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Wednesday, September 29, 2021

Qubit Atoms, Molecules, and Quantum Computing

The next generation of quantum computers will read and write idealized quantum oscillators called qubits. These idealized qubits do not decay, are perfectly isolated from their environment, have an unlimited coherence lifetime, and can selectively entangle with any number of other oscillating quantum qubits. Of course, there are no such qubit ideals and there are all kinds of practical limits to qubits not unlike the practical limits of 0's and 1's in the early days of semiconductor logic bits.

In fact, a real qubit decays and that decay limits the qubits. A real qubit is never perfectly isolated from thermal and phase noise environment and also has a limited phase coherence lifetime on the order of 10 microseconds. There are therefore many hurdles to overcome before any practical qubits of quantum computing become a reality. Much like the early days of the practical 0 and 1 bits of semiconductor logic, Science has a long ways to go in order to realize a useful practical qubit that includes not only 0 and 1, but also quantum phase, theta.

The superconducting Josephson junction is a fundamental quantum oscillator that involves electron (Cooper) pairs tunneling through an insulator layer between two superconductors at very low temperature. Instead of the electrons and holes that determine semiconductor 0 and 1 bits, a Cooper pair is inherently a qubit. For a current of 40 nA, about 1e9 electron pairs result and from a 13 microV, a frequency of 6.6 GHz at 0.015 K. The Cooper pair current results from the specific geometry and materials of the junction as well as the applied voltage but the frequency is always just proportional to the applied voltage. In fact, this junction is a quantum oscillator at that frequency where each excited state includes one additional Cooper pair of electrons at a slightly lower frequency due to anharmonicity.

The basic qubit of a quantum computer incorporates not only the 0 and 1 of a classical bit, but also a quantum oscillation between 0 and 1 of the Cooper pair across a junction. A very common qubit is a particular Josephson junction called a transmon that incorporates a shunt capacitor to make the quantum oscillator more stable. The transmon that oscillates at around 6.6 GHz and so its qubits undergo this same quantum oscillation. 

Another common qubit is the squid, which involves a loop with two Josephson junction. In any case, a qubit is the excitation of just one Cooper pair, 0 -> 1, across a junction at about 200 MHz lower frequency due to anharmonicity. The quantum anharmonicity also means that the 1 -> 2 transition is 200 MHz less that then 0 -> 1 transition. In fact, useable qubits need to have such isolated transitions and so the anharmonicity is what makes the transmon and the squid useful qubits as the figure shows.

However, there is an additional splitting of each level due to the phase or direction of the electron pair across the junction and that splitting reflects the spin or rotation of the qubit as the figure below shows. Much like electron spin emerges from the complementary rotations of electron charge loop oscillation, the complementary rotations of superconducting loop oscillations in the transmon and squid are then a kind of qubit spin.

The charge dispersion of the even(+) and odd(-) states depends on many different factors including biasing the gate ng. Gate bias increases charge dispersion up to 60 MHz as the figure shows.
There are literally dozens of other qubit schemes based on Josephson junctions because there are all kinds of practical considerations for reading, writing, and error checking qubits and, of course, adjusting their couplings. For example, it is desirable to have qubit lifetime long enough to allow for useful computation, but short enough to also be quickly reset. So superposition states result from rotating quantum phase by pi/2 or 90d.

The Google Sycamore chip incorporates 27 squid qubit pairs with 88 transmon couplers in a 6x9 zig-zag grid. There is a stability associated with such complementary qubits that is not unlike the bond between two hydrogen atoms. For example, there are many undesirable couplings among qubits simply due to their proximities. Coupling adjacent qubits with complementary spins forms the basis of a swap gate.

The qubit lifetime, T1, is therefore usually about 10 microsec, which is long enough for reading and still short enough for resetting, which all involve 10 nsec switches. The dephasing time, T2, is due to the entanglement among other qubit states that is necessary for effective computation. This dephasing time is important for quantum entanglement outcomes and is therefore limited by T1. However, it is then difficult to differentiate dephasing from pure decay.

Arrays of coupled qubits then become the molecules of the quantum computer and excitations of those molecules are the qubits. It is the evolution of those qubit excitations from an initial to a final state that is the nature of quantum computation. Eventually, the excitation decays completely into incoherent heat and the whole key is to get a useful result before the inevitable decay to incoherence.

The quantum Fourier transform is perhaps the most fundamental quantum computation that shows quantum supremacy over the discrete Fourier transform of a classical digital computer. Although both quantum and classical FT's decompose a bit sequence into a bit spectrum, the quantum time needed is drastically less than the classical time. While the classical time needed is exponential, the quantum time needed is polynomial.

Below are three qubit sequences along with their FT qubit spectra for a qubit sequence at the Nyquist limit, a sinc pulse, and at the low frequency limit. Unlike a digital FT that evolves in exponential time, a quantum FT evolves from a series of operations in polynomial time to factor odd bit sequences by that evolution. Of course, the larger the number, the greater the number of operations needed to factor the number. Currently, 15 is the largest number that quantum computers have factored because of the current limits of coherence and error.

Saturday, September 4, 2021

Spin as a Loop or 0-Brane String

Unlike a photon resonance between particles, which is a one dimensional or D-brane string with Dirichlet boundary conditions, a particle spin has cyclic boundary conditions and so is a 0-brane loop string and not a D-brane string with two different boundary conditions. Since particle spin dimensions do not map directly into 3D space and time, for energy calculations, typically two dimensional Dirac spinors represent spin dimensions separate from 3D space and time. Given that spin resonance energies tend to be much smaller than other quantum orbit resonances, this spin-orbit separation is valid for many energy calculations that include average spin.

When instantaneous quantum phase matching is important, though, the 0-brane loop string is useful since it shows both mass and charge oscillation as a 0-brane loops as well as the three D-brane magnetic fibers that take a 4𝜋 rotation to return spin magnetic identity. The figure below shows how the spin D-brane fibers do not cross each other and therefore maintain their orthogonality.

The 0-brane spin resonance then matches the D-brane string resonance of the electron and proton for both electric and magnetic fields. There are many different short-lived D-brane resonances that make up the hydrogen atom states and it is only an average that gives a well-defined energy and radius for each state.

Since quantum phase matching is still an issue with the resonance of spin-orbit coupling, the 0-brane spin phase is useful for matching the D-brane orbital phase. In the first excited state of hydrogen, the coupling of the electron spin magnetism to the electron orbit magnetism results in the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. The figure shows three of the many different short-lived electron P-type orbital resonances. There is only a well-defined average electron energy and radius for the hydrogen fine structure.

The brane formalism is therefore a very convenient way to show spin 0-brane spin resonance phase coupling with the very different D-branes of orbital resonances. In contrast, Dirac spinors show only the average spin-orbit coupling and do not show the instantaneous quantum phase matching of each QED brane resonance. The 0-brane to D-brane formalism shows the instantaneous phase matching of resonances that even wavefunctions do not represent very well.

Saturday, August 21, 2021

Photon Geodesics as D-Brane Strings

Photon resonance geodesics are the basic quantum exchange bonds responsible for both quantum charge and quantum gravity. While quantum charge photon exchange is a resonance along the geodesic between two bodies, this photon exchange also bonds all bodies to the universe with quantum photon exchange and so is quantum gravity. The attraction of quantum gravity is then the residual attraction due to geodesic shadows of the universe that the two bodies cast on each other along their line of action.

Gravity waves in space and time represent matter action radiation that can then eventually lead to matter action acceleration as well for very massive objects like black holes and neutron stars. Black hole mergers result in large amounts of matter action acceleration and radiation but very little or no dipole radiation because black holes are charge neutral.

Gravity is a scalar force, since it does not depend on direction and so gravity attracts bodies together just like charge is also a scalar force that attracts opposite charges together. Nevertheless, both gravity and charge do act along their lines of action between bodies. Charge motion further results in vector magnetization that then couples charges together with a force perpendicular to each of their lines of action. 

Since gravity is really just a version of quantum photon exchange, it seems likely that there is also a quantum gravity vector force also exists. A vector gravity would couple the motions of stars and would also be perpendicular to their lines of action. In fact, vector gravitization is then the precursor to the dark matter force that couples galaxy stars into a constant rotation.

String theory is a very flexible theory of everything and uses branes as either loop branes or D branes with any number of hidden new dimensions. The "D" stands for Dirichlet boundary conditions as two brane endpoints and not a string loop. String theory can then explain any measurement by adding as many new dimensions or parameters as needed to fit measurements of physical reality.

However, a quantum D-brane string in just one dimension has all of the properties of an electron charge and matter oscillation and so a trivial D-brane with just one dimension is consistent with physical reality without any extra added dimensions. A D-brane electron would actually span the universe and not really be microscopic or hidden either. In fact, a photon and any quantum particle is then also equivalent to a trivial D-brane.

Therefore, such trivial D-branes already make up the causal set universe. Such quantum D-branes have the quantum property of oscillation along their lengths and so a D-brane also represents a photon resonance geodesic between two emitters, say Alice and Bob. Thus, D-branes without any new hidden microscopic dimensions form the basis of a quantum causal set universe and so there is no need for any new but hidden microscopic dimensions.

Alice and Bob in a resonant photon exchange represent a D-brane, but now as the resonance or connection between two Dirichlet endpoints or vertices. Of course, such D-branes can and do span the universe as the CMB, but such D branes actually represent the bonds of quantum photon charge exchange as well. Since all bodies have a very large number of D-branes that bond them to the universe, attractive gravity between two bodies is actually a result of the universe collapse and so the universe is not expanding.

After CMB excitation, the Alice-Bob D-brane resonance does not reveal any cause or effect and so this universe is not yet real. A black hole absorption occurs at Bob is what reveals Alice as the emitter precursor and Bob as the outcome absorber. The black hole absorption sets the arrow of time and is what makes the universe real.

There are many things about the universe that D-branes reveal. For example, bodies shadow each other’s D-brane bonds with the universe along their lines of action and so gravity is simply a result of these shadows of the universe collapse as the diagram below shows. String theory is just as fun as causal set theory... however, loop quantum foams do not have branes and so are no as much fun... Tejinder Singh, though, has a great TOE that does use path integrals and cosmic time along with octonions... but we need to get spin involved somehow as well...

Social bonds are also D-brane resonances that couple expressions and between people that result in attraction as shown below. Once again, CMB precursors drive all D-brane excitations and black hole outcomes drive all D-brane decays, providing the arrow of time. It is the arrow of time that makes reality real...

Wednesday, July 7, 2021

Single Photon Double Slit Diffraction

There are many different ways to show that a single photon is actually a superposition of both slits in the double slit experiment and this was a particular good one.

Double slit single photon with microscope

The author has done a really good job with his double-slit microscope with a HeNe laser and a CCD to image the diffraction pattern. He only missed a few details in his experiment, which also showed excellent single-slit as well as double slit-diffraction. It was very clever to simply lower the beam intensity in order to show single photon behavior and so this is an experiment that I could do with my microscope and laser as well.

In his explanation, he described a dipole source as spherical source in all directions, but of course a dipole is a planar and not a spherical source. This does not really change any of his conclusions.

He did not talk about the fact that the emitter and detector were in resonance for the lifetime of the emitter, which was about 1 ns or so for a 632.8 nm HeNe at 0.3 mW with a 1 GHz bandwidth. Each single photon has a 1/e coherence length of 300 mm and so the emitter and detector are close enough for quantum phase correlation. His diagrams incorrectly show very short photons while the actual HeNe photon is in fact much longer, especially as an amplitude, which is sqrt of the intensity length.

The single photon width corresponds to the 1.5 mm HeNe beam width and so a single photon always goes through both slits as long as the beam diameter covers both slits. Therefore, this is not a mystery at all and the true mystery is why does anything ever behave like a classical particle at all. The simple answer is that it is the decay of the quantum photon resonance that makes a photon classical. That is, it is the decay of this source-detector quantum resonance at the detector that makes the quantum photon a classical particle.

Finally, he mentions that the single slit diffraction also means that the single photon interferes with itself and this is true. He suggests that the single slit acts like a resonant chamber and this is exactly correct. In fact, there is a short and quite measurable delay in the photon transit through a slit because a photon lives longer in the slit.

All in all, a very nice demo!

Thursday, June 17, 2021

Quantum Gravity Black Holes

Quantum matter action results in a causal set universe where space and time emerge from a sprinkle of random quantum photon resonant paths. The quantum gravity of matter action is Lorentz invariant and therefore completely consistent with the measurements of Science. However, matter-action interpretations of those measurements are quite different from spacetime interpretations.

This is especially true for the gravity black hole singularity of Science since gravity black hole singularities do not have a basis in quantum gravity until now. This is largely due to the nature of the black-hole singularity and the sprinkled photon resonances from which spacetime emerges do not have any singularities.

Gravity relativity is a body centered force in spacetime that curves or warps spacetime around that body. Thus, bodies follow the straight-line geodesics in warped spacetime and so there is no spacetime gravity force, just gravity warping of spacetime.

In matter action, quantum gravity is a result of the random photon geodesic resonances that complement the quantum geodesic resonances that bind charge matter. The matter-action causal set shows not only the photon geodesic resonances that bind quantum charge, matter action also shows those photon geodesic resonances that bind each body to the universe. Instead of gravity relativity warping spacetime, quantum gravity is the result of bodies shadowing each other's universe geodesic bonds. Thus quantum gravity force occurs along body centerlines and so quantum gravity is then a center-of-mass force and not actually a body-centered force. 

A quantum black hole is then consistent with all measurements of black holes, but a quantum black hole is much more interesting than the singularity of a spacetime black hole. Photon geodesic resonances deflect around black holes because of the gravitational red shift and constant speed of light. However, there are still quantum resonances that occur between a black hole and an emitter and absorber of light. 

A quantum black hole still has the very slow decay of cosmic time as a spiral decay, which has no meaning in spacetime relativity. The spiral decay in cosmic time of a quantum black hole is very reminiscent of the interpretation of a black hole as an eternal collapsing object without an event horizon. Thus, quantum black holes are the natural outcome of a all collapsing matter in the matter-action universe.

The quantum black hole is really not black at all and, just like any quantum body, not only absorbs light as heat, but also reflects and transmits light to emitters as well as other black holes. The Ricci tensor of relativity shows the effect of matter on spacetime, but the random red shifts of photon geodesic resonances sprinkled into spacetime correspondingly reveal the presence of matter. Photon resonance geodesics are simply causal links between bodies that are the underlying structure of matter action from which space and time emerge as gravity relativity.

The quantum causal set of a black hole incorporates the same causal set emitter pair geodesics as does all of reality. Of course, the emitter superposition only decays with quantum black hole absorption and it is only then that there is an arrow of time.

Quantum black holes, just like all matter, have both reversible quantum resonances as well as irreversible quantum decays. While reversible quantum resonances represent superpositions that are the basis of reversible atomic events without time's arrow, irreversible quantum decay is the basis for the very slow cosmic time arrow for universe decay. Black holes absorption are a universal heat sink that ultimately determines the irreversible atomic time arrow for each photon geodesic.

Tuesday, June 15, 2021

A Universe from Sprinkled Random Photon Geodesics

Causal set theory involves partially ordered causal sets that represent the discrete structure of universe with just matter, action, and quantum phase. Space and time then emerge by sprinkling the geneology of random photon geodesics from causal matter, action, and phase into the manifold of space and time. Space and time then emerge from that sprinkling of random quantum photon geodesics across the universe and the sprinkled Poisson distribution preserves Lorentz invariance, which is the foundation of gravity relativity. 

However, it is the quantum action of light that gives matter action and links quantum gravity to quantum charge and so sprinkling these random photon geodesics is what makes quantum reality real. Without the action of light, there would be no changes to matter and so it is light that gives matter its action. 

The matter-action quantum gravity causal Hasse diagram shows the resonant photon geodesics of both quantum gravity and quantum charge. Quantum gravity bonds results from the bonding of particles of matter like hydrogen to the universe as the diagram shows. Quantum charge bonds result when hydrogens are sufficiently close and overwhelm the quantum gravity bond.

While both quantum gravity and quantum charge are reversible resonant photon geodesics, there are also irreversible nonresonant photon geodesics as heat from blackbodies. Blackbodies absorb resonant photons and then randomize photon phases and frequencies, eventually reemitting heat photons as a quantum blackbody after some time delay. Quantum blackbodies then represent the irreversible arrow of time for gravity relativity with the chaos of a large number of resonant photon geodesics.

In matter action there are 1.5e118 aether particles to begin with that make up the causal set matter-action universe with 1.5e118 as condensed into 7.6e76 electrons, protons, and Rydberg photons that make up the dim light of the CMB. Electrons, protons, and photons make up configurations or manifolds within matter action as various quantum particles that photon exchange bond with each other. While single photon exchange is the basic glue for quantum charge, it is quadrupole biphoton exchange that is the basic glue for quantum gravity.

Photon geodesics are what make reality real and we see images as manifolds of sprinkled random photon geodesics from matter to our retinal neurons. An emitter populates a quantum photon state that includes an absorber in resonance with the emitter as shown in the upper figure below for quantum particles. Each emitter, though, also populates a quantum photon state with the universe in resonance with the CMB and there are two photon states, a biphoton, that bond the two emitters as quantum gravity as the lower figure below. Thus, unlike quantum charge, the quantum gravity biphoton exchanges are actually resonances between the universe and each emitter and not resonances between the emitters.

Although both charge and gravity involve matter-action exchanges of resonant quantum photons, space and time emerge from the random sprinkling of those resonant photon geodesics around the universe. There are very, very large numbers of resonant photon events for gravity and so sprinkled gravity biphoton geodesics are effectively random over the 4𝜋 steradian volume of the universe, but centered on the emitter-universe center of mass. Typical two body quantum gravity is confined to just the sprinkling of random geodesics in an orbital plane over 360°, like the sun and moon. This very large number of quantum paths means that body centers have very small quantum uncertainties. Therefore, the centers follow determinate geodesics of quantum gravity relativity without the uncertainty of quantum charge.

Quantum charge photon geodesics, in contrast to quantum gravity geodesics, are sprinkled randomly over a 4𝜋 steradians of volume local to the emitter and absorber center of mass. This means that the electron and proton jumps do not follow geodesics like quantum gravity but rather fill all of space with different geodesic probabilities. Outside of a well-defined local volume, quantum photon geodesics have very small probabilities.
Quantum charge photon geodesics, in contrast to quantum gravity geodesics, are sprinkled randomly over a 4𝜋 steradians of volume local to the emitter and absorber center of mass. This means that the electron and proton jumps do not follow quantum gravity 
geodesics but rather fill all of space with different geodesic probabilities. Outside of a well-defined local volume, quantum photon geodesics have very small probabilities.

A random  sprinkling of photon geodesic resonances bind bodies to the universe as quantum gravity. In effect, it is the photon geodesic shadows that determine the scalar force of gravity and space and time emerge from the matter, action, and phase of photon geodesics.

A gravitational lens focuses source photon geodesics onto a line of Einstein rings of increasing diameter as the figure below shows. The random sprinkling of photon geodesics are the matter-action geodesics that define space and time. A photon geodesic is a quantum function of matter, action, and phase that maps one-to-one onto a function of space and time as f(m,s,𝜃) → f(x,y,t). The causal set of random sprinkled photon geodesics defines the resonances that bind each body to the universe as gravity.

The relative motion of the source and lens perpendicular to the line of action results in the Einstein ring images as shown. Such relative motion of the source and lens perpendicular to the line of action also gives vector gravitization about the center of mass as shown. As opposed to scalar gravity, vector gravitization is force perpendicular to scalar gravity line of action as a rotation about the center of mass, CofM. Vector gravitization is analogous to vector magnetization as a result of moving charge. Vector gravitization is the force now associated with cold dark matter and is the vector force that stabilizes galaxy and galaxy cluster rotations.

Dowker, F. Causal Sets and the Deep Structure of Spacetime, arxiv :gr-qc/0508109v1, 2005.

Sorkin, R.D. Quantum Dynamics without the Wave Function, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 : 3207-3221, 2007.

Sorkin, Dowker, Surya  Causal Set Approach to Quantum Gravity, 2018

Surya, Sumati  The Causal Set Approach to Quantum Gravity, arXiv:1903.11544v2 [gr-qc] 28 Aug 2019.

Sunday, June 6, 2021

Photon Double Slit Diffraction

The quantum photon represents a fundamental quantum mystery because although a quantum photon is a particle of light, all quantum particles also have the properties of bound waves called wavepackets. Of course, since all quantum particles have this particle-wave duality, the mystery of quantum photons is actually rather the basis of our quantum reality and so not really a mystery at all. The mystery is why the classical reality that we experience shows mostly particles and only shows the bound waves of photons in rainbows and edge and slit diffraction.

Planck in 1901 first proposed the notion of a quantum of light to limit the energy of light of an atom but it was Einstein in 1905 who made the connection between the Planck quantum and photons of light. Einstein connected Planck's quanta of light from measurements of the photoelectric effect, where illumination of a vacuum diode resulted in the detection of single electrons emitted by single photons when the light frequency exceeded a certain threshold. It was somewhat later in 1926 that G.N. Lewis coined the name photon.

The propagation of a photon wavepacket from an emitter through space to an absorber along with its spectrum defines the nature of each photon. Although each photon has a characteristic energy and mass from its frequency as E = hn, m = hn/c2, the quantum phase of the photon spectrum also reflects the nature of each matter action emitter and absorber as well as their lifetimes. The emitter-absorber resonance gives a photon its matter and phase spectrum and a matter-action of that excited resonance can spontaneously decay into heat at either the absorber or emitter. However, by definition, the absorber decays to heat faster than the emitter and this is what gives the arrow of time.

The emitter-absorber excited state is really emitter-absorber matter action that defines the photon spectrum and includes any in-between phase shifts due to things like slits and so each photon spectrum is rather unique.

For the classic two-slit experiment, supposedly there is a mystery about which of the two slits the single quantum photon goes through as shown below. But, a single photon exists in a superposition of both slits just as that quantum photon exists as a superposition of emitter and absorber as well. In fact, the photon is a superposition of two polarizations as well. Thus, a quantum particle carries information as both frequency amplitude and phase and so even a "free" photon is a superposition of oscillating electric and magnetic fields as well as two oscillating polarizations or spins. 

In the double slit experiment, the electric field amplitude of a 500 nm single photon is in a superposition between the two slits as shown below. Although the frequency of the photon does not change, the phase of the single photon changes due to interference with itself. In effect, the two slits form a cavity resonance with each single photon and the changed single photon emerges with different phase angles due to the differences in phase input for each photon. In fact, all quantum particles can exist in such spatial superpositions and this property is the basis of chemical bonds.

There are a number of different ways to do the single photon counting two slit experiment. Hamamatsu did the one below in 1982 with 0.254 micron light from mercury atom plasma lamp and a 100 micron slit collimation followed by two 50 micron slits at 250 microns separation. This is a typical setup for the two slit experiment where the slits are 200 times the wavelength and the separation 2,000 times the wavelength and results in 6 fringes on the screen. Since each photon enters the two slits with different phases, the photon exits the two slits at different phase angles and therefore directions depending on the emitter and absorber phase matching, which is essentially random.

The single photon two slit experiment shows the interference of each photon with itself to result in a well-defined but random path for each single photon. Since this photon coherence length is 125' per 1/e and so each photon results in a very clear resonant phase between the emitter and absorber. The relative phase matching between the emitter and absorber is basically random and sets the particular photon path. 

The figure below shows the two-slit causal set and its spectrum of sprinkled random red vertex resonant photons that, after some time of photon accumulation, converge to the analytic diffraction function also shown. The red vertex resonant photons irreversibly decay into heat at the absorber. The black vertex nonresonant reversible photons decay as heat at the emitter.

There is no space or time in the two slit quantum causal set, just the mass of 254 nm mercury photon, Planck's action constant, and the quantum phase angle, q. All of the resonant single photon causal vertices are reversible and so split the single photon events 50:50 between the emitter and absorber decays. Each photon has a vertex that includes both slits, which alters the phase of the photon, but not its frequency, energy, or mass.

The sprinkling of many random single photon events defines the diffraction pattern spectrum as the figure shows with just 1000 photons that decay into heat at the absorber. Many more photons decay as heat at the emitter, including nonresonant photon vertices. Space and time both emerge from this random sprinkling since the diffraction splitting defines the slit separation relative to the photon wavelength. Of course, time emerges from the photon oscillation and the speed of light, c, and so this sprinkling of random but resonant vertices is what defines the space and time of our physical reality.

two slit experiment

Gorard has built a hypergraph for the two slit function by propagating 23 bits from the sequence of "o"'s with two “X” amplitudes


down a 10 layer hypergraph to create 75 events for the causal graph below.

This multiway hypergraph results in 75 points that represent the algebraic average for the two slit
diffraction pattern by summing all of the layer reverse weights as

However, this is just a classical wave diffraction pattern with a splitting of 16 units and results from two coherent sources or slits spaced 4 units apart with a light wavelength of 4 units and a slit width of 1 unit.

Since this hypergraph is determinate and not probabilistic, it simply represents a classical wave diffraction pattern of two point sources. In other words, this is not a quantum two slit multiway hypergraph since it does not represent any emitter-absorber quantum phase resonances at all.

Each photon event is a quantum resonance path of the hypergraph when the emitter and absorber are in resonance. The figure above shows two possible paths hypergraph paths in red.The resonance therefore is a superposition between the emitter and absorber and occurs because of a quantum phase resonance between the emitter and absorber. The quantum phase resonance also depends on any phase shifts of intervening causal layers like the collimator and two slits, but the emitter and absorber quantum phases are essentially random.

Therefore, the results of these multiway hypergraph layers are simply spatial smoothing functions for the classical two emitter diffraction and has no collimator. Random excitations of graph resonances can occur when the emitters and absorbers are in phase and those result in a photon states that then decay irreversibly. The states release heat to either the absorber or emitter depending on relative decay times to transit times. When a photon decay occurs in the absorber, we call that a photon event and all of the other emitter photons decay in the emitter.

Randomly exciting 1,000 quantum resonances of the two-slit hypergraph will generate the accumulation of single quantum photon results noted above for this case. However, it is a lot easier just to use the two-slit analytic expression in the first place.

Monday, May 24, 2021

Quantum Spin

The Stern-Gerlach measurement of silver atoms in 1922 first showed the unexpected up/down magnetism of neutral silver and other atoms that have a single, unpaired electron. The up/down magnetism of quantum electron spin is the basis of the quantum measurement problem in philosophy. Although the spin showed a 50:50 up:down magnetism, the measurement did not indicate that the original neutral atom was magnetized at all. In fact, the measurement itself seems to have affected the outcome of the neutral atom spin magnetism.

Although it was not clear why neutral atoms showed any magnetism at all in the Stern-Gerlach experiment, just two years later in 1924 Pauli proposed that electrons with complementary spin can occupy the same space and time in a superposition that then has no spin magnetism. The math behind quantum spin became more apparent when Schrödinger discovered in 1926 the quantum mechanics equation that, for the first time, explained the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. It then became clear that the spin magnetism of electrons manifests itself in the fine structure of atomic hydrogen and spin magnetism of protons in the hyperfine structure of atomic hydrogen.

The notion of quantum spin was first thought to emerge from a rotating charged particle rotation like  like an electron, since charged spheres were well know to induce classical magnetism. However, given the electron charge radius, the rotation velocity would be c/alpha, some 137 times the speed of light. Nevertheless, the notion of a spinning charge continues today as a simple explanation for quantum spin.

However, it is the fundamental quantum oscillations of matter and charge that explains quantum spin. Quantum oscillation of the electron oscillating electric field that then results in spin magnetism perpendicular to the electric field oscillation. Thus, instead of charge rotation, quantum spin is due to the perpetual of quantum wavefunction oscillations that has no meaning for a classical particle of static mass and charge.

When an electric field oscillates around an electron plane, there are two possible spin states as up for left or down for right as the figure shows. In addition to charge oscillation, electron mass also oscillates and so the electron mass amplitude oscillates much more slowly than electron charge amplitude as the figure shows.

This electric field oscillation is bound to the electron and is in contrast to the electric field oscillation of the unbound neutral photon in the next figure. The oscillating electric field of the photon also induces a perpendicular oscillating magnetic field for both the unbound photon just like it does for the bound electron. Quantum charge oscillation is then the origin of magnetic spin.

All quantum matter wavefunctions oscillate in matter amplitude and there is a perpendicular action amplitude oscillation as well as the next figure shows. All quantum particles also interact with themselves and quantum self energy plays an important role in quantum spin.
The only fundamental particle in the matter-action universe is aether and so aether matter-action makes up all matter particles. All change is a result of the gain or loss of aether and the fundamental decay of aether is the source of both quantum charge and quantum gravity.

Quantum charge bonds by the exchange of a spin = 1 photon while quantum gravity bonds by the exchange of a spin = 2 complementary biphoton. The causal set plot shows the CMB precursor aether that ends up as quarks and neutrons that decay to the electrons and protons of neutral hydrogen.

The Rydberg biphoton is the CMB emitted photon entangled with the hydrogen binding exchange photon. The biphoton provides a very small additional binding as compared with charge, but is significant for large neutral matter accretions like stars and planets.

The quantum gravity Hasse causal set diagram for the universe shows how space, time, and gravity all emerge from the sprinkling of random photon paths over 4𝜃 steradians of quantum phase.

Thursday, May 13, 2021

No Space and No Time...How the Universe Really Works

No Space and No Time

How the Universe Really Works

Stephen F. Agnew, Ph.D.

This book describes a new reality of discrete aether decay and with the polar opposites of the chaos of discrete quantum aether versus the order of discrete quantum action. This is a really different reality from what most people and indeed from what mainstream science thinks. The universe of discrete quantum aether decay begins with the chaos of matter and evolves according to the order of action.

Instead of the notion of a big bang expanding with a continuous unidirectional time into a spacetime universe, the matter-action creation is of a large amount of very cold aether. Instead of the spacetime universe being just a little bit of matter and energy in a largely empty and continuous universe of space, the discrete aether universe is filled with the action of aether, which is both light and matter.

My notions of discrete aether began in 2006 and entangled my path with the very different paths of cosmology and grand unification. Discrete aether also includes a discussion of consciousness, neo-alchemy, and the archetypes of ancient religions. Not only are quantum charge and quantum gravity bonds important for reality, quantum free choice drives the social bonds and conflicts of civilization.

There are 48 fantastic full color as well as 15 B/W figures and plots in 324 pp as both paperback and Kindle eBook...

Wednesday, April 21, 2021

Electrons, Photons, Quarks, and Neutrinos

A theory of everything like matter action is a simple set of particles and exchanges and so a TOE must first define the matter and action of its particles. The matter-action universe has only one fundamental particle, aether, but aether manifests as four really illustrative matter-action particles: electrons, photons, quarks, and neutrinos. Atoms make up the matter of the universe as electrons, protons, and neutrons while photons and neutrinos fill the space in between matter accretions. 

Quark pairs are what make up protons and neutrons and so the electrons and quarks are what make up the atomic matter of the universe. Thus the particles of electrons and quarks make up matter with the particles of photons and neutrinos make up the action or forces that bond electrons and quarks into matter.

An electron is a quantum oscillation of both matter and charge and so the electron comes into and goes out of existence with a frequency 𝜈m. However, an electron is also quantum oscillation of charge with a frequency 𝜈e, and perpendicular to that charge oscillation is a quantum oscillation of magnetism called spin.

Electron properties are a result of both matter and charge oscillations with charge oscillation about 18,700 times that of mass oscillation. This means that the electron charge oscillation is quite independent of its matter oscillation and therefore that electron spin magnetism, which comes from charge motion, is also quite independent from its matter oscillation. Thus, spin dimensions are usually separated out in any equation of motion in the four dimensions of space and time.

Another electron property is that of gravity due to its mass and yet there is no sense to electron matter oscillation or electron amplitude and phase in gravity relativity. Mainstream Science gravity relativity is a static distortion of space and time due to a static mass and so gravity relativity does not oscillate at all. However, space and time emerge from the matter-action oscillation of electron charge amplitude so space and time both do oscillate with electron charge oscillation. Note that there is no such time oscillation of the Ricci tensor of gravity relativity.

The quantum oscillation of matter is not consistent with static gravity relativity since quantum gravity  oscillates with phase and amplitude as well as having a quantum average mass. Gravity waves exist in space and time with phase and amplitude, but are very small except near black holes. However, a hydrogen atom results from the oscillating bond of an electron to a proton, all three with oscillating mass and charge. However, the proton and electron charge oscillations are of the same frequency while their matter oscillations are 1833 times different. The hydrogen atom forms from the emission of a Rydberg photon mass at 4.85e-35 kg that is entangled with the Rydberg photon of the same mass exchange that bonds the electron and proton.

This Rydberg biphoton mass entanglement represents the quadrupole dispersive force of attraction that is quantum gravity and so quantum gravity does oscillate at the frequency of quantum charge. All neutral matter gravity bonds by emission photons entangled with bonding photons and so all neutral matter shows the dispersive attraction that is gravity. Since space and time emerge from matter action, emergent space and time both show distortions of quadrupole dispersive gravity. While charge bonds are single photon exchanges, gravity bonds are biphoton exchanges. Since mass increases with the energy of motion, the fields that emerge are Lorentz invariant.

Unlike the dipole oscillations of single photon exchange bonds, which can either attract or repel, the ever so much weaker biphoton exchange bonds of gravity are always attractive since they are quadrupole oscillation bonds. Quantum gravity bonds involve the correlated exchange of Rydberg binding photons as well as exchange of Rydberg emitted photons. Of course, once two atoms get close enough, charge dispersion dominates over gravity and charge dispersion involves single photon exchange. Gravity is important once an object is massive enough to generate a density of states that allows gravity quadrupole biphoton exchange to act over large separations. Once an atom contacts the large body, quantum charge single photon exchange once again dominates.

Matter action then describes both charge and gravity with the exchange of quantum photons as quantum charge bond, quantum gravity bond, and social bond outcomes as well as the complementary scattering and conflict outcomes. Quarks and neutrinos are then just manifestations of the same matter-action exchange principle that emerges from a more fundamental principle of quantum aether exchange. The unbreakable gluon exchange bond of two quarks somehow reflects the nature of the whole universe. The odd neutrality of neutrinos that do not interact very much with matter and yet neutrino shine is present everywhere.

Quark pairs are the basic building block of protons and neutrons and there is no force in the universe that can break a quark pair bond. While the proton lifetime is the same as the universe, the neutron only lives about 15 minutes and decomposes into an electron, proton, and neutrino. Therefore, the neutrino is the basic matter-action exchange that bonds a proton to an electron. 

We exist in a background of neutrino shine from stars along with CMB photon and neutrino shine from our universe creation. In a very real sense, both neutrino shine and CMB photon shine represent the basic aether exchange that bonds the matter-action universe. The basic principle of quantum aether resonance and exchange is then the single fundamental particle that makes up all matter as well as all action as aether exchange.

The resonance that drives the universe is the Rydberg mass resonance of the hydrogen atom, mR = 4.85e-35 kg with a 6.59e16 Hz resonance, which also sets the proton to electron mass ratio, 1833. The Higgs mass resonance at 125.1 GeV/c2, 2.23e-25 kg, and 3.03e25 Hz sets the proton mass as a resonance of three quarks, that comes from the Higg’s boson mass equal to the proton mass divided by the fine-structure constant plus the helium atom, mp / α + 4He.

The photon is an electromagnetic pulse in time and frequency moving at the speed of light, c, with average frequency, no, and polarization. A photon is a superposition of two orthogonal polarizations, which are correlated for a polarized photon or uncorrelated for an unpolarized photon. Photon exchange is the basic glue that binds all matter and so a matter A photon emission origin and a matter B photon absorption destiny B binds matter A and B.

Friday, April 16, 2021

Muon g-Value Anomaly

Muon g-Value and Muonium Anolmalies

Quantum spin magnetism is really one of the most enduring quantum mysteries and yet it is still not very well explained. And yet, spin is at the root of both the anomalous g-value as well as the fine-structure constant of spin magnetism. All quantum particles have spin magnetism as well as charge and classically, that magnetism is due to the classical spin of a sphere of surface charge. However, the quantum definition of spin is much more mysterious and luxurious.

A classical particle as a charged sphere does not have any magnetism unless it is moving...or spinning. However, a classical spinning particle does not also oscillate in spin amplitude nor show any quantization of spin. The magnitude of quantum spin magnetism is also twice that of a spinning classical sphere of equivalent charge… thus the luxurious quantum mystery of spin. Like the fine-structure constant, the g-value, g = 2, has a long quantum history and the g-value is also twice the classical magnetism due to the velocity of the spinning classical sphere surface, which turns out to be the speed of light divided by the fine-structure constant, c/𝛼.

Well, quantum electrodynamics, QED, precisely predicts the g-value = 2 (1 + 𝛼 / (2𝜋) +...) as a perturbation series and so the anomalous g-value prediction was and still is the most significant validation of QED and therefore of the standard model of nuclear physics as well. Schwinger in 1948 and Feynman in 1950 independently showed that the anomalous electron magnetic spin was due to the self energy of the electron magnetism. The electric field of the electron oscillates and that electric field change generates the spin magnetic field and both of those fields affect themselves as well. Gravity has no self-energy correction since gravity is a distortion of space and time and really not a field. Quantum electrodynamics precisely predicts the g-value as a perturbation series of a progression of Feynman diagrams, whose integrals predict the g-value to an arbitrary precision.

2.00233184122(82), muon measured g-value
2.00233183620(86), muon g-value by QED calc

2.00231930436256(35), electron g-value by QED calc
2.0023193043617(15), electron measured g-value

The muon is a second generation lepton that is much heavier than the electron but as a quantum particle, its wavefunction should still have the analogous QED self-energy correction given the mass difference with the electron. So the small difference between the muon measured and calculated g-values represents a great challenge to QED and the standard model.

One of the possible reasons for a difference is that the muon has a quite short lifetime of 2.2 microseconds. However, the lifetime of a particle should not affect the standard model QED calculation of the muon g-value...unless of course, this is the missing link for grand unification between charge and gravity forces.

A similar discrepancy showed up with precision measurement of muon hydrogen, the short-lived atom formed from the muon bonded to a proton. Despite it increased mass, spectrum of muon hydrogen should correspond to the predictions of quantum mechanics and yet there is a significant difference between the prediction of quantum mechanics and the measurement. The interpretations vary from the proton diameter was incorrect or one should use quaternion calculations. Neither of these explanations depends on the muon lifetime.

 The universe is a pulse of matter in the many billions years of cosmic time that I call the Grand Wavefunction. The Grand Wavefunction of quantum gravity is not yet unified with the quantum wavefunction of muon lifetime 2.2 microsecond pulse. The ratio of the muon and universe pulse lifetimes is 2.6e-24 and the dimensions are atomic/cosmic seconds, which is a fundamental axiom of the matter-action universe. The ratio of muon mass 1.88e-28 kg and 2.2e-6 s lifetime is its decay rate as 8.54e-23 kg/s. The universal decay constant, mdot = 1.12e-10 kg/s, is what drives all force and for muon weak force decay to an energetic electron and two neutrinos as

The muon g-factor difference is 2.51e-9 and this implies that the muon decay rate is 7.06e-28 kg/s as 1.12e-10 x (2.51e-9)2, which means that the muon decay mass is 1.55e-33 kg given its 2.2e-6 s lifetime. This means that 99.93% of the muon decay ends up as an energetic electron mass and only 0.17% as neutrino mass.

Unlike a classical spinning sphere, quantum spin is also oscillating with a frequency that is in phase with its spin rotation. The oscillation of quantum spin amplitude has many very important outcomes. For example, the rotation of quantum spin by 360° or 2p radians does not result in the same quantum spin and it actually takes a rotation of 720° or 4p radians to result in the same quantum spin. The 4p rotational symmetry of quantum spin is a direct result of quantum oscillation of the spin wavefunction.

Muonic Hydrogen Spectrum

The fine-structure constant is a measure of the coupling of spin magnetism to the orbital magnetism of electron orbital motion. The coupling of spin and orbital magnetism results in spectral lines that Michelson and Morely first measured as the fine-structure constant in 1885. Nevertheless, it still took some 55 years for Sommerfeld to explain the fine structure quantum nature in 1940, some 16 years after the Schrödinger equation in 1924. 

The spectrum of muonic hydrogen shows an anomalous shift from the spectrum of electron hydrogen. Muonic hydrogen is a muon in orbit around a proton instead of an electron in orbit around a proton, which is normal hydrogen. The muon charge is the same as the electron and so binds to a proton in a very predictable way, but the muon mass is 207 times that of hydrogen and yet the muon decays very quickly with a lifetime of just 2.2 microseconds. Even with such a short lifetime, though, the quantum prediction is exact for muonic hydrogen, the quantum calculation with the same proton radius and other constants should give the same spectrum for both electron as well as muonic hydrogen. Instead, muonic hydrogen spectrum is blue shifted from that of electron hydrogen as the figure shows.

There are many fundamental constants that are the basis for this calculation and one interpretation of muonic hydrogen spectra is that the proton radius is much different for muonic hydrogen as the figure shows. There are other measurements for the proton radius such as the two shown in the figure, but neither of them agrees with the muonic hydrogen calculation. Each of the electron and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy results are valid by mainstream science and are determined within mutually exclusive uncertainties. There is therefore not a single proton radius and neither explanation is more valid than the other.

Thus, there is a dilemma. What is the real proton radius...0.8758 or 0.84087 fm? Both measurements of electron hydrogen and muonic hydrogen appear to have sufficient precision to preclude each other.

One alternative explanation is in the universal decay of aether, which means energy states also depend on their lifetimes. In aethertime, incorporation of the muon lifetime shifts the spectrum of the muonic hydrogen to now agree with that of atomic hydrogen. The shift is

which the figure above shows as 0.075 THz, which now agrees with the observed 0.072 THz and well within the precision of that measurement.

The observed 0.072 THz spectral shift of 49.885 THz is equivalent to a matter decay of 0.15% and so, once again, 99.95% of the muon decay of only 0.15% of its total mass whereas the g-value difference was 0.17% of muon mass decay.

While in mainstream science, the lifetime of a muon state does not affect its spectrum, in aethertime, the lifetime of muon does indeed affect its spectrum very slightly.

The proton diameter is a fundamental constant that describes a very slight shift in the energy of two states of hydrogen. An S state shows non-zero electron density at the proton in hydrogen and therefore shifts in energy while a P state has a near zero electron density at the proton. This energy shift defines the radius of the proton.

If the proton radius is truly fundamental, S and P states of hydrogen should show the same kind of shifts for hydrogen that has the muon instead of the electron. A very interesting experiment measures the diameter of the proton by means of the spectroscopy of the muon form of hydrogen and finds a much different shift in the frequency of muon hydrogen lines due to the finite diameter of the proton. The electron in the hydrogen S ground state has a certain probability of being at the proton surface but not inside the proton diameter and so the S state frequency shifts very slightly as a result. The electron in a P excited state on the other hand has no probability for being at the proton center and a very low probability of being at the proton surface as well.