, spectrum of muon hydrogen should correspond to the predictions of quantum mechanics and yet there is a significant difference between the prediction of quantum mechanics and the measurement. The interpretations vary from the proton diameter was incorrect or one should use quaternion calculations. Neither of these explanations depends on the muon lifetime.

 The universe is a pulse of matter in the many billions years of cosmic time that I call the Grand Wavefunction. The Grand Wavefunction of quantum gravity is not yet unified with the quantum wavefunction of muon lifetime 2.2 microsecond pulse. The ratio of the muon and universe pulse lifetimes is 2.6e-24 and the dimensions are atomic/cosmic seconds, which is a fundamental axiom of the matter-action universe. The ratio of muon mass 1.88e-28 kg and 2.2e-6 s lifetime is its decay rate as 8.54e-23 kg/s. The universal decay constant, mdot = 1.12e-10 kg/s, is what drives all force and for muon weak force decay to an energetic electron and two neutrinos as


The muon g-factor difference is 2.51e-9 and this implies that the muon decay rate is 7.06e-28 kg/s as 1.12e-10 x (2.51e-9)2, which means that the muon decay mass is 1.55e-33 kg given its 2.2e-6 s lifetime. This means that 99.93% of the muon decay ends up as an energetic electron mass and only 0.17% as neutrino mass.

Unlike a classical spinning sphere, quantum spin is also oscillating with a frequency that is in phase with its spin rotation. The oscillation of quantum spin amplitude has many very important outcomes. For example, the rotation of quantum spin by 360° or 2p radians does not result in the same quantum spin and it actually takes a rotation of 720° or 4p radians to result in the same quantum spin. The 4p rotational symmetry of quantum spin is a direct result of quantum oscillation of the spin wavefunction.

Muonic Hydrogen Spectrum

The fine-structure constant is a measure of the coupling of spin magnetism to the orbital magnetism of electron orbital motion. The coupling of spin and orbital magnetism results in spectral lines that Michelson and Morely first measured as the fine-structure constant in 1885. Nevertheless, it still took some 55 years for Sommerfeld to explain the fine structure quantum nature in 1940, some 16 years after the Schrödinger equation in 1924. 

The spectrum of muonic hydrogen shows an anomalous shift from the spectrum of electron hydrogen. Muonic hydrogen is a muon in orbit around a proton instead of an electron in orbit around a proton, which is normal hydrogen. The muon charge is the same as the electron and so binds to a proton in a very predictable way, but the muon mass is 207 times that of hydrogen and yet the muon decays very quickly with a lifetime of just 2.2 microseconds. Even with such a short lifetime, though, the quantum prediction is exact for muonic hydrogen, the quantum calculation with the same proton radius and other constants should give the same spectrum for both electron as well as muonic hydrogen. Instead, muonic hydrogen spectrum is blue shifted from that of electron hydrogen as the figure shows.

There are many fundamental constants that are the basis for this calculation and one interpretation of muonic hydrogen spectra is that the proton radius is much different for muonic hydrogen as the figure shows. There are other measurements for the proton radius such as the two shown in the figure, but neither of them agrees with the muonic hydrogen calculation. Each of the electron and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy results are valid by mainstream science and are determined within mutually exclusive uncertainties. There is therefore not a single proton radius and neither explanation is more valid than the other.

Thus, there is a dilemma. What is the real proton radius...0.8758 or 0.84087 fm? Both measurements of electron hydrogen and muonic hydrogen appear to have sufficient precision to preclude each other.

One alternative explanation is in the universal decay of aether, which means energy states also depend on their lifetimes. In aethertime, incorporation of the muon lifetime shifts the spectrum of the muonic hydrogen to now agree with that of atomic hydrogen. The shift is

which the figure above shows as 0.075 THz, which now agrees with the observed 0.072 THz and well within the precision of that measurement.

The observed 0.072 THz spectral shift of 49.885 THz is equivalent to a matter decay of 0.15% and so, once again, 99.95% of the muon decay of only 0.15% of its total mass whereas the g-value difference was 0.17% of muon mass decay.

While in mainstream science, the lifetime of a muon state does not affect its spectrum, in aethertime, the lifetime of muon does indeed affect its spectrum very slightly.

The proton diameter is a fundamental constant that describes a very slight shift in the energy of two states of hydrogen. An S state shows non-zero electron density at the proton in hydrogen and therefore shifts in energy while a P state has a near zero electron density at the proton. This energy shift defines the radius of the proton.

If the proton radius is truly fundamental, S and P states of hydrogen should show the same kind of shifts for hydrogen that has the muon instead of the electron. A very interesting experiment measures the diameter of the proton by means of the spectroscopy of the muon form of hydrogen and finds a much different shift in the frequency of muon hydrogen lines due to the finite diameter of the proton. The electron in the hydrogen S ground state has a certain probability of being at the proton surface but not inside the proton diameter and so the S state frequency shifts very slightly as a result. The electron in a P excited state on the other hand has no probability for being at the proton center and a very low probability of being at the proton surface as well.


Tuesday, April 6, 2021

Quantum Intuition is Beyond Order and Beyond Chaos

 
There are many choices that we attribute to intuition or gut feel or just to how we feel at the time and since we live in a quantum universe, this is fundamentally quantum intuition. Quantum intuition lies beyond the social inhibitions and conformity of religion and government and quantum intuition is also beyond the chaos of individual free choice. In between order and chaos, neural action potentials of quantum intuition emerge from the subconscious and primitive brain even though we are never really quite sure of the superposition precursors of quantum intuition. Indeed, there are many feeling outcomes that we have whose feeling precursors are never very clear.


Free choice is then a result of quantum intuition and is therefore beyond the order of social inhibition and also beyond the chaos of individual free choice. Beyond order and beyond chaos we find our way from the superposition of quantum intuition and rely on the grand narratives of Western Civilization as well as other people for our morals and ethics.


Monday, March 29, 2021

Easter Full Moon of Rebirth and Resurrection

The Easter full moon sets the stage for the rebirth and resurrection of Spring from the doldrums of Winter. Here is the Easter full moon and sunrise for 2021mar29...one day after the actual full moon, which was cloudy. Easter Sunday always follows the full moon after the vernal equinox. Although the Earth spin sets the day and the Earth-Sun spin sets the year, the Earth-Moon spin oscillates over an eight year cycle and so Easter changes every year with an eight year oscillation.

The oscillations of matter and action determine how things bond to each other in the universe. Oscillations bind electrons and protons into atoms, bind atoms into molecules, molecules into bodies, and bodies to other bodies. In fact, it is neural oscillations that bind people into factions as social bonds. Thus it is not surprising that the Earth-Moon oscillation is part of the social bond of civilization, Easter.

We get our sense of time from a combination of the day of Earth spin, the year of Earth-Sun spin, and month and week of Earth-Moon spin. While the day and year are now part of the oscillating spin of the Science's atomic clock, the Earth-Moon spin period oscillates 99 times over 8 years. In fact, the latest full moon on Sunday 2020mar28 is the 29th full moon of the latest 99 moon cycle and so we are in the third year of the 8 solar year cycle of 99 moons. The figure shows this full moon oscillation versus the fractional solLunar year. Easter is the Sunday that follows the first full moon of the vernal equinox and this year occurred at 11:48 am pdt on Palm Sunday 2021mar28. 


Thus, it is not only oscillations of the earth spin and earth-sun spin that gives us our feeling or time, oscillations of the earth-moon spin give us a different feeling of an oscillating time. After all, the moon cycles are what drive the tides and also drive human female menses. Full moon cycles have long been markers of oscillating time, especially for ancient night ceremonies in early times before artificial light. While there are many holidays associated with the Earth and Earth-Sun spin oscillations, there are also holidays associated with Earth-Moon oscillations as well.

The oscillation of 99 full moons to eight solar years is part of the solar eclipse oscillation that repeats every 18 years, the Saros. The Babylonians discovered the Soros cycle 2,600 years ago in the same century as the destruction of the Temple and the enslavement of Israel. These are the oscillations that bind us to our past...

Saturday, March 13, 2021

Electron Double Slit Experiment

Interference is a very common phenomenon of classical waves and is also a key attribute of quantum matter as well as a result of quantum phase. However, most common experience does not show quantum phase outcomes such as interference, coherence, correlation, nonlocality, or entanglement. The double slit experiment is one particular outcome that does show the diffraction pattern of quantum phase interference and nonlocality for quantum particles.

An electron is just such a quantum particle and an electron has both mass as well as the matter oscillations of quantum phase. As a result, a quantum electron has the two dimensions of amplitude and phase as its matter spectrum. A classical electron has just mass as momentum and there is no classical meaning for the matter oscillations of quantum phase. Therefore, a classical electron does not have a matter spectrum.

Here is an electron diffraction outcome from Bach, et al., 2013, that shows each of many thousands of electron outcomes  of 600eV electron precursors passing through a double slit. The slits are each 50 nm wide and 280 nm apart and the 600 eV quantum electron has a radius of 50 nm. The classical electron has a charge radius of 2.8e-6 nm and so classical electron precursors would just show two ballistic patterns. In fact, a single slit apparently shows a ballistic pattern but in fact, even a single slit shows an interference pattern for quantum electrons. A higher resolution experiment will also show single slit diffraction and in fact, there is never really a classical electron.

A simplified schematic of the experiment shows the 600 eV electron source, the Si3N4 double slit, a mask, and the electron detector outcomes. This schematic does not show the details of collimation and focusing, which are actually important for the results. The classical electron precursor would show only ballistic electron outcomes as (b) shows for each slit. The quantum electron shows shows an interference pattern outcome as (c) and so the quantum mystery is that an electron going through one slit knows somehow about the other slit.
In fact, the electron also shows interference even with a single slit or even with an edge like the mask edges in (a). Single slit or edge interference outcomes simply occur on a different experimental resolution than the double slit experiment. Thus, an electron is never really ballistic at all because even a single electron will always interfere with itself at a edge, in a single slit, in two slits, and even in the many slits of a diffraction grating.

A very simple classical notion defines an electron as its charge radius at 2.8e-6 nm, which is just a spike on the nanometer scale as the plot below shows. The electron charge radius is only for an electron at rest and of course an electron is never really at rest as the quantum mysticism deepens. Any real electron has some momentum distribution and so the semiclassical 600 eV electron shows dispersion of its momentum at 600 eV and so actually has a 50 nm radius. Already we find that quantum mysticism creates nonlocality and smears 600 eV electron mass out over 50 nm.
The deepening quantum mysticism actually smears electron mass amplitude, the square root of mass as well as mass out over 50 nm. Unlike the nice intuition of nicely local classical mass, quantum mass amplitude is nonlocal and is both negative and positive as the plot shows. The electron quantum amplitude as the square root of mass has no classical meaning at all.
Quantum mysticism also smears electron mass, which is the square of mass amplitude, and so there is no negative mass as the next plot shows. However, quantum mass does still have extra little probabilities over the Lorenzian plot of a Drude oscillator shown above.
The classical determinism of gravity relativity associates a well defined path, a geodesic, through space and time for an electron. Classically, an electron can only pass through one slit or the other slit shown in the quantum amplitude plot. Thus a classical electron only carries one dimension of information as its momentum. A 600 eV classical electron would not show any dispersion and would always behave as a point charge.

However, quantum mysticism smears the 600 eV quantum electron mass amplitude over space and time. This means that a quantum electron shows dispersion and carries two dimensions of information as both amplitude and phase. While a classical electron mass passing though one slit has no way of knowing about the double slit, a quantum electron amplitude passes through both slits. While the double slit does not change the electron momentum or mass, the double slit does change the electron amplitude phase or dispersion.

Quantum mysticism bothers many people because despite well-defined quantum matter outcomes from action, we cannot really be certain about quantum matter amplitude precursors. Instead of the certain geodesic matter action commuting precursors of gravity relativity given well-defined and commuting outcomes, quantum mysticism shows that precursor matter and action do not commute.

Quantum matter action represents a very different microscopic nonlocal universe of reversible time that is inconsistent with the macroscopic localized universe of irreversible entropy and gravity relativity. Quantum matter action of a discrete pulse universe shows that quantum gravity relativity carries only the momentum information of space and time. Since space and atomic time both emerge from matter action, this quantum gravity is consistent with the quantum phase of matter that carries information as two dimensions of matter amplitude and phase. The universe of just the two dimensions of matter and action along with quantum phase provides a basis for all matter and all action.


Wednesday, March 3, 2021

Twelve Attributes of a Theory of Everything

A theory of everything first of all must begin with philosophy because the perpetual discourse of philosophy is really the precursor of all knowledge of truths. Truths come from the many grand narratives of Civilization and in particular, the grand narratives of religion, government, and science. People recognize these truths both consciously and as subconscious archetypes and it is from truth that a theory of everything emerges and it is a theory of everything that predicts outcomes from precursors.

There are many partial theories of everything and only one complete theory of everything, matter action. Two very important transcendent attributes of a TOE deal with nonexistence and what is unknowable. Gödel's incompleteness theorem shows the limits matter action as what can be known and is a direct result of transcendence of what cannot be known.

The following twelve attributes then rank theories of everything for their completeness only from what Science can know.

TOE attribute

Kastrup

Hoffman

Sabine

Matter Action

terminology

complex

complex

complex

simple

matter

one mind

conscious minds

yes

yes

action

dissociation of one mind

action of conscious minds

yes

yes

quantum phase

vibrations of one mind

no

yes

yes

nonconforming

yes

yes

no

yes

free choice

no

yes

no

yes

emergence

yes

yes

no

yes

arrow of time

no

no

yes

yes

causal set

one mind

network of conscious minds

no

yes

falsifiable

no

no

yes

yes

constants

no

no

yes

yes

equations

no

no

yes

yes

1) Terminology: New TOEs tend to use confusing terminology and so it is helpful to map each TOE interview into some sort of common framework. Inconsistent TOE terminology simply causes confusion of terminology that then can then hide with identities where the TOEs are not really complete. These rabbit holes can be quite deep and keep in mind that mostly what TOE's reveal are identities, not truths.

For example, matter is what makes up the universe, action is how the matter changes, and both matter and action oscillate with quantum phase. These are simply axioms and so answer questions as identities, but any other terms for matter or action will have the same meaning.

2) Matter: It is very common for philosophers like Kastrup and Hoffman to define terms in way that complexifies their underlying concepts. Kastrup's one mind, for example, is really a redefiniton of the matter that makes up the universe where Hoffman used a network of minds for what makes up the universe. Science today really uses the Casimir vacuum to make up the mostly empty universe with only a little matter here and there.

I like to think of what makes up the universe as matter as an all pervasive aether without space and time. After all, Newton and Einstein both ascribed to the all pervasive aether, but they both filled the universe with aether as a kind of working fluid.

3) Action: Always look for a way to change the stuff of the universe. Kastrup uses the action of dissociation to break up the one mind into many minds and there is a further bonding of the pieces with vibrations and resonances. Hoffman uses the action of conscious agents in a similar way. Science uses actions from gravity and charge as well as neural action potentials to change matter and any TOE must then account for gravity, charge, and neural action. The strong and weak nuclear forces are just part of exchange bonding of charge force in this approach and so do not require any separate action.

Thus, action is the complement of matter.

4) Quantum Phase: Of course, any TOE must have quantum phase and you should always look for how a TOE deals with quantum phase. Kastrup mentioned vibrational resonances in the one mind as being important, and so this is how he introduced quantum phase. Quantum oscillations have phase and with phase comes coherence, correlation, and interference.

Both matter and action oscillate with quantum phase, but are 90 degrees out of phase. This 90 degrees is the uncertainty principle as well as where the right angles of Euclidean space emerge. The Schrödinger equation embodies the nature of quantum phase.

5) Nonconforming: Any useful TOE will not conform to mainstream Science since Science is simply not complete. There is a strong tendency for pop scientists like Sabine to conform to the party line of Science. After all, if there ever were to be a workable TOE, that TOE would put her and a lot of other scientists out of work. Conforming pop scientists just cannot really break from the party line and so their TOE's are not that useful.

6) Free Choice: Consciousness is a very, very deep rabbit hole that is better not to even go into. There is just no end to the perpetual discourse of consciousness because consciousness is just an identity: consciousness is what happens when you are conscious. Consciousness is a particularly pernicious identity because there are plenty of very smart people that truly believe that there is some deeper meaning to the identity that we call consciousness. The tell is that even very smart people cannot ever agree about what consciousness is besides that it is and so it is always a dead end for a TOE.

Free choice is a much better definition of conscious thought than consciousness. Science can even measure the neural patterns associated with free choice and so free choice is a much better thing to argue about.

7) Emergence: The emergence of space and time from universe matter action is very important for any kind of unification of gravity and charge. Space and time are just too limited and so any TOE must have emergence of space and time. You need to look carefully for the emergence of space and time.

The universe as a quantum causal set with precursors and outcomes is a very useful approach. In fact, both Katrup and Hoffman define causal sets, but use much different terminology.

8) Arrow of Time: Every TOE must explain both the irreversibility of relativistic determinism as well as quantum reversibility. Of course, these issues are simply not clear in Kastrup or Hoffman. 

With the advent of continuous spontaneous localization (CSL), it is the irreversible decay of quantum phase that differentiates macro relativity from micro charge.

9) Causal Set: I finally found out about quantum causal sets and the causal Hasse diagrams of precursors and outcomes. Hasse diagrams are the determinate and causal complement of Feynman QED diagrams. While macroscopic reality shows the arrow of time in its Hasse precursors and outcomes, microscopic reality shows a reversible time with Feynman acausal precursors interchangeable with outcomes. 

Once a TOE incorporates quantum phase with gravity relativity, the photon exchange bonds of charge become equivalent to the biphoton exchange bonds of gravity. All atoms bond themselves and with other atoms with quantum electrodynamic photon exchange and all atoms to the universe with photon exchange as well. Gravity is then simply the entanglement of photon pairs, biphotons, of each atom bonding to itself entangled with the photon that bonds each atom to the universe.

The Hasse diagram below shows this.

10) Falsifiable: Without measurements that will falsify a TOE, the TOE is simply made up of identities and is of little use for prediction.

11) Constants: There must be constants for a TOE like mass, action, force, energy, etc. Without constants, a TOE is not useful for predictions.

12) Equations: There must be equations for a TOE because without equations, there are no predictions. The Schrödinger equation represents quantum truth while the Hamilton-Jacobi action equation represents gravity truth. Therefore, a TOE should map onto these two truths to allow predictions of outcomes from precursors.

It is pleasing to me that thus far all of these other TOEs map very nicely into the quantum causal set of discrete matter action. Science does not yet accept the complementary decay of matter and growth of force of the causal set of discrete matter action.  

Science today simply accepts the many measurements that Science cannot yet explain like galaxy rotation, decay of matter as the IPK, decay of pulsars, and so on. Matter action does explain these and many other things, but matter action is subject to validation or even falsification by more careful measurements.

Free choice is a result of a large number of neural action potentials that culminate in either excitation or inhibition of action. The primitive brain organ, the amygdala, seems to be the final arbiter for free choice and so free choice is a function of the subconscious primitive mind. Our rational mind is very quick to take credit for free choice, but free choice is fundamentally unpredictable. All neural action cascades are causal and so every free choice outcome does have causal precursors. However, our cruel quantum universe rules that even though free choice is causal, we cannot actually know all the precursors for action. This is fundamental because we ourselves are precursors that we cannot actually know…by Gödel…

There are different effective layers in physics and there is no time arrow in the Feynman diagrams of QED and so microscopic quantum Feynman diagrams are all completely reversible. However, macroscopic causal set Hasse diagrams show irreversible action and therefore show the arrow of time. While a microscopic causal set of quantum action depends on the coherence of quantum phase among its causal set, a macroscopic causal set of gravity action does not depend on quantum phase coherence among its causal set. This is because most gravity action occurs long after the decay of quantum phase coherence among its causal set. Continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) is the process of quantum phase decoherence that is the microscopic Feynman diagram precursor to macroscopic Hasse diagram outcomes.

Protons are actually made of three quarks and the Feynman diagram for the proton is completely reversible. However, once the universe decay reaches the CMB, the process freezes and proton coherence decays. Thus, we do live in a causal universe, which means that every proton outcome has precursor aether. Proton outcomes are still not determinate, though, and there is some every slow proton decay. 

The issue with free choice is about the possibility of precursor knowledge, not about whether the precursors necessarily exist. According to our cruel quantum logic, quantum precursors exist as superpositions with coherent quantum phase, not so are not classically determinate. Therefore, we simply cannot every know all of the classical precursors of free choice. This means that we cannot ever actually predict free choice outcomes better than as a superposition probability, which is of course the definition of free choice.

Quantum precursors exist as superpositions with correlated quantum phase and quantum superposition precursors are not therefore the same as classical determinate precursors, which do not have quantum phase. An electron exists as a superposition of two quantum spin phases and yet, a measurement only shows one of the two quantum spin phases. It is then the subjective neural free choice of the measurement that reveals the objective reality of an electron spin.

Since other people can measure the same electron spin, quantum spin is part of the objective reality of objective free choice even though each measurement is only part of the subjective reality of subjective free choice. Subjective free choice is only idealism until people agree on free choice measurements and then is becomes rationalism.

If free choice exists, the universe is not determinate and so determinism would necessarily exclude free choice. Determinate people often say that while free choice does not exist, they still prefer to believe in the illusion of free choice. This is because personal responsibility for action is at the root of Western Civilization.

Neural free choice occurs in all neural systems, even the hydra. A hydra is multicellular and microscopic about the width of a human hair and has about 800 neurons but no brain. But hydra neural free choice decides feeding and avoids predation. A paramecium is a single cell flagellate that has no neurons, but still also chooses to feed and avoid predation. A paramecium does not have neural free choice, but does have purposeful action driven by chemical gradients. A baby has free choice, a sleeping person has free choice, and a comatose person has free choice, but all with physical limitations. However, there are also physical limitations to free choice action even for a person who is awake and otherwise healthy.

There are thing in the world that simply are not knowable, but those things do exist. Correspondingly, there are many questions that have no answers, but it is not always possible to know. For example, “Why is there free choice?” has no answer but “Is there free choice?” may or may not have an answer. Therefore, an inescapable part of reality is an ability to transcend the quantum unknown.

Nonexistence is a very common philosophical theme that presumes the complement of existence is nonexistence. However, the universe exists because it exists, an identity, and since there is no explanation for why the universe exists, there is no sense to explanations of either existence or nonexistence. Once again, free choice gives people the ability to ask questions that have no answers and to answer questions that have no answers as well.

For prediction of behavior, a TOE must transcend nonexistence because the ideas of transcendence and nonexistence do influence behavior.