*i*equals square root of

*-1,*Euler's relation. The Schrödinger equation means the oscillation of quantum action is orthogonal to the oscillation of quantum matter and it is from this phase relation that what happens in the universe

*happens*.

While discrete quantum aether is what makes up all quantum matter, discrete quantum action describes how sources change and it is from equating the differential of discrete matter and action that time and space emerge as dimensionless ratios. Time emerges from the period of electron spin while space emerges from the radius of electron charge. Direction is then simply a difference in spin phase between a source and observer and is from where the three spatial dimensions emerge.

Instead of time and space existing

*a priori*, time emerges from the electron orbit period and space emerges from the electron charge radius. There are two key dimensionless ratios for time;

*tau*, as atomic time from the period of an atomic clock and big

*T*cosmic time with the period of the universe pulse. This same duality of discrete aether and discrete action is what collisions between sources and observers are all about. In a collision, a source bonds to or scatters from an observer with the exchange of a photon, but that collision must also involve the loss of other particles like heat as the recoil momentum in order to bond source and observer.

_{u}Moreover, each photon emission today in atomic time has an entangled twin emitted at the CMB creation in cosmic time and the exchange of these photon twins or biphoton is responsible for gravity. Unlike the single dipole photon whose exchange bonds charge or multiple photon exchange that bonds with dispersion, an entangled biphoton exchange bonds neutral matter as gravity once losing recoil momentum. The ever much weaker force of gravity conforms to classical and causal statistics where there is a local cause for every effect of gravity.

Single or multiple photon exchanges represent the very much stronger quantum charge and delectric forces that conform to quantum statistics with space and time emerging from such quantum action. Biphoton exchange represents the very much weaker primordial gravity force that conforms to classical statistics and that gravity distorts or curves emergent space and time. As a result, quantum entangled actions can appear nonlocal according to gravity and even simultaneous across the universe, but that is simply a result of the emergence of space and time from quantum action.

Space and time both emerge from the action of aether and that emergence challenges the notions of locality and simultaneity, but quantum is simply how the universe works.

The classical universe of spacetime has the primal truths or axioms of space and time, which are indeed very good ways of keeping track of objects and making predictions about object futures. However, space and time do not describe all of the universe and with quantum aether, the primal truths or axioms are discrete quantum aether and action. Space and time simply emerge from the discrete quantum action of discrete aether and this duality represents the universe.

Even though photon entanglement from the present to the CMB creation makes no classical sense at all, these entangled biphotons are the gist of quantum gravity. Just like dipole charge force is the exchange of single

*photons*between source and observer, gravity is from the exchange of*biphotons*and quadrupole gravity emerges along with space and time from biphoton exchange. The sun and earth bond with the exchange of very long wavelength biphotons with a frequency of 1/yr. In fact, every photon of charge force has its biphoton complement at the CMB creation of cosmic force and so the photon exchange of charge force also includes the biphoton exchange of gravity force.