Monday, July 22, 2019

Interviews of Carroll and Rovelli on FQXi.org

These FXQi interviews of Carroll and Rovelli are both quite interesting since they are two very smart people with related but very different narratives about the nature of physical reality. Measurement guide science and narratives without measurements are really what guide philosophy and such narratives have no role for science. Narratives without measurement guide philosophy and into perpetual discourse among many very smart philosophers about the nature of physical reality.

“Every philosopher disagrees with every other philosopher and so only one philosopher can ever actually be correct.” Paul Skokowski.

These narratives are really mostly philosophy wrapped in the technical jargon and methods of science and therefore these two narratives with and without measurements are a confused discourse. An outcome may be determinate or it may be uncertain, but it is not clear from these narratives which is determinate and which is certain. Carroll links cause and effect and entropy with his multiverses and avoids the conundrum of microscopic reversibility versus macroscopic entropy. Carroll does not suggest any measurements although his choice implies determinism. Classical causality means that both macroscopic and microscopic measured outcomes have precursors, while quantum causality means that you cannot precisely measure all precursors. Rovelli, in contrast, seems to believe in free choice and not in determinism and offers meaning for reality without multiverses.

In fact, observer quantum phase always affects a quantum measurement and it is not possible for an quantum observer to measure their own phase. For most macroscopic measurements, though, quantum phase plays no role in causality since the decay of quantum phase is so fast. However, when quantum phase decay is slow, the superposition of precursor and outcome results in causal confusion since the notion of symmetric time has no arrow.

There is a fundamental causal confusion in the symmetry of our quantum reality and yet there is no causal confusion in the changing universe of gravity relativity. Quantum phase obviously does play a role in quantum gravity but relativistic gravity seems inconsistent with quantum gravity. This is because superpositions of quantum gravity precursors and outcomes result in many possible paths and that seems inconsistent with the single paths of relativity’s determinate geodesics. Carroll suggests that multiverses explain the other possible paths of quantum gravity while Rovelli suggests that it is rather meaningful information that decides the single path from quantum gravity, not multiverses.

Neither Carroll nor Rovelli acknowledge the unknowable precursors that result from quantum phase correlation and superposition, but both accept the notions that the universe changes and that outcomes all have precursors. However, they do not discuss the two very different kinds of changes that make up things that happen: First there is the very slow change of the universe due to gravity and the universe pulse dephasing; Second, there are the very fast changes of atoms due to charge.

Mainstream science argues that atoms and forces at rest are constant for all time and so atoms and forces do not change with the slow expansion of the universe under gravity from the big bang. Despite gravity and charge being attractive, the expanding universe therefore only changes space, not matter or action. However, the equivalence of matter and energy in relativity means that mass does increase with motion, and matter-energy equivalence then means that time slows just as matter increases with increasing velocity.

The mattertime universe pulse decay supposes instead that the universe pulse of matter decays very slowly in concert with its very slow growth of the action of force. Not unlike a photon pulse of light. the combination of decaying matter and increasing force give the illusion that the universe slowly expands from a big bang. Universe pulse decay is then consistent with gravity relativity just as gravity force slowly grows. This complementary matter decay and gravity increase gives the illusion that gravity stays constant over time.

The universe pulse illusions of constant atoms, constant force, and expanding space are all very strong and dominate science. Very few in science acknowledge that it is even possible for the very slow decay of universe matter to complement a very slow growth of force, which then gives the arrow of time and is still consistent with mass increasing with motion just like relativity. This very slow mass decay and force growth is what I call mattertime and also means that time and space emerge from change and that entropy of atoms is different from the entropy of the universe pulse. Atom entropy derives from the very fast changes of atom states while universe entropy derives from the very slow changes of universe states, which include atom entropy.

Black holes are endpoints of time and space, but black holes are still subject to the slow changes of matter and action. In mattertime, the universe pulse destiny is a single black hole and that destiny births the next antiverse/universe pulse. The first half pulse is the antiverse expansion that grows with antimatter precursors then the universe second half pulse matter decay outcomes.

In mainstream science, matter condenses first by charge and then by gravity into stars, black holes, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and large-scale structures and those bodies all decay by charge and gravity radiation. All of this decay seems inconsistent with an ever-expanding universe, but all of this observed matter decay is completely consistent with the universe pulse of mattertime decay. In fact, mattertime decay results in a gravitization vector force that couples moving stars and is analogous to the magnetization vector force that couples moving charges. Gravitization is a large scale vector force that, along with gravity, bonds stars into galaxies, galaxies into clusters, and clusters into large-scale structures.

In any case, these two philosophers each believe they are correct and disagree with each other. The last artifact of standards is the kilogram standard and the IPK has decayed by 0.51 ppb/yr over the last 130 yrs, exactly twice the matter decay of 0.26 ppb/yr from the ratio of hydrogen gravity and charge forces times the hydrogen orbit frequency, GmH2/(q2c2 10-7) (c/rB). This is the plot that shows the IPK decay relative to the secondary standards, which average to a constant due to weight gain as a result of their frequent cleaning process.




Mattertime 6: Axioms of Mattertime

Mattertime 6 is the latest in the mattertime series and introduces the basic axioms of matter action...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kns4WS7Q9qE

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Mattertime 5: Two Big Rabbit Holes to Avoid...

Understanding physical reality means avoiding two very deep rabbit holes of mainstream science.

mattertime5

• First rabbit hole is the notion of infinitely divisible time and space, Zeno’s paradox
    −time and space both emerge from discrete causal sets and so infinitely divisible time and space are illusions of our discrete reality.

• Second rabbit hole is the notion of relativity without any quantum phase, Schrödinger’s phase decay paradox
    −quantum phase decay plays no role in gravity relativity
    −quantum gravity emerges from discrete causal sets with quantum phase decay limiting entanglement and correlation

Zeno's paradox is quite well known and has many different versions that all amount to the impossibility of infinitely dividing space and time.

Schrodinger's phase decay paradox is known at the superposition of cat alive and dead at the same time and place according to quantum theory. Fundamentally, the decay of quantum phase completely resolves this paradox, which completely ignores the role of quantum phase decay in superposition states. Even though there is indeed a very short time where the cat's microscopic states are in a large number of quantum superpositions, quantum phase decay limits quantum superposition for all macroscopic objects.

There are scientists who spend their entire career in either or both of these rabbit holes and even make money from their book sales.

Wednesday, July 3, 2019

Mattertime 2...The Gifts of Father Time and Mother Earth

Although there are one hundred some odd elements as well as electrons, protons, and neutrons as well as charge and gravity forces, there is also a simpler and ancient way of breaking down reality.

The gifts of Father Time are the universe, galaxy, sun, life, and civilization while those of Mother Earth are air, water, soil, stone, and fire. While technical people need the higher resolution detail, most people do not and can function well with the simple elements of our Father and Mother.

Gifts of Father Time and Mother Earth

Sunday, June 30, 2019

Matter Time 1...Things That Happen...

This is the first video in a series that will introduce matter time, which is a very different interpretation of reality from time and space. Instead of time and space existing as a blank slate for continuous and infinitely divisible matter action, discrete matter and action exist first of all. Time and space emerge from discrete matter and action and the universe exists because things happen and not because of time and space.

Matter Time 1


Tuesday, June 25, 2019

Maudlin's Problem With Quantum Theory

The Problem With Quantum Theory

Institute of art and ideas interviewed Tim Maudlin about his problem with quantum theory.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hC3ckLqsL5M

Very nice interview shows the philosophical approach of Maudlin as opposed to the technical approach of physical science. While Maudlin argues that philosophy is very confused about the nature of physical reality even after 100 years of the very successful technical predictions of quantum science, science simply accepts quantum because it works really well. Science accepts quantum because it works while philosophy asks what quantum means and gets confused by both the question and the answer. Philosophy is, after all, really a discipline that asks questions without objective and testable answers, then answers them all the while arguing endlessly with other philosophers about the answers and about the nature of physical reality.

Maudlin argues that the axioms of infinitely divisible and determinate time and space are fundamentally incompatible with the discrete uncertainty of quantum knowledge. While this is true, Maudlin does not consider it possible to have a universe without first of all time and space, but that is exactly the quantum matter action universe that we have.

Philosophy is very useful for asking important questions but philosophy will never answer questions that have no answers. Why are we here? Why are we here right now? Why is it us and not someone else that is right here right now? What is the meaning of life? What is the meaning of quantum mechanics? Why is the universe the way that it is? 

These are all questions that have no answers, but are nevertheless useful questions to ask and discuss because that is what consciousness does. After all, it is not always clear which questions we might find out how to answer with new knowledge. "What is consciousness?" is just such a question that does not have an answer but might with better knowledge. Consciousness is therefore always asking questions without answers and then continuing to find meaning either in discovering the answers or in the endless discourse that follows uncertainty. This is basically because we cannot always know the limits of what we can know even though we know there are limits to what we can know. We do need to keep asking and answering unanswerable questions in order to find the horizon of answers where we just lack knowledge.

The inherent uncertainty of quantum phase means that there are outcomes that have precursors that will always be unknowable. Since we ourselves have quantum phase, we can only know matter phase of an action relative to our own matter phase. This fundamental quantum uncertainty limit shows that the world is not deterministic and that every free choice that we make affects the outcomes of the entire universe. Besides quantum uncertainty, there is also uncertainty from the chaos of determinate actions. Given a very large number of determinate actions, chaos means that it is not possible to predict motion better than some uncertainty of matter action.

The Hasse diagram shows precursors and outcomes of the universe at low resolution starting with the CMB creation precursor to hydrogen, stars, and then galaxies. Higher resolution Hasse diagrams will show more and more detail until the resolution limitations of classical chaos called noise. However, the infinite divisibility of space and time in a determinate universe means that there is no limit to the precision of determinate knowledge.
But, unlike classical knowledge, quantum knowledge is not infinitely knowable and there is a discrete uncertainty limit for quantum knowledge. In the discrete actions of discrete matter, there is a quantum uncertainty between action and matter that represents our unknowable quantum phase. Unlike the infinitely knowable classical chaos of infinitely divisible time and space, quantum phase represents a finite precision for knowledge that we can know. This is because we are made up of the same quantum phase and amplitude as are all outcomes and we cannot ever know our own absolute quantum phase. We only ever know the quantum phase of an outcome relative to our own quantum phase and so that represents the limits of what we can know.



Sunday, June 23, 2019

Cosmic Now

Cosmic Now
Okay...so we can't really know that there is now or present time in the universe since all we can ever sense are things that happen in the past. In other words, all we know are outcomes and we presume those outcomes all have precursors and so we assume that there is a whole universe of precursors that we call now.

https://aeon.co/essays/is-that-leaf-falling-here-and-now-cosmic-koans-on-time

Anthony Aguirre starts with the popular fine-tuning statement that grabs one of the 65 or so physical constants and supposes that any small variation in just that one constant would mean that life could not exist. This is not a good place to start any argument about the universe since as long as you change constants together there are a large number of possible universes. Do we really need koans?

In fact, changing constants in concerted ways is how the universe actually works and is the fundamental principle of mattertime. Mattertime starts with just two constants for matter and action and results in a pulsed universe with shrinking matter and growing force. Thus, Aguirre's example of proton charge variation makes no sense without electron charge variation. Given electron and proton charge growth along with matter decay is the basis the universe and explains everything. Instead of a big bang, the universe begins as the antiverse ends with the chaos of aethertime.

So the question of a cosmic now in an infinitely divisible time makes no sense in the universe causal set of precursors and outcomes. Very similar questions come up about the meaning of the infinitely divisible nothing of empty space. Space and time both emerge from the discrete things that happen in discrete aether and there really are only two constants that determine all others. The total universe matter and its decay are the two constants that determine all others and so yes, there are a large number of possible universes.

We simply must accept that this is the universe that we have...

Friday, June 14, 2019

BlackHoleTime

Black Holes and Time

Black holes represent the end of atomic time for matter and atomic time literally stops at a black-hole event horizon. Neither atomic time nor space have any meanings at a black hole event horizon. What does it mean when atomic time stops ticking? It does not mean that the universe is at the end of time...

Atomic clocks only represent one of the two dimensions of time and the other time dimension is the very slow change of the universe. The universe changes as a result of its very slow action and those changes give time a second dimension. That is, the slow change of the universe is a time beyond the ticks of atomic clocks and therefore beyond the event horizons of black holes.

The very slow time of the universe is in basically the quantum dephasing time of universe matter. The universe changes because of its very slow dephasing time and that slow change turns out to be what drives the much faster changes of atomic time as well.

The very slow change of the universe is in its dephasing time and for a pulsed universe, that dephasing time means the very slow decay of matter. This very slow decay of matter complements a very slow growth in force and the combination of matter decay and force growth are what make up the reality that we see. In fact, the very slow universe decay time is what creates gravity force as the amplitude and phase of the universe pulse.

Charge force is very much stronger than gravity force and charge force comes about on atomic time scales. All matter oscillates with both phase and amplitude and the relative phase and amplitude of matter oscillation is charge force. Each charge bond results in a complementary photon emission and phase and it is the biphoton complements between neutral matter bodies that then result in gravity force.

Friday, May 31, 2019

Persuasion Is Consciousness

Persuasion is an integral part of conscious free choice since sharing our consciousness with others is fundamental to not only our own conscious free choices, but the conscious free choices of others as well. As a result, in fact, persuasion is consciousness. We only know a person is conscious by how they persuade us that they are conscious and they only know we are conscious by how we persuade them that we are conscious. In persuasion, a person freely chooses to tell a story to persuade one or more other people to make or not make a particular choice or set of choices. Free choice is therefore different from coercion. Free choice is how people change the world and so free choice is also how people persuade the free choices that others make to change the world. Free choice as a result of persuasion is therefore what makes consciousness what it is since our conscious free choice to persuade is how we change the world.

While it is possible to persuade some people with a good story, that story will not persuade everyone and some people may choose to not even listen to a persuasion and therefore remain unconvinced. The outcome of an unsuccessful persuasion would then be indeterminate. In fact, some people may find a persuasion not only unconvincing, they may also persuade with a story of their own. In fact, when the outcomes are very even, the stories then tend to polarize into factions for and against instead of a negotiation and compromise. After all, consciousness reduces all decisions to a free binary choice of either a determinate action or an indeterminate inaction.

There is an argument that our choices are all determined by the persuasion of others and not by our own conscious free choices. This argument suggests that free choice is really an illusion as a result of the determinate persuasion of others, i.e. their conscious free choices. Conscious free choice would then be an illusion of the many determinate ideologies that persuade us to make the conscious free choices that we make. However, we are not born with conscious free choice and must learn conscious free choice by the persuasion of others and when we freely choose and act like them, we too are conscious. We learn conscious free choice from persuasion and so persuasion is completely compatible with an indeterminate free choice and the nature of the conscious free will.

The real illusion, then, is the illusion of a purely determinate universe where we are just subject to fixed fates and always subject to determinate persuasions. In contrast, there is an irreducible discrete uncertainty in every indeterminate outcome even though there are precursors for both determinate and indeterminate outcomes. This means that there are indeterminate precursors that are not knowable for an outcome even though precursors do exist for even indeterminate outcomes. With consciousness, we negotiate with other people all of the time and yet we do not always call all such negotiations persuasion. Consciousness and negotiation are highly entangled with persuasion even though we do not normally associate negotiation with consciousness. Likewise, we do not usually associate persuasion with consciousness, either, but both negotiation and persuasion are necessarily free and not coerced choices.


Sunday, May 5, 2019

Free Will and Agency

Science keeps bringing up the issue of free will in vain attempts to somehow define consciousness as a determinate outcome of the brain machine. If there were a measurement for free will, then it would make sense for science to make claims about free will. Since there are no measurements of free will, it makes no sense for any science claims about free will and any statements about free will are then subjective opinions, not objective measurements of science. Thus, to believe in free will simply means that you believe that choices matter and also that the precursor feelings of choice are not always knowable.

People who say that they do not believe in free will still believe that their decisions matter and as a result, they freely choose to believe in their own lack of free will. However, without a belief that their choices matter there would be no meaning and purpose and choice in their lives would be subject to the all-consuming despair of nihilist chaos.

In our relational reality, people with consciousness freely choose to bond with some people and not with other people and those neural bonds and conflicts nevertheless result from and in often very powerful emotions and feelings. Since people freely to choose to bond with some people and not with others, this is free choice and the reasons and feelings do not always have knowable precursors. People also freely choose to persuade others that there is no free will despite there being no measurement for free will. The determinate argument is that who you choose to bond with or who you choose to persuade is due to determinate precursors, the present, any possible outcomes, and the noise of classical chaos. Since classical chaos is random, that means that no future is certain, but the determinate argument is that even that does not mean we have free choice.

People argue that since determinate atoms are also subject to uncertain outcomes and determinate atoms are not conscious and do not have free will, determinate people likewise do not have free will even though they make free choices with unknowable precursor feelings. Free choice, though, involves neural action potentials and atoms do not have neural action potentials. In addition, quantum entanglement and superposition mean that quantum phase noise is somewhat different from the classical noise of chaos. In fact, science neither understands how neural action potentials result in consciousness nor in free will.

It is very likely that the bonding of neural action involves entanglement and superposition in ways that science does not yet understand.  For example, since every macroscopic action has some quantum phase noise, repetitive macroscopic actions like flips of a coin toss or neural impulse of a brain tend to result in mixing classical and quantum phase noise. Quantum phase is, after all, very important for the charge bonds of matter and so it is very likely that quantum phase is also important for neural bonds and even gravity bonds.

Quantum phase is at the root of both consciousness and free will archetypes. Our relational reality involves charge bonds, neural bonds, and gravity bonds as shown below.

Free will makes consciousness possible because how we choose an outcome depends on both precursors and all possible outcomes. Since science cannot define or even measure consciousness, science cannot measure or even define free will either. The choice of a single outcome from a superposition of many possible outcomes is exactly what makes us conscious. In fact, free choice really is the basis for consciousness for without free choice and free will, the universe would be determined only by its initial conditions and not by the neural action potentials of free will and consciousness.

Atoms do not have consciousness or free will, but that does not mean that a mind, which is made up of a large number of atoms, also does not have consciousness or free will. Just like a coin will have very well defined heads and tails, flipping a coin results in a 50% probability and uncertainty of landing heads or tails. Neural action potentials are then like flipping a coin and are necessary for consciousness just as they are necessary for free will and free choice as well. Although science cannot measure consciousness or free will, people are conscious and therefore do have free will as well. Stating that there is no free will suggests that science can measure and know all of the precursors of choices that we all make to an unlimited precision. However, it is simply not possible to know all of the precursors to choice with unlimited precision since quantum phase noise limits the precision of any knowledge.

One argument for determinate outcomes is that a computer algorithm can use sensory data to make choices for action according to a person who freely chose to compose that algorithm. The algorithm did not make the choice...the programmer made the choice and the algorithm is simply an extension of the emotions and feeling of the programmer. The argument that robots and artificial intelligence show consciousness is not true since there is no measure of consciousness and no artificial consciousness either.

Free choice is the result of a large number of neural action potentials and each neural action potential is subject to a discrete quantum uncertainty just as all action in the universe is subject to discrete quantum uncertainty. Therefore, while the universe is largely determinate in that every outcome has a knowable precursor to some precision, there are discrete outcomes that have unknowable discrete precursors even though those discrete precursors do exist. For example, entanglement and superposition can couple discrete outcomes in discrete precursors that are not possible to know with unlimited resolution. While the determinate chaos of noise certainly make discrete neural outcomes uncertain, the entanglement and superposition of quantum phase noise also makes neural outcomes uncertain even though outcomes do entangle and correlate with other outcomes.

Unlike the determinate noise of classical chaos with unlimited resolution, the uncertain noise of quantum phase is also subject to entanglement and superposition and therefore has a well-defined limited resolution. Entanglement and superposition make the precursors of quantum phase noise as discrete outcomes that are inherently unknowable and at limited resolution. The limited resolution of discrete quantum phase is what make up free choice and free will as opposed to the unlimited resolution of determinism. Once again, the outcomes of free choice and free will follow from the lack of any measurable and therefore knowable discrete precursors even discrete precursors exist for every discrete outcome. Although we can rationalize many of the choices that we make, there are many choices that we make for which we can never know the reasons. This is because we make many decisions based on our feelings and feelings derive from emotions and unconscious archetypes and therefore feelings do not always have knowable causes even though there are causes for all feelings.

Science argues that quantum phase coherence has no role in choice or free will and therefore no role in neural action potentials either. However quantum phase coherence along with entanglement is part of all matter and can and does affect many things that we feel we understand very well since we do not often consider the role of discrete quantum phase in macroscopic action. After all, most people's lives lie outside of science and include art, music, literature, religion, law, government, commerce, crafts, and so on.

People have the freedom to choose many different outcomes for their lives, but science often feels the need to persuade people with the subjective opinion that people do not really have any free choice. Science claims that free will is an illusion, but this is a subjective opinion often masquerading as an objective measurable fact. For example, a recent blog post states:

1) You never had free will.
2) Your story has not yet been told.
3) Input matters.
4) Understand yourself.

Saying you never had free will makes it seem like you have measured free will and have repeatedly found that it is not present in anyone that you measured. Since there is actually no measure of free will, it is incorrect to then claim that no one has free will. After all, there might be someone somewhere that has free will even though you may not have free will. Since you admit that everyone believes that they have free will, it makes it very difficult to then state that free will does not exist.

Everyone who has lived is part of the collective memory of civilization. History tells more stories about famous people than those who are not famous, but family relationships tell many more stories than any popular history ever could. While input certainly matters, it is by a lifetime of experience and memories that we make decisions, not just by immediate input. Moreover, the superposition of a large number of precursors as well as possible outcomes all affect free will. Understanding yourself is tantamount to understanding consciousness. Since there are no objective measures for consciousness, subjective claims about understanding consciousness and free will have no objective meaning.

Choice has everything to do with individual freedom and social responsibility, which are way beyond science. In fact, politics limits individual freedom and social responsibility with science, but such limits can then use social responsibility to justify killing their own people. Thus, Nazis claimed the science of eugenics and Marxists claimed the science of class oppression and surplus capital as ideologies of social responsibility that justified killing many people. The Nazi eugenics was based on a science that supposed racial struggle would improve civilization while Marx's profit from surplus value was based on an economic science and that a class struggle would improve civilization.

In both cases, murderous regimes used an ideology of social responsibility to justify the killing of many millions of people to benefit a much larger number of people. In fact, the murder of so many people increased suffering and misery much more than pleasure and joy. In contrast, it is the primacy of the individual and the social responsibility of the free market that, despite its flaws, seems to have unleashed a great wealth of human productivity for civilization.

Friday, May 3, 2019

Two Different Narratives for the Same Universe

There are actually two very different narratives for the same cosmic microwave background and red-shifted galaxy light of deep space. The mainstream Big Bang universe of space and time shows a constant mass and speed of light as well as many other constants as well, all with the same constant tick of atomic time. Therefore, the universe expansion time has the same atomic time since creation.

An alternative explanation for the same red-shifted galaxy light is that matter and action are not constant for precursor, hydrogen, stars, and galaxies. The shrinking matter and expanding force universe, aethertime, is a collapsing wavefunction that shows a shrinking mass and growing speed of light along with other growing constants. Instead of a plethora of aethertime constants, there are just two constants; the mass and action of an aether particle. There are two aethertime dimensions, not just atomic time. As the universe decays, atomic time ticks faster than the universe decay time and so there are just two aethertime constants: the aether particle mass and its action as a quantum oscillation.


The Planck constant, h, is the action constant of light since it gives the energy of each photon of light from the light's oscillation frequency. Likewise, hae = h/c2 is the action constant of aethertime since it gives the equivalent mass of any action oscillation frequency. All quantum aether oscillates and the relative phases of matter's quantum oscillations are what either bonds or scatters matter with aether exchange. This means that each photon of light is actually a bound aether pair and the photon energy is equal to the strength of that bond.

The aether particle mass is the second aethertime constant and is simply the fraction of hydrogen atom action mass, hae/tB, due to gravity versus charge, forcecharge/forcegravity. The ratio of the Planck constant, hae, to Bohr hydrogen orbit period, tB, is the mass equivalent bonding energy of a hydrogen atom and so the aether particle mass is then the matter equivalent bonding energy of the universe to itself.

Monday, April 22, 2019

Quantum Action Causal Set

One thing is for sure...it is things that happen that make up the universe and a causal set is full of the precursors and outcomes of things that happen. Quantum causal sets give a discrete and finite perspective for our physical reality. A quantum causal set is very different from thinking that things happen in a void of continuous space and time. Things first of all happen as outcomes because of precursors in a casual set and the notions of continuous space and time then emerge from precursor and outcome actions.

Here is a very low resolution causal set Hasse diagram showing the precursor creation of CMB hydrogen result in the outcomes of stars and then galaxies. Of course, there would be much more detail in a higher resolution Hasse diagram.
We grow into consciousness memories when our childhood precursor memories lead to the outcomes of our adolescence and then those memories become the precursors to adult outcomes and then further memories with more experience. Time in this sense is simply the decay of precursor to outcome memories as the Hasse diagram shows.

Fast time emerges from counting a very large number of outcomes into a second, day, and year from cesium-133 atom precursor resonances of an atomic clock.
Likewise, the emergence of space involves the timing of the speed of light in some fraction of a second.
Direction, though, emerges from the relative quantum phases of matter and action. The 90 degrees of Euclid's right angle emerges from the relative matter action phase for bound actions. Direction then emerges from the relative phase of matter and action for motion.
Even though direction angles seem continuous and infinitely divisible, they are fundamentally discrete with the same granularity as discrete aether. After all, direction really emerges fundamentally from time as the rotation of earth makes the day.
Instead of an expanding space with constant mass and force, our universe emerges from a very slow collapse of matter and growth of force. Instead of time and space with position and momentum and constant matter and action, matter action precursors and outcomes shrink matter and grow force and this is how the universe really works. 

Friday, April 19, 2019

Many Possible Outcomes Collapse into One Polar Choice

We make decisions by first of all collapsing a large number of possible outcomes into a single polar and binary choice that then becomes the outcome of a free choice. After all, this is the same way politics among people allocates otherwise public resources by making more or less transparent decisions. When governments first form, there are many initial choices that can be quite contentious, but eventually a government of one sort or another does form or there is another government and the process begins again. Likewise, people first learn how to choose from many possible outcomes by this same process of collapse of possible outcomes.

After a government forms, it matures and develops to limit individual freedom in lieu of social responsibility and choices become more and more trade offs and compromises with near equal benefits to polar factions. With near-equal trade offs, though, there are invariably very vocal factions on both sides of each polar choice. People argue that it is necessary for there to be transparency in the decision-making process to inform people who must accept the inevitable compromises. Political decisions invariably mean that there are two or more different precursor actions for the same outcome and so the polar factions must compromise or stalemate.

However, transparency in a highly informed culture necessarily results in incremental collapse from the chaos of many possible choices into the order of increasingly polar factions for any choices collapsing into a binary decision point. People naturally make decisions by incremental collapse from the chaos of many possible outcomes into the order of a binary choice of action or inhibition. The initial chaos of many possible choices about an issue eventually condenses into a binary decision to incite or inhibit some action.

The electronics of our information age allow people to participate in many more of the incremental compromises than in the past that are all part of each polar decision. As a result of these incremental choices, people tend to end up in one of two polar extremes associated with each decision.


While issue polarization is then a necessary part of any decision making process, the information age has exponentially increased the number of people entangled in political decisions. We share our consciousness by bonding or conflicting with others in the dynamic of civilization. We will not always agree with other narratives and we may propose a narrative of our own or we may adopt another person's narrative. More likely, we simply acquiesce to another narrative despite our not agreeing with that decision.

However, when one faction includes a virtue signal in their narrative, the outcome many degenerate into fanaticism instead of free discourse. Although a virtue signal can be appropriate, virtue signals are more often used as weapons against any free discourse. Virtue signals without free discourse can then degenerate into fanaticism, conflict, rebellion, and even civil war. In the Civil War, the South's virtue signal was a for profit benevolent servitude and that virtue signal resulted in 620,000 soldier deaths, 10,000 civilian deaths, $22B cost, 15% decline in GDP, and countless years of reconstruction...all to preserve this Southern virtue of a profitable servitude.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Individual Freedom versus Social Responsibility

Some people value the chaos of individual freedom more than the order of social responsibility and others value the order of social responsibility more than the chaos of individual freedom. Social responsibility allows large numbers of otherwise anonymous people to live in the order of a cooperative and yet still competitive civilization. However, excessive social responsibility has very well known undesirable outcomes as tyranny and political suppression.

In particular, many previous regimes have used social responsibility to justify tyranny and policies that harmed or even killed some people as long as many more people benefit overall. Mao’s famine killed over 30 million people in 1958-1961 ostensibly to benefit the much larger population as part of Mao’s great leap forward in the name of Marxism. The Nazi death camps killed 6 million Jews and others in order to purify a much larger Aryan race in the name of eugenics. Both used social responsibility to justify their malevolence and are examples of how bad people can be.

Therefore, there is a third very necessary archetype besides individual freedom and social responsibility. This third archetype is the realization of how bad people can be and that all people are capable of malevolence, including you. Civilization tells and retells a large number of stories with many different themes, but a recurring theme is how bad people can be since we are all prone to malevolence.

Two people on individual Cartesian paths exchange shine of compassion with each other and that exchange can bind those two into a relationship. Cartesian bonds, like gravity bonds, result in more determinate action with outcomes that have clear precursors.

Each person has as part of human nature both the capacity for social responsibility as bonding to an individual or group as well as the potential for malevolence, which conflicts with people. In other words, people have a certain amount of empathy shine for others and their needs as well as certain amount of selfish needs of their own to satisfy, which leads to conflict and negotiation. A person’s selfishness might not benefit and might even harm someone else’s needs or wealth and even might injure them or even take their lives. However, there are many stories about how people compete for resources with others and yet still cooperate and compromise with the overall outcome of more wealth for all.

Even though two people might not ever have equal wealth or even equal benefit from every competitive or cooperative transaction, they can still both benefit and live longer and learn more to compete for wealth as well as to cooperate and compromise. A group of people bonds with the relational shine of compassion despite the Cartesian conflicts of selfish competition. Relational bonds, like quantum bonds, result in more probabilistic action with outcomes that often have no clear precursors, only more likely ones.

It is part of human nature to compete with others for resources, but that competition must first of all involve cooperation and compromise and must therefore be fair even though the outcomes do not always have to be equal. Some people are naturally more talented than others in any given competency and so people are naturally diverse in their abilities. For example, there are only a very few people who are really very good at creating music and art and this means that, given individual freedom, a limited number of people can end up owning a large share of a population’s music and art. As a result, people can often feel envious and jealous even if the competition was fair. Further, if people acquire wealth by force or coercion and not by fair competition, those who suffer will inevitably feel deep resentment. Such deep resentment results in criminal and even rebellious outcomes and the response is incarceration of those people.

In fact, given the potential malevolence of human nature, it is literally impossible for any population to completely avoid some criminal incarceration. Incarceration is necessary to limit individual freedom just as politics is necessary to limit social responsibility. Populations with large disparities of wealth along with diverse race, ethnicity, language, and religion also have large incarceration rates as well as lots of politics to promote and limit social responsibility. All that people can ever hope to do is maintain a fair competition for resources given individual freedom and limited social responsibility to permit competitive and free prosperity while also limiting the unfair outcomes of criminality and rebellion.

Religions satisfy a basic human need for meaning and purpose and people therefore submit to the order of a particular social responsibility. Religions give meaning and purpose by retelling the many ancient stories of malevolence and thereby teach a religious cosmic order of social responsibility from a seemingly meaningless quantum chaos of individual freedom. The bonding of people into religions always involves their giving up some individual freedom for the benefit of learning the archetypes, stories, and rituals of that religion's social responsibility. In fact, all people must learn the archetypes of compassion and shame to live in a cooperative and yet still competitive civilization and religion provides those archetypes for social responsibility along with stories about human malevolence.

Today there has been a remarkable reduction in global poverty along with increases in life expectancy and education. These successes seem to have been largely driven by the rise of individual freedom along with the proliferation of social responsibility in competitive and fair markets. Although competitive markets varies widely among different politics, the one consistent factor is the incentive and pricing of a competitive market. Even countries with particularly high wealth disparities like Namibia show that competitive markets still reduce poverty while increasing both life expectancy and education.

Ever since China and India have adopted social responsibility that allows more individual freedom with incentives for competitive free markets, those economies have grown and will continue to grow and prosper. The growth of competitive markets repeats in Africa where even the most impoverished countries continue to show people with longer lives, more education, and less poverty.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Theory of Everything

If a person and the earth were both growing in size and gravity was shrinking at the same rate, the person could not tell since what they say and felt would not change. Growing matter and shrinking gravity would then explain gravity as long as gravity decreased at the same rate. The force of shrinking gravity in direct proportion to matter growing would mean that universe is made up of both growing matter and shrinking force.

There is a cosmology that unifies charge and gravity based on the exact opposite, which would be a universe of shrinking matter and commensurate growing force. In fact, a famous quantum physicist Paul Dirac first proposed the Dirac large numbers hypothesis in 1937, which set the ratio of the size of the universe to the size of the atom to the ratio of charge to gravity force.
In the large number hypothesis, many constants change slowly in time and that distant galaxy light red shifts do not mean universe expansion but simply that precursor forces and matter were both different from ours. Since spectral line splittings of distant galaxy light do not change from ours, mainstream science long since rejected the large numbers hypothesis as did Dirac himself. That is, while the red shift of distant galaxy light indicated universe expansion, the spectral splittings seemed to show that forces did not change with any precursor galaxies, only red shift.

However...if outcome matter shrinks and forces grow, this would explain why precursor galaxies are red-shifted and explain why distant galaxy spectral line splittings do not change. In fact, it means that our reality is actually changing very, very slowly and it takes literally hundreds of years to measure the change...or much greater precision than current measurements provide. However, very soon high precision measurements will be able to measure these changes. Such measurements will show neither string theory nor quantum loop gravity nor supersymmetry nor multiverses are valid. In fact, string theory can never be disproven because it can explain anything...therefore string theory has no predictive value.

The notions of outcome matter shrinking and force growing are consistent with quantum cause and effect of the precursors and outcomes of both gravity and charge and so does represent a unified theory of everything. However, the universe is then first of all a quantum causal set where there are many possible outcomes to any given precursor. A quantum causal set universe is not then determinate, unlike Einstein’s relativistic gravity in macroscopic time and space.

While we normally think of time and space as a preexisting backdrop for matter and action, in a quantum causal set, matter action outcomes are the result of precursors without time and space. In fact, time and space both then emerge from the family relationships of precursors and outcomes along with the extra entanglement of quantum phase. Both matter and action have relative quantum phases that are also important for determining outcomes from precursors.

Time then emerges from electron spin period and space emerges from electron charge radius and electrons, protons, and neutrons and the entire universe is made up of discrete quantum aether particles. There are then only two constants from which all other constants emerge; the mass of a discrete aether particle and the action of that same discrete quantum aether as the matter-time Planck constant.

The Planck constant is the proportionality between light’s frequency and its energy and is the basis of our physical reality. Max Planck derived light’s quantum to explain why microscopic charged matter of electrons and protons did not behave like macroscopic charged matter. The matter-time Planck constant is likewise the proportionality between aether frequency and its mass as energy. In matter time, just as in Einstein’s relativity, energy is proportional to mass times the speed of light squared, E = mc².

With matter action, time and space emerge from aether action: time from aether spin period and space from aether radius. This makes discrete aether action consistent with both gravity relativity as well as quantum charge, but now as a discrete aether quantum causal set. All other particles emerge as aether condensate outcomes and constants as aether precursors and in particular, the cosmic microwave background surrounds us with the light of creation precursors. Creation was the condensation of a certain very small fraction of precursor aether into the 2.7 K microwave, electron, proton, and neutron outcomes of all of our atoms today. Each atom today exists as a result of the emission and action of light at the CMB creation.

Gravity emerges from the collapse of aether at the scale of the universe and charge emerges from the collapse of aether at the scale of the atom. An electron has a spin magnetism that couples with its orbit magnetism in each atom to give a spectral splitting. Even though electron mass shrinks, its spin increases just as the electron orbit spin also increases.

Surreality of Time and Space

There has not yet been a single math foundation of our reality, rather there have been two rather incompatible maths and yet both depend on the realities of continuous space and time. The math of relativistic gravity shows the direction and velocity of discrete macroscopic objects as they move through continuous space and time in one determinate direction. The math of quantum charge, in contrast, shows the direction and velocity of discrete microscopic objects jump in many directions and even forward and back in time, ostensively through that same continuous space and time. Whereas a gravity outcome is determinate and certain, a quantum outcome is probabilistic and uncertain. While gravity outcomes are determinate and not subject to free choice, quantum outcomes are subject to free choice.

A gravity clock always ticks forward, but a quantum clock can tick in either or both forward and reverse. Each quantum moment is then a superposition of the past along with many possible future moments. The discrete moments in quantum time superposition eventually phase decay into the reality that agrees with gravity time, but before that, quantum time represents a fundamental confusion between gravity past and gravity future.
For a determinate gravity path in space, there is a determinate path from precursor to outcome that has some chaotic noise along the way. Every infinitely divisible step on the path is determinate and so there is no free choice since there is no quantum phase decay despite an infinity of steps. Precursors completely determine each outcome and there is no entanglement of the quantum phases of any other outcomes. This means there is a shortest path called a geodesic whose outcome does not change unless there are outside forces that act. A Hamilton-Jacobi equation then predicts any action by using the difference in kinetic and potential energies, called the Lagrangian.

A probabilistic quantum path does not follow a single determinate geodesic path, but rather each step of a quantum walk is a result not only of precursors, but also a superposition of the quantum phase of many possible discrete outcomes. The steps in a quantum path are limited by the fundamental granularity of the universe. Each step therefore involves a free choice that entangles those many outcomes and so the path is always probabilistic and never determinate. A quantum outcome is not only determined by its precursors, but also by the phase entanglement of other outcomes.

There is actually no way to predict gravity and charge with a single equation in continuous time and space. While the Hamilton-Jacobi equation determines each gravity path according to the difference in kinetic and potential energy, the quantum Hamiltonian Schrödinger equation determines each quantum path according to a total energy (i.e. relativistic mass) and includes quantum phase. Unlike the energy difference that determines gravity paths, the total quantum energy includes quantum phase entanglement. This means that the quantum phase of the mass of an action is orthogonal to the quantum phase of the action itself.

The entanglement of quantum phase between two two gravity bodies means that the precursors of continuous time and space determine gravity outcomes. The math foundation of our reality is actually based on the discrete matter action of outcomes from precursors. Instead of the two notions of gravity and charge based on continuous space and time, the notions of time and space actually emerge from our primitive reality of quantum matter and action. For discrete quantum charge, it is easy to show how discrete outcomes are the progeny of discrete matter and action precursors. The archetypes of continuous time and space then emerge from discrete matter action outcomes of quantum single photon charge. Time emerges from electron spin period while space emerges from electron charge radius and the Hamiltonian Schrödinger equation and the total energy is the math, but quantum phase links matter and action.
For discrete quantum gravity, the archetypes of continuous time and space emerge from the quantum charge as electron spin period and radius. While single photon exchange bonds charges, photon pairs as biphoton exchanges determine the outcomes of quantum gravity. This means that instead of just the Hamiltonian and the total energy of single photon exchange, it is the action Hamiltonian-Jacobi equation of the kinetic and potential energies difference of biphoton exchange that is the math of quantum gravity.

The kinetic and potential energy difference of that biphoton exchange then determines a unique direction in time and space for each outcome. For example, if KE=PE, the difference or action is zero and the direction is then unchanged for biphoton exchange just as for classical relativity, but a quantum action can spontaneously emit a photon and then change direction since it is a single photon exchange.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

There is More Than Time and Space and Black Holes

Time and space are very strong and powerful unconscious archetypes that help us fill in the blanks for the reality that we perceive. And yet, we have no memory of how we learned these archetypes. We can get a sense of how we learned time and space when we watch a child develop their first order consciousness of space and time by the age of about two years. And yet what does an age of two years mean without time and space?

It is not possible to remember anything without the archetypes of time and space since memory connects outcomes and their precursors with time and space. Long-term memories still need even more relational archetypes like compassion and selfishness before that child can retain long-term memories by about age six or so. The relational nature of memory is then an important part of the underlying nature of our physical reality without time and space.

That is, instead of reality being grounded in an objective reality of continuous and infinitely divisible time and space and our relations with others, reality is really first based on the subjective reality or matter actions of discrete outcomes and their precursors. This discrete relational reality supposes that instead of time and space existing as a objective reality for matter action, continuous time and space emerge  from the subjective matter actions of discrete neural outcomes of discrete precursors as essential archetypes that entangle action memories with sensation.

Objective reality is really then a discrete causal set of a large number of outcomes along with their precursors. Instead of being continuous and infinitely divisible time and space, discrete outcomes that all relate to discrete precursors is first of all what makes up of our objective reality. This means that our objective reality actually is a very large number of discrete outcomes that just appear continuous just as discrete neural action potentials make up our subjective reality.This is the causal set of discrete quantum aether.
The outcome of a black hole emerges the endpoint of matter action in the vacuum continuum of empty space.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Confirmation Bias of Time and Space

Time and space are very important notions that we all use to associate matter action precursors with outcomes. We learn to use time and space for predicting outcomes as children, but time and space are not really fundamental even though they are very useful. We predict outcomes in an external world with the unconscious archetypes of time and space and that objective world of precursors and outcomes then agrees with others.

However, it is the matter action of precursors and their outcomes that are what is fundamental, not really time and space. As a result, it is really possible to make sense out of the external world without time and space and instead with matter action precursors and outcomes. The subconscious mind plays a much greater role in the choices that we make as compared with the conscious mind and this duality underlies all theories of the mind. In particular, it is by the emotion and feeling of our subconscious mind that we make choices and not by the rational reasoning of our conscious mind. We first make our choices by a feeling of our unconscious mind and then we rationalize those choices with our conscious mind. This gives us the illusion that our choices are predetermined and not subject to the uncertainty of quantum phase noise. The duality of subconscious feeling and conscious reasoning is what we know as consciousness

We do not actually directly sense either time or space even though these notions embed deeply into both our subconscious and conscious minds. What we actually sense are things that happen, called outcomes, and then we deduce with reason the precursors for those outcomes that we call causes. However, there is not only a large amount of information from sensation, that information is often incomplete or inconsistent. Therefore, confirmation bias is the natural result of the rational mind trying to make sense out of the often very large amount of sensory information that overwhelms our mind. Therefore we use our mind's unconscious archetypes to fill in the blanks of perception and provide missing or incomplete or conflicting information for the reasoning of our rational mind. These archetypes are the means by which we make sense out of the external objective world by focusing the conscious mind on important versus ancillary sensory information.

From any given outcome, our mind tends to focus on the sensory data that confirms the biases of our subconscious archetypes and so we tend to ignore sensory data that does not confirm those biases. The natural bias of our subconscious decision process it very well known and is the basis of religion and philosophy. In fact, science itself has a long history of well-known bias dating back many centuries. Ptolemy supposed that the earth was the center of the universe and that was a very strong belief until Copernicus and then Galileo. Early physicians believed bad air and evil spirits caused illness before the science of germs and viruses and yet there remain affects of illness that do not result from germs or viruses and still remain somewhat mysterious.

We sense a large number of outcomes from the world outside of our mind, but really we only focus on the very few precursors of outcomes that have some kind of immediate relevance. Our minds assign the vast majority of outcomes that we experience to precursors based on memory and unconscious archetypes and not on immediate experience. This is part of confirmation bias.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

MindBodyResolved


John Horgan’s Mind-Body Problems

John Horgan’s Mind-Body Problems is an anthology of interviews with nine very different people about the common themes of free will, consciousness, morality, and self. Is there free will and an uncertain universe, Horgan asks...over and over and over again or is free will an illusion of a determinate universe? A neuroscientist, a cognitive solid-state physicist, a bisexual child psychologist, a telepathic quantum conscious biologist, a schizophrenia afflicted lawyer, a brain-tumor survivor philosopher, a philosopher novelist, an evolutionary biologist, a transgender woman economist, and, of course, a science writer with a lot of questions about consciousness.

Horgan's mind-body problems are all of the questions that ask how the neural precursors of subjective experiences of the mind become outcomes in the objective reality of the body, which includes the brain's neural precursors. Therefore, consciousness is a recursion whose outcome is neural resonances in the brain that are also precursors to the mind. Are animals and insects conscious? Is an atom conscious? We bond to other people as well as other neural sentiates by sharing the neural resonances of consciousness. The bonding of neural resonances is then what defines consciousness and resolves Horgan's mind-body problems. Thus since there are no neural resonances in grains of sand or atoms, there is no consciousness to share in grains of sand or atoms. However, since we can also share consciousness with our self in a recursion that gives us the feeling of self awareness, that feeling of self does include atoms and maybe even grains of sand.

Ironically, two people can either agree or disagree about the nature of consciousness and yet it is that discourse itself that defines consciousness. Our morality emerges as outcomes of the unconscious archetype precursors from the stories that we learn and retell as children and as rational adults during consciousness bonding with others. Free will and free choice are outcomes of neural matter-action precursors of consciousness sharing that we cannot ever know with certainty because of quantum phase. The universe is largely but not completely determinate at the macroscale, but there is much more uncertainty at the microscale of atoms and even of neural synapses. Horgan's nine stories show the bonding between people that then show the consciousness bonds that resolve his mind-body problems...but people will continue to fundamentally disagree with the nature of consciousness resolution even though it is that discourse that is what consciousness is...

There are many very smart people including these nine who fundamentally agree and disagree about the natures of free will and consciousness and these nine stories well represent that spectrum of agreement and disagreement. But Horgan did not first ask about the each person's axioms or beliefs and only the stories themselves reveal just some of each person's beliefs. Therefore, the reasons for some of their choices were not always completely clear and were often just inferred in the story. For example, if someone believes in a determinate universe, then all choice is set by knowable precursors even if we do not yet know those precursors. Since the quantum universe actually has no completely determinate outcomes, just outcomes that are more likely, there are precursors that are not knowable even though those precursors do exist.

Just like these nine stories, the many grand narratives of civilization are also stories of shared consciousness that both determine and then reflect the archetypes of belief that then make up each person’s consciousness. The grand narratives of civilization define consciousness as the recursion of precursors and outcomes of shared consciousness, which is the force that bonds people together. But each person is unique and different narratives resonate more or less strongly and their archetypes are therefore different and as a result, they feel and bond differently with some precursors than others. Given increased knowledge of the narratives and development of a person’s archetypes of belief, one can better understand the feelings that determine their choices, but it is really the bonding that defines consciousness.

There are grand narratives that promote the chaos of individual freedom and then there are other grand narratives that promote adherence to the order of group authority thereby reducing the chaos of individual freedom. There are grand narratives about flawed heroes overcoming adversity as well as grand narratives about death and rebirth, adventures that experience chaos, envy, and revenge. Everlasting life and eternal justice are also very common narratives that repeatedly show up in religion and other supernaturalist narratives.

Horgan does not always ask about the grand narratives that affect these nine life stories. Of course, Horgan does believe that there is free will but often seems discouraged given a very determinate science’s rejection of free will and has disparaged the limitations of science for a number of years as a result. Horgan is a science writer who writes and teaches writing about science and yet feels that some sciences have reached a limit and are therefore failing to make progress. The particle science of physics has seemingly made very little progress over the last 30 years or there has not been any progress on the unification of charge and gravity forces either. In addition, there are endless arguments about the nature of consciousness and free will and whether science has any role at all in consciousness.

Horgan asks each of these people how they feel about consciousness and each of his nine stories address many of the key feelings of consciousness, but do not directly mention the many underlying narratives that anchor each of their own consciousness. The mind-body problem is a famous one that dates back to Descartes and Aristotle, among many others, but even the ancients did not address the underlying narratives that anchor consciousness.

Horgan does not address existence directly. Why do we exist? Why do we exist right here right now and not some other time? Why is it us and not someone else who exists right here right now? These are my questions, not Horgan’s questions, but those questions lay the groundwork for consciousness.

Of course, without consciousness, there would be no one to ask about existence since there would be no one to question existence at all. Other conscious animals and indeed most people simply accept their fates as predetermined without any questions about consciousness, right?

Horgan has written a great deal about free will and all of his interviews invariably address free will as well. “Is free will an illusion?”, Horgan repeatedly asks, “or do we have the ability to freely choose among many possible outcomes?” If we can freely choose an outcome, then it follows that that outcome was not predictable with certainty from its precursors, which means that there are precursors of an outcome that are not possible to know. In fact, in our quantum causal universe, even though every outcome is a result of a set of precursors, for some outcomes there are precursors that are simply not knowable with certainty even though they do exist.

The tools of science provide many useful measurements of matter, action, and phase. These measurements allow the stories of science to predict outcomes from precursors with sometimes great precision and certainty. Science therefore predicts the relativistic gravity orbit of the earth around the sun as well as the quantum orbit of an electron around a proton. Science can also predict how well two people might bond or conflict given sufficient knowledge of each personality and beliefs, but only ever with some uncertainty. Consciousness exchange is how people bond or conflict, but science cannot predict with certainty the outcomes of free choices that people make as a result of their feelings.

The orbit of the earth around the sun is a result of knowable gravity precursors and there are determinate paths for the earth and sun, but the matter and action of those paths are still both limited by quantum uncertainty. The orbit of an electron around a proton is a series of outcomes that have probabilistic and not certain precursors and so the mass and action of the electron are also limited by quantum uncertainty. Unlike relativistic gravity, there are no absolutely certain quantum paths in space and time and so time and space do not emerge from simple quantum action.

Science can measure emotions like compassion and anxiety with facial expression, behavior, and neurochemicals, and EEG and science therefore measures agreeable and conscientious people that tend to bond well with others. The neurochemical oxytocin is highly correlated with human bonding, but bonding predictions are never completely certain and science often finds that people can make choices that do not seem to make any sense at all.

Despite the uncertainty of behavior and therefore of choice, classical determinists argue that all choices still come from knowable and very certain precursors even if a person does not immediately know those precursors. This is simply a restatement of classical determinist cause and effect and is simply a belief. In fact, quantum free will argues instead that although many precursors of outcomes are knowable, there are some precursors that are not knowable with certainty even though they do exist. This is simply a restatement of the quantum uncertainty principle, which means that we do choose some outcomes for reasons that we cannot ever fully know or understand and we call these precursors free choices.

A classical and causal reality presumes that we can know all precursors for outcomes even though we might not immediately know those precursors. However since we actually live in a world with quantum uncertainty, this means that there are precursors for some outcomes that we cannot know even though those precursors,such as free will and choice, do exist.

For example, we cannot ever know the exact precursor of either free choice or the path of a single photon even though we can know how we feel about a choice and we can measure the photon energy and action within some limiting uncertainty of phase. Consciousness is a recursion or phase that bonds people together by exchange of consciousness. We see how other people act and then we act like we see other people act and then tell a story about that bond or conflict. Language is a similar recursion of matter as nouns, action as verbs, and phase as modifiers and, as a result, we learn to bond with people by consciousness exchange just like we learn language by exchanging stories.

Our neural consciousness is made of recursions of precursors and outcomes that affect ultimate outcomes, and the recursion and bonding of consciousness to itself is what we call self. A set of precursors stimulate a set of corresponding emotions that result in a singular feeling and it is by that singular feeling that we make a choice to bond or conflict with other people. We cannot know all of the precursors for an outcome and that includes the precursor that we call free choice. Determinists argue that even though it is not really practically realizable to know all of the precursors of a choice, all of those precursors are nevertheless classically knowable and therefore determinate. However, the fact that we are also beings with both quantum phase and amplitude limits our knowledge of quantum precursors by the uncertainty principle. This means that we do have free will after all since free choice is not ever entirely certain or predictable without all completely knowable precursors.

Currently there is no well-accepted model of the mind and yet for describing consciousness, it is important to have some kind of even rough model of consciousness and therefore free will. That model should be consistent with the known measurements of action potentials of neural synapses, the connectome as how neurons connect, the model should include emotions along with associated neurochemicals, along with the primitive brain, the cerebral brain, feeling, and the EEG resonances of neural action.

A mind model must also show how childhood development imprints the unconscious archetypes of morality, meaning, and purpose and the roles of sleep and dreams for making long term memories and refreshing the mind each day during sleep. Finally, the mind model should also be consistent with the bonding of people with others into the group hierarchies of cooperative civilization. The mind model should differentiate the relative roles between individual freedom versus adherence to the authorities of group hierarchies.

A complete model of consciousness must include childhood development of unconscious archetypes by the stories we learn and tell, some kind of a set of emotions from those archetypes like pleasure and anxiety that generate a singular feeling from sensory precursors, and therefore the precursor of free choice of an outcome of meaning a purpose for existence by means of that feeling.

Action potentials at neural synapses are what stimulate or inhibit choice and so some kind of a model of the mind helps better define the bond of consciousness exchange. Consciousness exchange is how people bond or conflict just as the periodic exchange of neural action potentials bonds two synapses into a bilateral aware matter atom and these bilateral synapse bonds make up the fundamental EEG delta mode resonance of the mind. Delta resonances are the neural atoms of aware matter that bond into the aware matter packets of the higher resonances of each moment of thought. Moments of thought show higher frequency EEG alpha, beta, gamma, and theta resonances with characteristic mode widths that also show the decoherence or dephasing times of thought. Every day, sensations accumulate into moments of experience as delta modes bond into higher frequency neural layers of aware matter. These neural layers are the spectral outcomes of our bilateral neural aware matter packets.

With this model, the mind only has capacity for about 40,000 neural packets or moments of thought for each day’s worth experience. During sleep our brains then processes the important information from those neural packets of each day’s experience into long term memory and then resets and cleanses the cerebral neuron aware matter for the next day’s neural packets of thought. Although this is only a rather rough model for consciousness, it is useful to have some kind of a model of how the mind works that is consistent with measurements.

These nine stories reveal not only specific beliefs in free will, consciousness, morality, and self but also tell many additional embedded stories about these very different people's lives. We learn a set of unconscious archetypes as we grow up by learning and telling stories and continually update and refine our archetypes as we live our lives. These unconscious archetypes are the very important axioms in which we must simply believe as a basis for consciousness.

Mainstream science has not been able to define consciousness very well given the lonely empty void of continuous space and time in which science believes. Science believes that spacetime is an empty vessel for the conjugates of matter, action, and phase, and yet those beliefs in space and time are not completely consistent with the universe as a quantum causal set of discrete precursors and outcomes. Science's further determinate and classical belief is that we can in principle know all precursors for all outcomes even though we might not immediately know those precursors. This determinate universe of science is one that follows from relativistic gravity, for example, but our quantum causal set universe is instead inherently uncertain and therefore not completely determinate after all.

In a quantum causal set, there are precursors to outcomes that we simply cannot ever know even though they did exist. The quantum universe is still one that adheres to the determinate space and time of relativistic gravity, but now a seemingly determinate and continuous space and time both emerge from discrete quantum matter, action, and phase of discrete precursors and outcomes. The uncertainty of quantum phase has no meaning in a determinist gravity relativity and yet quantum phase is an integral part of the conjugates of matter and action.

Our macroscopic reality is therefore one where quantum phase and uncertainty do not affect spacetime gravity paths. The light that fills our world is a manifestation of quantum phase and the interference, coherence, and exchange of light leads to many quantum properties, in particular bonding and uncertainty. Light exchange, as it turns out, is the basic glue that bonds charge as well as gravity and so light exchange is a unifying theme for the quantum causal set universe.

The exchange of neural action potentials bonds people to each other as well as into group hierarchies. An exchange of feelings and consciousness is a neural resonance that bonds people just like light exchange bonds matter. An EEG spectrum, certain neurochemicals, and changes in behavior are all objective measures of an objective bonding of feeling along with the subjective feelings of each person. Thus, a fundamental definition of consciousness is the neural resonances that bond or conflict people with each other.

Now each person chooses outcomes and the question is whether any choice was a knowable determinate choice or an unknowable free choice. Each of the stories related many different life choices and so one question is whether those choices were determinate or free? Each story formed a bond by exchange of consciousness and so were these discourses and bonds the result of determinate or free choices?

The EEG spectra of two people in discourse measures their states of consciousness but EEG spectra are not always easy to understand. An EEG spectrum shows the various neural resonant outcomes that occur during consciousness, but science cannot yet completely interpret neural resonances as precursors of thought or feeling. There were undoubtedly changes in neurochemicals and other brain activity during these discourses and those changes likely also reflect the feelings between the two. Science also cannot yet completely interpret neurochemicals as feeling, but science has correlated many neurochemicals and other brain changes with various emotions. Finally, there were very likely tells in the behaviors of the two people as they discoursed and bonded with each other.

There are therefore many objective measurements of the consciousness exchange that bonds people together, and yet each person would likely still argue about the meaning of consciousness and self. To what extent were each person’s choices determinate or free? What measure of consciousness differentiates between the fate of determinate choice and the uncertainty of quantum choice?

Most choices in life are really determined by fairly knowable precursors and not by the uncertainty among many equivalent outcomes. For example, circumstance and not choice determines when you need to eat since hunger is a knowable precursor of the unconscious primitive mind, but what you decide to eat can be a free choice among many equivalent options with the unknowable precursors of the conscious cerebral mind. Each of these stories described various precursors that led to many life changing outcomes and each life change was then a precursor to a free choice among many possible outcomes. Some of these people stated their choices were not free choices but were rather determined by knowable precursors of development. However, it was not always clear that there always were knowable precursors and unknowable precursors are what define free choice and free will.

It is clear that there are many unknown precursors to the outcomes chosen by these people and many of them acted as if they made a free choice even when they actually believed all their choices were determinate. In our quantum universe, the superposition of equivalent outcomes means that all of the precursors of any choice are not always completely knowable even though a precursor does exist as a cause for every outcome.

The points of these nine stories about subjective feelings and beliefs reveal the most about the tenth narrative, the author. Horgan shares consciousness and bonds with each of nine people and in so doing, reveals much more about the nature of his own consciousness. In a classical causal universe, every outcome has a knowable set of precursors, which is simply a restatement of classical cause and effect. Science can and does measure consciousness with any number of objective tools. The action potentials of neural synapses, the connectome, emotions, neurochemicals, the primitive brain, the cerebral brain, feeling, and the EEG resonances of neural action all objectively measure the outcome of consciousness.

Since every outcome of consciousness has a set of precursors, it is natural to presume that it is possible to know all of the precursors of choice, morality, and self. Since science can objectively measure and know every outcome in a causal universe, determinists argue that science can likewise objectively know every precursor as well. However, in a quantum causal universe, even though every outcome has precursors, there are quantum precursors that we simply cannot ever know for certain.

These nine stories all relate choices of outcomes from among a set of many possible outcomes and then attempt to describe the precursors for those choices. Yet many times, the precursors were simply statements like, “I don’t know why I chose what I chose.” When asked if a choice was an example of free choice and free will, there were determinate people who believe that that they can in principle know all precursors even when they might not immediately know a particular precursor and there were free will people. A determinist believes that since each outcome has knowable causal precursors, it is then possible to know all precursors. Determinists argue that free choice is just an illusion born out of the chaos of classical noise, not the order of quantum phase noise.

However, free will and free choice are precursors of a quantum causal set universe and there are quantum precursors that we cannot ever know even though they do exist. Of course, a belief in unknowable precursors is equivalent to a belief in the outcomes of free will, morality, and self. The people that believe in free will simply accept the fact that there are unknowable precursors and the outcomes of morality and self are likewise beliefs in some unknowable precursors. However, free will is then consistent with not only the chaos of classical noise, but also the order of quantum phase noise.

Determinists believe that the mind is a classical machine and like any classical machine, mind outcomes are then all due to completely knowable precursors, albeit with some chaos. This is a determinate belief in free will as an illusion. However, the mind is actually a quantum machine and like any quantum machine, it is simply not possible to know with certainty all of the precursors of the outcomes of a quantum machine due to quantum phase. This is a belief in quantum free will.

Each of the nine stories show the objective existence of consciousness exchange since readers can all agree that all ten people were conscious and that bonds formed. Likewise, each of the nine stories showed many outcomes of choice, morality, and self without actually showing very many of their precursors. The determinist assumes that people can in principle know all of the precursors to choice, morality, and self, only limited by complexity and chaos. Quantum uncertainty means that people actually cannot know all of the precursors to the outcomes of quantum choice, morality, and self. In other words, although we can know many of the precursors that make us who we are, there are some precursors in which we all must simply believe for consciousness in a quantum causal universe.

There is a great deal of information embedded in the many layers of Horgan’s stream-of-consciousness style of writing...about consciousness. A recurring theme in each of the nine plus one stories reveals the precursors of morality, free will, and self for the consciousness exchanges of each of ten people; nine interviewees and the author.

The ten stories represent a spectrum of consciousness showing the range of five personality complements or factors: nonconformer versus conformer, conscientious versus feckless, agreeable versus obnoxious, extravert versus introvert, and empathic versus callous. Likewise each spectrum of consciousness also shows the five emotion complements: compassionate versus selfish, joyful versus miserable, serene versus angry, pleasure versus anxiety, and pride versus shame. These people are all well-published, intelligent, and creative and so do not represent either conformers or thoughtless and feckless personalities very well, but they do represent all the other personality factors and emotions fairly well.

We actually live in a quantum causal set universe where it is simply not possible to know all of the precursors to the outcomes of choice, morality, and self. Even though we know these precursors do exist in a quantum causal set, we simply cannot know all of the precursors for the choices that we make, even though we can often know many of the precursors of our choices. Since we cannot know all of the precursors for emotions, for example, those outcomes are free choice and free will.

Determinists believe that we can know all of the precursors of choice, morality, and self but quantum uncertainty means that it is simply not possible to know with certainty all of the precursors of choice. Even given the chaos and complexity of classical noise, we simply do not live in a determinate classical causal universe. However, most of the macroscopic universe does seem determinate and simply subject to the complexity and complexity of chaos. Thus, even very smart people often do not accept the fact of free will and often argue vociferously for the illusion of free will.

These stories all describe emotion precursors to a singular feeling and how those singular feelings of consciousness are the precursors to choice, morality, and self. In particular, each story involves a free choice to do the story, but it is not possible to know all of the precursors to any emotion even though we can know those precursors do exist. For example, we feel the need to accept a limited group authority (i.e. a government or a job) despite losing some individual freedom and often enhance our lives as a result of accepting that group authority and hierarchy. This outcome is a balance driven by a feeling from a set of emotions and, once again, it is not possible to know all of the precursors to emotion precursors.

We simply feel that it is right to give up some individual freedom to a group authority, but then argue endlessly about how much freedom we feel is right to give up. Each story shows that the precursors of emotions from the unconscious archetypes that we cannot ever really know. The stories further show that a set of emotions are the precursors to a singular feeling of consciousness and it is by such singular feelings of consciousness that we make choices, have morals, and know our self. In particular, the free choice to do the story.

Only one of the ten does not accept group authority very well but all seem to live otherwise pleasant lives. Some have experienced significant physical and or mental problems and learned how to be successful despite their problems.

It is also not possible to know all of the precursors to the outcomes of either wealth or poverty even though it is possible to know many of those precursors. Free market capitalism is one of the precursors to increasing productivity and wealth and increasing wealth is one of precursors for reducing poverty as well. Free market capitalism increases productivity with the incentives of individual freedom and accumulating personal wealth, among other outcomes. Capitalism in the U.S. distributes 49% wealth to just 15% of population and only 6% wealth to 15% of population. The remaining 45% of wealth is then more than sufficient for the middle 65% of the population to live well in the U.S. and so most people accept the tradeoffs of capitalism despite the inequality.

People nevertheless feel it is still important for the government to redistribute some fraction of wealth to the 15% or so of the population that live below the poverty line with only 6% of U.S. wealth and also to provide equal opportunity to everyone as well. However, the outcome of wealth redistribution does mean some loss of individual freedom precursors. A collective feeling or morality is a precursor to wealth redistribution and emotions like compassion and pride are precursors to the collective feeling that chooses wealth redistribution, but selfishness limits that choice and it is still not possible to know for certain all of the precursors for those emotions.

Free speech is a precursor whose outcome is not always possible to predict since free speech depends on how other people feel about what is said. Feeling is subject to quantum uncertainty because of the nature of neural aware matter spectra. An EEG spectrum is a superposition of many possible neural precursors and outcomes and it is only possible to know each precursor within some limited quantum uncertainty of matter, action, and phase. The uncertainty of an EEG spectrum is defined by the line widths of its resonances, which are the dephasing or decoherence times of moments of thought.

It is not always possible to know all of the reasons or precursors for why a person chooses to tell the stories that they choose to tell and therefore to bond with the people that they do. Correspondingly, it is not always possible to measure all the sources of the decoherence times of thought. The stories that do resonate result in EEG resonances as moments of thought and the stories are an important part of free speech. Stories that resonate bond people together into group hierarchies with acceptance of group authority. Likewise, EEG resonances are the result of the bonding of aware matter into moments of thought. The more people are free to choose their own groups, the more individual freedom they have and the more adaptable the resultant civilization is to outside changes. Acceptance of group authority decreases individual freedom and the order of the group resists change and makes civilization less adaptable to outside changes.

Each moment of our life is a superposition of precursors and outcomes that determine feeling and how we choose a single outcome. The emotion precursors that determine feeling outcomes therefore depend on both precursors and outcomes and include the outcomes that we choose as well as outcomes that we do not choose.

Horgan wrap-ups his book still feeling incomplete since none of his stories result in objective and testable definitions of consciousness, free will, morality, or self. But all of the nine stories do result in human bonds and those bonds reveal many subjective feelings about consciousness, free will, morality, and self. As a result of the subjective feelings, all of the nine stories reveal the human bonds that result from these elaborate exchanges of consciousness, free will, morality, and self. The discussion comments are then further stories that also bond Horgan and others.

Therefore, the one objective and measurable definition of consciousness is then as the neural resonances that bond people together and that addresses and resolves Horgan’s mind-body problems. Consciousness exchange is what bonds people together just like gravity bonds people and the earth together and charge bonds electrons and protons together as atoms and molecules and people and consciousness. The nine stories represent a spectrum of the neural resonances that bond people together and that bonding outcome is what consciousness is.

It is possible to understand consciousness as a neural exchange that bonds people and self and to understand that these nine stories and all stories are examples of such human bonds or conflicts. The theory of gravity relativity predicts outcomes from many macroscopic precursors, the theory of quantum action predicts outcomes from many microscopic precursors, but these two theories are fundamentally incompatible in mainstream science due to quantum phase. A successful theory of consciousness will then predict the outcomes of human bonding from the precursors of people and self.

Chopra comments that these nine stories are not useful precursors for predicting consciousness since Horgan values all of the stories equally and Chopra does not. However, all any theory of consciousness needs to do is just be able to predict outcomes from neural precursors. Since consciousness bonds humans with neural resonant precursors, the precursors of consciousness are very good predictors of the outcomes of bonding and self. These nine stories are then quantitative and objective measures of various consciousness bonds between people since most people can agree with and repeat the results with their own interviews of the same nine people.

Relativistic gravity bonds are the outcomes of the macroscopic precursors of quantum matter action and phase and charge bonds are the outcomes of the microscopic precursors of quantum matter action and phase. So the bond of consciousness is simply the outcome of exchange of neural aware matter resonance as a neural manifestation of the quantum matter-action bond.

Consciousness exchange bonds people together with phase entanglement and coherence just like gravity bonds neutral objects with biphoton exchange and charge binds atoms and molecules with single photon exchanges. Each quantum bond has complementary light emission with phase entanglement and coherence and those emitted photons make up what we call gravity as well as consciousness. The entangled phase correlates of light emission make up the photon bubbles that surround each of us and those photon bubbles define the nature of gravity as well as that of consciousness.
There are many quantum matter actions that are all together what bond people to each other with exchanges of consciousness. The discourse of language and stories are some of the many quantum matter actions of consciousness that entangle and correlate our respective photon bubbles and so quantum matter actions are then an objective definition of consciousness. Language reflects matter as nouns, action as verbs, and phase as modifiers of quantum matter action.

The couplings of neural action potentials result in certain neural phase resonances that are moments of thought and feeling. Those neural resonances are what bond people into self, pairs, and groups and we call those bonds sharing consciousness. Conflict is a result of a lack of neural resonance between people and it is by the unconscious archetypes of emotion and feeling that people either bond or conflict.

When consciousness bonds with itself that therefore defines self in the same way that electron self energy ends up defining itself as well. Relativistic gravity, though, does not show any self energy in space and time, but there is a quantum matter action self energy. However, an electron without a proton is like a person without other people and ultimately, quantum bonds are what define aether, atoms, molecules, people, earth, sun, stars, galaxies, superclusters, universe, and, most of all, consciousness.

Our unconscious archetypes give us feeling through emotions and feeling gives us morality as well as many other mimes and so unconscious archetypes are necessary precursors for the neural aware matter resonances of consciousness outcomes. How we feel is an outcome of the unconscious archetype precursors of consciousness and how we feel is free will. Since it is not possible to know all of the precursors for feeling, free will is the outcome of choices that are not possible to predict with absolute certainty.

In other words, even though each free will outcome has precursors, it is not always possible to know all of the precursors of a free will outcome in a quantum causal set universe. Chopra commented that the nine stories represented a spectrum of consciousness, morality, free will, and self but without any judgments, the stories do not help his understanding of consciousness. Chopra would have included judgments about the each story’s value as truth in order to better guide readers into his understanding of consciousness.

Chopra claims to understand consciousness simply by answering the key question, “How did something come out of nothing?” Chopra’s answer is that the universe was created by the precreated state, which is making the something of the universe out of nothing of precreation. But of course making something out of nothing will answer any question and is also a classic self-contradiction and paradox since now nothing is something after all. Therefore making something out of nothing is circular and not very useful for objectively answering any question, including consciousness.

The fact is that there are certain questions that simply have no answers other than belief. What is the precursor to the universe? What is the outcome of the universe? Why is the universe the way that it is? These questions all have any number of answers and therefore no useful answers for predicting outcomes from precursors within the universe. Why are we here? Why are we right here right now? Why is it us and not someone else who is right here right now?


People can and do ask many such unanswerable questions and then very smart people argue endlessly about the many different answers since any answer will do. Useful questions are about how the universe works, not why it is the way it is. What is matter? What is action? What is quantum phase? These three axioms do allow prediction of outcomes from precursors, but we simply must believe in each of matter, action, and phase as precursors of the way the universe is before we can predict outcomes.

The fundamental definition of the precursors of consciousness is in the outcome of neural exchange that bonds people together. The one very predictable outcome of the precursor of consciousness is the outcomes of bonding or conflict among people. Stories are consequently an important representation of consciousness and it is the something of stories that bonds people together, not the making of nothing into the something of precreation.

Chopra says consciousness is the bedrock of reality as experienced by human beings. This is simply saying that consciousness is consciousness, which is an identity and is certainly true, but hardly useful for predicting outcomes from precursors. Chopra further says that consciousness can understand consciousness, which is self, but not actually completely true. Although there are precursors for all outcomes like consciousness, it is not possible to know all of the precursors for any outcome much less that of consciousness itself. So, even though it is possible to know many of the precursors, it is actually not possible to ever completely know all of the precursors with certainty for the outcome of consciousness. Therefore it is not possible to completely understand the outcome of consciousness with the precursor of consciousness and therefore not possible to completely understand self.