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Sunday, August 9, 2015


Quantumology is the belief that quantum action describes all force and that gravity is a discrete quantum force. Quantumology necessarily begins with some kind of universal particle, like a discrete aether, and the decay of discrete aether then defines all force. What this means is that the photon diploe exchange that defines charge force also then defines a photon pair as the monopole-quadrupole force of gravity. Photon pairs as monopole-quadrupoles then bond neutral matter particles for quantum gravity and are scaled versions of the photon dipole emissions that bond charged particles.

A very simple way to scale gravity force from charge dipole force is to wrap the universe onto itself and let the ratio of the time delay of the atom to the time delay of the universe scale gravity. In other words, the charge dipole force acts locally between the charges of an atom as well as globally as a monopole-quadrupole force when the universe wraps onto itself in time. Gravity force is simply charge force scaled by the ratio of the time delay of an atom with the time delay of the universe as a pulse in time. This simple statement of unification is completely consistent with mass-energy equivalence, Lorentz invariance, gravitational radiation, and many of the other precepts of general relativity. This simple way of unifying gravity and charge force is not yet accepted by mainstream science.

However, the notions of discrete aether, matter exchange, and time delay are much more general that the notions of continuous space, motion, and time as axioms. Continuous space and motion are not congruent between gravity and charge forces and that incongruence precludes unification within the limits of continuous space and time. Instead of continuous space and motion, unification necessitates a pair of conjugates that are congruent and compatible for both charge and gravity forces.

Even though continuous space and motion are very intuitive and deeply embedded into our consciousness, the notions of continuous space and motion are not a priori axioms for all action. Discrete matter and time delay as the proper conjugate quantum operators apply even beyond the current limits of continuous space and motion, which bound more typical conjugates of space and momentum. Space and momentum still have the same meanings and utility for many predictions of action, but for both very large and very small scales, there are no expectation values for space and momentum. Time, for example, has a fundamental two dimensional representation instead of a single continuous dimension of spacetime and time reflects the nature of the boson aether pulse that is the universe.

Things happen to objects of matter in the universe because of the actions of both gravity and charge and we think of gravity and charge as being very different, but in fact they are simply different manifestations of the same force of aether decay at much different scale. The scale ranges from the time delay of the atom to the overall time delay the universe aether pulse. While charge force is a result of the boson matter decay of the universe, gravity force is a result of the fermion decay of microscopic matter. While the universe is mostly boson aether, it is fermion matter that makes up common objects.

The action of the earth's gravity creates stone from cooling inner molten magma and it is the microscopic charges of stone's atoms and molecules that hold those stones together. The much weaker action of gravity is only evident in holding those stones and us to earth's surface, but gravity is what makes earth earth. Someone building a stone wall depends on gravity not only to keep them and the stone wall bound to earth, that gravity also compresses and slightly heats stones in the actions of building a stone wall. That very slight heating of the stone is part of the gravity force of earth and leads to much greater heating of the inner earth.

Action is both what forms objects like stones from atoms and action is how we form objects like stone walls from stone. In both cases, smaller moments of matter come together to form larger objects. The heat and pressure of earth's gravity makes stone while people gather those stones and make stone walls on earth’s surface for some purpose. The gravitational bond between the stones in the wall and the earth heats the stones up very slightly on earth's surface and it is that radiative and conductive cooling that results in the bonding that we call gravitational compression.

Gravity describes how most things of common experience happen and simply depends on mass action, like the action of a deterministic path of an apple falling from a tree. Gravity results in a very deterministic cause and effect universe where it appears that all action results in only local effects. Our notions of space and momentum emerge from the actions of gravity on objects that we sense.

Charge describes how the microscopic actions of atoms and molecules of matter objects happen with quantum matter with both phase and amplitude. Quantum charge is how the apple grew on the tree in the first place and quantum charge released the apple from the tree into gravity mass action. Charge results in a wavelike and probabilistic universe that allows the matter wave amplitude of one object to affect the matter wave amplitude of another object instantaneously across the universe. As a result, both philosophy and science therefore have very different interpretations of the very different natures of gravity and charge actions.

Quantumology is the belief that gravity is just a scaled version of charge force and that quantum of gravity force is a coherent photon pair as a monopole-quadrupole. Although mainstream science and general relativity are not consistent with this view of quantum gravity, the decay of discrete aether and time delay are consistent with quantum gravity.

Charge bonds involve matter exchange between objects while gravity bonds also involve matter exchange between objects and the universe. Motion in the universe emerges from a change in an object’s inertial mass as equivalent energy and it is that exchange of aether that we call object momentum. Changes in an object’s inertial mass or kinetic energy define an object’s action for a given frame of reference while gains and losses of mass as impulse change object momentum. Although motion is a very common way to define momentum in space, the dimensionless ratio of velocity squared to the speed of light squared in ppb is embodied in the dimensionless Lorentz factor.

The equivalence of matter and energy means that velocity and acceleration are equivalent to changes in inertial mass. The dimensionless Lorentz factor impacts space, matter, and time even while most object action involves gains and loses of ordinary matter as impulsive momentum, which typically overwhelm changes in inertial mass. What we call the fields of charge or gravity force are actually matter exchanges among objects that result in acceleration and changes in object velocities. Charge and gravity fields are potential matter, which is the rate of change of inertial matter in time and is that proper matter that comes into existence as velocity or kinetic matter from an inertial frame. In matter time, fields in space are simply a manifestation of the exchange of matter between objects and those matter exchanges are the forces or accelerations of potential matter.

The decay of all universe matter with time, mdot, is in fact a fundamental principle of matter time and is the determinant of both gravity and charge actions, just at very different scales. This decay constant is simply a restatement of charge and gravity forces as cross sections and is equivalent to the dimensionless universal decay of all matter, αdot, at 0.255 ppb/yr. For charge force, αdot applies to the electron mass as the fundamental fermion while for gravity force, αdot applies to the gaechron mass as the fundamental boson, which is some 1e-39 times less than the electron mass.

Currently science uses two somewhat inconsistent theorets to separately predict the gravity and quantum futures of objects in time. This patchwork approach actually works very well for predictions of action within certain scales, but mainstream science yearns to describe gravity as part of a unified quantum action that includes both charge and gravity.

Gravity action is what holds us to the earth as well as what holds the earth in orbit around the sun and gravity action holds the rest of the greater universe together as well. So, gravity action is the way that we predict how objects move for much of our very deterministic and causal and chaotic reality here on earth and gravity action is how we measure the billions of years of our universe time delay. We have come to know gravity action as general relativity but still gravity action scales with the mass distribution of objects and gravity does not depend on exactly what the matter is.

Gravity action in matter time is very simply related to the binding of objects to the boson matter of the universe. Just like the quantum bonds of electrons to nuclei, the quantum bonds of atoms to the universe boson matter result in the attraction between neutral objects that we call gravity. Gravity is a quantum excitation that involves correlated pairs of photons as a mono-quadrupole time and for most common gravity action, quadrupole time is equivalent to proper time, τ. This approximation does not account for any quantum exchange effects, where the exchange of identical particles leads to an additional quantum gravity binding energy.

Our microscopic reality, though, is bound with charge and quantum action and, unless an object is very massive, gravity action is not much of a factor at all. In contrast to gravity action, quantum action is very dependent on the exact nature of matter amplitude and phase. Matter amplitude and phase are part of the quantum action that determines the nature of the bonds that hold an object’s matter together.

For example, an atom of hydrogen bonds much differently with another hydrogen atom as compared to a different element like oxygen. Oxygen bonds to two hydrogens and forms the water of our earth and comets. In contrast to charge action, the predictions of gravity action do not really need the details of atoms and bonds and amplitude and phase as long as we know a object's density and mass. However, at larger and smaller scale, the natures of quantum amplitude and phase do indeed impact gravity bonds.

Gravity and quantum actions represent somewhat inconsistent theorets or realities for science, but somehow we know that there is a relationship. General relativity is basically the gravity action that is what holds us to the earth and holds the sun in the galaxy and all galaxies to the universe and is very intuitive and deterministic. Each effect of gravity has a cause and that cause is local to that effect. In contrast to gravity action, quantum action depends on both matter amplitude and phase and not just mass. An extra phase coherence between objects links not only local object actions, but also correlates nonlocal object actions as well.

One of the more notable aspects of relativity is the statement of equivalence of energy and mass, E = mc2, with the proportionality of the speed of light squared and indeed quantum action has adopted that same principle as well. Just this simple matter-energy equivalence (MEE) explains much about both gravity and quantum action since all motion increases the inertial mass for each object proportional to its velocity squared, which is the kinetic energy of motion. Somehow an object gains and loses extremely small amounts of matter simply by changing its velocity.

Another notable result of relativity is the fact that the speed of light for an object does not depend on object velocity, which is a direct result of the equivalence of mass and energy and further results in a dilations of space and time associated with any motion as velocity and acceleration. When it comes to explaining the anomalous precession of Mercury about the sun or the bending of starlight by sol, the proportionality of energy and matter explains about one-half of such observations and the dilation of space and time explains the other half.

While the mass-energy equivalence principle is completely consistent with the formulation of a quantum gravity in matter time, the distortion of a continuous space by velocity and acceleration represents a little bit of a problem for any discrete quantum gravity. This is because dilation of continuous space is a result of gravity and so a particle that carries gravity force would therefore dilate space and alter the particle, which further dilates space, and so on. With discrete matter and time delay, spatial dilation is the result of action in discrete matter and time delay and not a result of gravity per se. While the distortion of continuous space and time with motion is definitely a part of our reality, this distortion is where there is a strain between gravity and quantum actions.

The question comes down to whether or not there is a continuous deterministic and predictable path for an object through space time. In general relativity, gravity distorts space and time and that is what results in a continuous deterministic path as a straight line in continuous 4-D space time. However, it is possible with mass-energy equivalence to have the same dilation of time and along with discrete changes in inertial matter, have the same path emerge for that object. In this reinterpretation, spatial dilation then emerges from the action of discrete matter and time delay and the result is what we call motion. What we imagine as action in space is really first of all an action or change of discrete matter with time delays and then only secondarily do continuous motions and dilations of continuous space emerge.

With discrete matter and time delay, a continuous spatial dilation emerges from the gravity action of an object in discrete matter time and spatial dilation therefore does not therefore cause action or motion in space. With this approach, quantum gravity becomes a straightforward result of action in matter time. While charge force is the exchange of photon dipoles between electrons and nuclei, gravity force is exchange of complementary photon pairs as mono-quadrupoles between the neutral matter and the boson matter of the universe.

The stress-energy tensor of GR then more properly emerges from a mono-quadrupole time and is not an a priori axiom. In quantum gravity, it is the mono-quadrupole time operator and its tensors that provide a proper time for each action from the two time dipoles of the rest and moving frames. For most common actions, the quantum time quadrupole is largely identical to proper time. However, for certain very massive and very small objects, there is a quantum exchange that enhances the gravitational bond. Gravity objects bind to each other by means of exchange of time quadrupoles.

Quantum action is largely about the behavior of coherent microscopic matter and is much less intuitive than gravity action at all scales. Quantum action depends on matter or mass just like gravity but quantum action also depends on something called phase and coherence and charge amplitude, properties of matter that have no relevance in general relativity. The interference effects of light are due to light’s phase and amplitude and so light shows polarization and partial reflection as a result. Yet these coherent effects occur for all objects of matter, not just for light. Neutral matter can show polarization and neutral matter can show partial reflection as well.

The basic equation of motion for quantum action is the Schrödinger equation for discrete matter,

which is a proportionality between the amplitude and phase for a matter wave of the future,


and the amplitude and phase of a matter wave of the present,


This is what is called a differential equation in time and is an action equation that describes how a matter wave changes over time, both in mass and phase. In this equation, mR represents the photon exchange energy that binds an electron to a proton to make hydrogen and is the mass equivalent of the Rydberg energy. There is an infinity of excited states for hydrogen whose energies emerge as spectral lines that converge to a finite ionization energy, which is called the Rydberg energy.

The integral form of the Schrödinger equation for discrete matter is

and shows that matter waves are also proportional to their integration over time, which is their action over time. That proportionality is the ratio of a binding energy, mR, and Planck’s constant and of course a phase factor, -i, which means that the action of an object is somehow orthogonal to its matter in time.

There is an infinity of excited states for hydrogen whose energies as discrete spectral lines converge to a finite value that is the hydrogen ionization or Rydberg energy. There are two solutions to each Schrödinger equation; an inner charge solution involving the charged electron along with an outer gravity solution involving discrete aether. The inner solution has photon dipole exchange that binds electrons to the nuclei of atoms and the outer solution involves pairs of complementary emitted photons that bind neutral atoms to the outer boson aether of the universe.

Matter waves scale with the square root of mass in matter time while the more typical wavefunctions of quantum mechanics are just dimensionless phase as probability amplitude. This means that the integral of a matter wave over all time is an action that results in the measurable property that we call mass. Matter waves are the moments of matter that make up all objects and sensation is the exchange of the matter waves of our senses with the matter waves of an object being sensed. In the parlance of quantum action, a matter wave or wavefunction collapses as a product of each exchange between us and an object and that collapse is the sensation that we imagine as the mass or some other property of an object.

We might see light from an object, feel the object, hear it, smell it, or even taste it. What we sense of an object alone is not the matter wave itself, but the product of the object matter wave with our own sensory matter waves. Sensation is an exchange of both amplitude and phase with objects in a bonding action that we imagine as reality. The discrete exchange of matter actually bonds us to objects with a quantum action that necessarily occurs in discrete quantum steps with discrete quantum states. This bonding action involves our whole body and not just our sensory organs.

A journey from point A to point B involves a series of steps or quantum jumps as an object exchanges discrete aether with other objects in order to get around the universe, successively bonding and conflicting with the matter waves of objects in order to move. Matter waves show action under the influence of operators and those actions result in discrete changes in object matter over time.

Time delay waves also show action, but now as a function of a quasi-continuum of matter. A journey from matter state A to matter state B involves a series of quantum jumps as an object exchanges time delays with other objects. While objects exists with discrete time delays, time is a quasi-continuum that depends on the very large number of quantum jumps of matter particles.

A continuum force like gravity in general relativity does not show the discrete states of quantum gravity but rather shows continuous motion from point A to point B. Continuous motion in space is a very natural and intuitive concept that is not how objects move in discrete matter and time delay. In fact, motion in continuous space results in serious conundrums like the Zeno’s paradox of an infinity of points and quantum action of whole particles resolves Zeno’s paradox but at the expense of a different interpretation for continuous macroscopic gravity action in the universe.

Gravity in matter time is a quantum action that binds atom pairs to the boson aether of the universe, which is discrete gaechron. The complementary photon pairs emitted from the charge actions of electron bonds for two atoms are the light that objects emit from charge and are the gravity force bonds between atoms and molecules as well. Emitted light represents the complementary outer state for the inner binding states of each atom and molecule and emitted light is the exchange that binds the matter waves of atoms and molecules with each other as the matter waves of the universe. Because we see light, we imagine emitted photons on trajectories through the void of space. In fact, emitted photons represent complementary changes in matter states that we call charge and gravity action.

There is a photon dipole exchange that binds an electron to a proton to form a hydrogen atom and such a mass defect is the Rydberg energy for hydrogen as well as binding atoms to each other with further energies and further shared electrons. That same charge force defect represents an equivalent photon pair exchange with the boson aether of the universe that is the gravity force that binds the hydrogen atom to the universe. The dephasing of discrete aether results in what we call gravity force and by scaling discrete aether exchange by the ratio of electron mass to discrete aeither, discrete aether decay is then what we call charge force as well. The light that we see from the stars at night represents a discrete aether exchange that binds the electrons and protons as well as atoms into stars and stars into the galaxy as well as the galaxy into the very fabric of the cosmos.

Although science expects a new particle called a graviton to be the exchange particle of gravity force, with the scaling of photon pairs in discrete matter, there is no new gravity particle. Rather, it is the universal dephasing of discrete boson aether that determines both gravity and charge forces and the photon is the basic exchange particle for both gravity and charge forces. Whereas photon exchange between the electron and proton represents charge force, photon pairs exchange between the electron and discrete aether represents gravity force. Thus, the ratio of the gaechron particle of discrete aether to the electron mass represents the 1e39 scaling between gravity and charge force cross sections.

Quantum action is often called odd although quantum action has been extraordinarily successful for virtually all predictions of action. However, quantum predictions are always probabilistic and uncertain and sometimes matter waves show correlated and coherent effects that entangle different locations in space. Even for a highly local matter wave action there is still some quantum uncertainty, which bothers many people. Since quantum phase can persist between two objects across the universe, the observation of one object phase seems to determine the other object phase instantaneously. So when that quantum uncertainty involves locations across the universe, people get even more uncomfortable and bothered.

And yet quantum action does not violate any causal principles, rather quantum action simply refines those causal principles to include matter wave phase, amplitude, and coherence as well as mass as the product of two matter waves. The phase or coherence of a matter wave is a property of an object that we do not directly experience and so it is less intuitive than just the mass of an object, which is the square of its amplitude and does not carry phase information.

There are many different ways of describing the issues of quantum nonlocality and entanglement, but basically it comes down to a set of fundamental differences between quantum and gravity notions of space and motion. Quantum motion involves both the wave amplitude and phase of an object, while gravity motion involves only the mass of an object, i.e. the product of two matter waves, and so gravity action for mainstream science does not involve or entangle matter wave phase and amplitudes between objects at all.

Objects follow certain action principles where action is the integral or sum total of an object’s matter over time. Any macroscopic object is the product of a very large number of actions over time and objects continually gain and lose discrete aether as a part of their existence in the universe. Our intuition typically represents action as some kind of spatial displacement of an object, but it is the discrete aether exchanges of an object in time that better represent quantum action instead of motion. Discrete matter exchanges occur as quantum action and are the action we see as motion for an object in space.

Einstein first recognized that both event and action times are equivalent to spatial displacements and his general relativity shows how gravity action dilates matter, space, and time in a continuous four dimensional spacetime. Objects that gain inertial mass from their potential matter we interpret as a relative motion in space and that mass gain affects the space and action time between objects as well.

There are, however, different ways to interpret the dilation of matter, space, and time, with quantum gravity and therefore with a pure quantum action. Objects are in constant discrete aether exchange with other objects and it is from the gained inertial mass from other objects that object motion in space emerges. However, in general relativity the trajectory of an object follows a determinate geodesic path determined by gravity. If rather the distortion of space is a result of the gravity actions of that object, the same principles apply but now with a complementary quantum action for both gravity and charge.

An object like a rocket ship gains velocity and momentum by ejecting matter with the mass impulse of some kind of burning fuel and the action of the burning fuel propels the rocket in the opposite direction by its equivalent momentum. However, the relative motions of both ship and fuel actually are a result of much smaller gains in inertial masses, discrete aether, as equivalent kinetic energy by the matter-energy equivalence principle.

In other words, even while we imagine that the total rest mass of rocket and fuel does not change due to exchange of equivalent and opposite momentum, in fact, it is the the very small changes in the inertial masses of both rocket and ejected fuel that results in their respective motions. In a strict sense, then, what causes motion in space is the increase in inertial masses of two objects with equal and opposite momentum by exchange of discrete aether. Both objects increase in mass proportionately with their velocities squared relative to a rest frame and this matter increase comes from the potential matter as energy that was embedded into the chemical and gravity and nuclear bonds of the fuel.

The quantum action of discrete matter and time delay, which along with action, are the three axioms that close our universe. An action equation predicts the future of an object as discrete exchanges of matter with other objects over time. Quantum gravity predicts a large number of possible futures for macroscopic objects, but quantum action for macroscopic objects involves much greater scale than the local actions of gravity.

While there are a large number of possible futures for an object undergoing quantum action, including nonlocal futures, under gravity action of mainstream science, there is only one possible future for an object. This difference of action principles goes for the same object and the same reality and leads to interminable scientific and philosophical discourse about which action actually better describes an object’s possible future. Gravity and quantum actions are largely consistent with each other in common experience, but the two actions can represent irreconcilable futures for certain very large or very small objects. For example, until science reconciles gravity with quantum action, there is simply no way to definitively address the mystery of quantum gravity nonlocality.

The single future of gravity action in GR is consistent with a reality that is deterministic and local. Local effects always have local causes and this is the reality that we normally experience with gravity. Gravity is a continuous and infinitesimal force with a pesky microscopic singularity centered on each particle of matter and so there is no coherence for an object between two different locations in space. Since gravity action is the basis of our intuition for macroscopic objects in everyday life, we therefore have a very strong expectation that local actions only correlate to other local effects. We know that two ballistic particles from a source can arrive simultaneously at very different locations along separate paths A and B. However, a single matter wave can propagate along both paths A and B and yet only appear as a single particle at A or B. Note the appearance at A is coherent and correlated with no appearance at B, but neither causes one nor the other to occur.

Our intuition and experience, after all, are both largely based on an intuition of gravity action and so we greatly favor gravity action and mass as bases for predictions. Gravity action is usually very predictable since after all, what goes up, must come down. For gravity force, there is no allowance for the coherence of a single matter wave across the time delay of the universe.

Phase coherence can make it seem like the appearance of an object in one place causes its absence in another place, or that the absence of an object in another place causes the object appearance in the one place. Coherence has many effects, but quantum action does not violate any causal principle. Quantum action simply includes phase along with amplitude and a source and so better represents the actions of the entire universe, including actions at very small and very large scales.

A quantum universe consists of objects simultaneously located everywhere in the universe as amplitudes of matter waves. What provides us with the sensation of an object in one place and on one path is the time and phase that separates that object from other objects. It is an object’s incoherence with all of its other possibilities as a matter wave that we sense as a local object in time and space. While some of the many possible futures of an object from quantum action are nonlocal, the issues with quantum nonlocality and entanglement are fundamentally related to the many very different possible futures or phases for quantum action.

Quantum action is perfectly causal, but unfortunately quantum action is just sometimes not very intuitive since quantum can involve phase and coherence among objects in different places. We find it hard to accept how a perfectly real and observable ballistic object could ever be a matter wave that has both an amplitude and phase and magically disappears from one place due to destructive interference and then equally magically reappears in a completely different place due to constructive interference of those same amplitudes.

Worse yet, objects as matter waves can actually exist as a possibility in more than one Cartesian location until it finally interacts with another object at one place or the other, i.e., the matter wave collapses or dephases. And yet our quantum reality shows that matter has both amplitude and phase and therefore matter will show the many nonintuitive effects of coherency and interference.

It is particularly confusing when explanations of quantum action give macroscopic objects like people and cats the coherent attributes of microscopic matter. Coherent matter behaves so differently from incoherent matter that comparisons between coherent and incoherent macroscopic matter can result in very confusing allegories. Although it is possible for macroscopic matter to show coherence, the dephasing times for any macroscopic object are typically very short unless the objects are very massive neutron stars or black holes.

Until science unites charge and gravity into a common quantum action for all objects, there will continue to be confusion and strong differences of opinion about the nature of quantum action versus gravity action. For example, given similar charge and gravity forces for a coherent object, quantum action shows interference effects due to superposition but gravity only predicts ballistic collisions between objects. We have an intuition and life experience with macroscopic matter and gravity action that is very difficult to reconcile with the reality of microscopic matter and quantum action.

Light is a rather unusual form of matter and a photon of light on a trajectory in space is also the exchange particle that binds charged particles together. An exchange of a photon dipole between an electron and proton represents the dipolar charge force that stabilizes a hydrogen atom dipole, which is the basis of quantum electrodynamics and is well accepted by science.

That emitted photon pair is then the binding force for gravity, but this is not a common understanding. For one thing, charge is a dipole force while gravity is a mono-quadrupole force and so it is not clear how a dipolar photon with spin = 1 and plus/minus amplitudes can result in mono-quadrupole gravity with spin = {2, 0, -2} and quadrupolar amplitudes. The radiative cooling of hydrogen at the CMB created photon pairs that are a quadrupole attractive force called gravity. Since there is a pair of photons for every two neutral atoms to the universe, it is that mono-quadrupole pair that is responsible for gravity force.

In order for a neutral atom to form from charged electrons and protons, the neutral atom must emit or otherwise radiate its dipole charge binding energy as a complementary photon. That emitted photon is equal to the atom’s binding energy, which is the Rydberg energy for hydrogen, for example. There actually can be and are many photon emissions and absorptions of various energies and so this description just simplifies that complexity into one single event pair.

Each pair of neutral atoms emits a pair of photons at creation and those photon matter waves have complementary spin and polarization. While the dipole force between these particles and the photons progressively cancels out over time, the mono/quadrupole force persists as a tensor. Thus gravity force behaves as the quadrupole tensor of a coherent photon pair with spin = 0 and is a single particle with physical dimensions that literally define the age of the universe.

There is just one future for gravity action in general relativity and that one future is still consistent with our deterministic intuition. General relativity dilates or distorts continuous matter, space, and time with gravity action and there are many strange results of general relativity having to do with time dilation, simultaneity, and frames of reference. But while distant objects far away from a gravity action do not affect a local gravity action very much, the ratio of hydrogen’s time dipole to the time dipole of the universe is the scaling between gravity and charge forces.

In contrast to the determinism of gravity action in GR, there are actually a large number of possible futures for the same action as a quantum time quadrupole. The Rydberg photon emitted from hydrogen at creation is the exchange with the universe that binds each hydrogen atom to the boson matter of the universe. The time delay of that bond is coherent with that of the electron around the proton. The photon exchange between the universe and each pair of such atoms binds each atom to the universe matter and therefore to each other as well. It is then the shrinkage of the universe about those atom’s center of mass that represents what we interpret as the binding force of gravity between these two hydrogens.

Therefore the binding energy for hydrogen is the sum of the binding energy of the electron and proton along with a second term that is the binding energy of the atom with the discrete aether of the universe. In a strict sense, the binding matter of the electron and proton of an atom scales to the binding matter of that atom to the universe. Since they are equal and opposite in sign, their sum is zero and that result is an example of the Taylor-DeWitt equation. Even though their energies are equal and opposite, charge and gravity matter waves are quite different.

Whatever future actions occur for atoms in their many possible futures, their center’s of action and the gravity action that goes along with these centers persists. As matter evolves into heavier elements in star fusion engines, there are additional light and energy exchanges between those heavier elements and the universe and this additional action matter means that matter bonds in more complex ways to the universe just as matter bonds in more complex ways with different elements. The nature of gravity force actually increases over time just as the universe of matter shrinks or dephases and it is the overall shrinkage of the universe that is the origin of all force.

Quantum mechanics represents matter as the two dimensions of amplitude and phase. Thus a particle on a trajectory in space represents the matter of an object as a wave in a spectrum of matter waves across all space and time. A classic example of the wave nature of light is a series of strong and weak intensities, fringes, that is an interference pattern. An equally classic example of the particle nature of light as photons is the photoelectric effect where a photon of some minimum energy results in ejection of an electron from a metal surface.

The wave nature of light results in a pattern of light and dark fringes due to a coherent action from a single source between two or more possible paths for a source’s photons. This coherence can be the result of any number of means but the typical experiment is with two slits and the resultant diffraction of a light source.

However, each peak of intensity of the fringe pattern comprises a large number of measurable single photon events from the source. We want very badly that each of those photons journeyed ballistically along straight line paths from the source to the pattern and are disappointed to learn that there is not a single ballistic path for any single photon. Rather, each photon journeys as a matter wave with a wavelike trajectory on multiple paths to the interference pattern.

We are further disappointed to learn that this fringe pattern could persist over the dimensions of the universe. That is, the photon that we detect right here right now that come to us from a source may have also possibly been on a different path, somewhere very far away connecting some other object to the same source at the same time distance away. Since the photon wave journeyed across the universe somehow on its way to us right here we presume that its journey was ballistic as a particle.

When we record the photon right here, right now, we know for certain that the photon was here now and therefore not ever anywhere else. But the moment before we measured the photon here now, there had been a possibility that that same photon as a wave would have occurred somewhere else in the universe and therefore not here. Our intuition, though, tells us that photons that emanate from a source do so in a continuous ballistic manner and those photons are on continuous ballistic paths. The quantum truth is that it is photon matter waves that emanate from a source, and a photon matter wave is not yet a ballistic photon localized in space.

This seems like a funny result since when we see a photon, we know that the photon came from the image of a source that we imagine behind the photon and so we imagine a ballistic Cartesian journey in a more or less straight line from the source to our eye. If the source is incoherent, we imagine that it shines equivalently in all directions, but still imagine each light wave as a ballistic photon particle.

This is how we imagine objects in our Cartesian minds and a quantum action as a wave goes against the deterministic intuition of our ballistic gravity action. This does not mean that the photon did not exist before its wave dephased from the source, rather it means that the photon existed as a matter wave with both amplitude and phase and not as a ballistic particle.

What gives? Why can an object appear to be in more than one place as a matter wave prior to its interaction with another object at a different location? And what about the recoil momentum of the source? The ballistic action of a photon leaving a source means a recoil of equal and opposite momentum of the source since that is our experience with the ballistics of firing a bullet from a gun. A gun immediately recoils with the bullet momentum and does not wait until the bullet hits a target. In other words, the bullet does not remain coherent with the gun from which it discharged for very long and so the ballistic path of the bullet is a single path from the source.

However, a bullet is really not an apt analogy for a photon as a matter wave.

A different perspective provides different information about an object and while that information from a different perspective is in principle knowable, we cannot ever know about an object from every possible perspective. We can never observe all of the different perspectives of an object, but still that lack of knowledge does not represent anything that is fundamentally unknowable.

The path of a photon through space, however, can represent information that is fundamentally unknowable. A matter wave is necessarily a superposition of states and so we can only know the result from say two possibilities, A and B, by seeing the photon along path A. However, we can only then conclude that the photon’s amplitude wave included path A and we cannot know that the photon was ballistic on path A. The photon may or may not have existed as a matter wave superposition on A and B even though we can still use the photon location at A or B to know the direction of the source.

A single photon event does not tell us very much about a source and we typically depend on many more than thousands of photons to locate a source image with any precision.

A photon and its source can remain coherent with each other and that coherency will persist until some kind of dephasing action occurs with another object. An action with another object can dephase either the photon or the source and if that happens, the photon becomes ballistic. A subsequent action between an object and the photon, such as reflection, polarization, diffraction, refraction, etc., in effect creates a new source and a new phase relationship with the photon.

Actually we readily accept some degree of time and spatial uncertainty for events as long as the uncertainites are local to an object or action. But it really distresses our causal nature when there are large spatial gaps between an object’s possibilities, i.e., when the fringe patterns of quantum interference are really large. It simply is not possible to assign ballistic trajectories to photons with anything more than a probability.

We as quantum beings are in a quantum universe and only have relational experiences with objects by exchange of matter. Yet we imagine from those limited relations a ballistic Cartesian existence outside of our quantum mind with well-defined objects that we recognize from past experience. While a Cartesian object has a single ballistic trajectory in space and time, there are many possible futures for a relational object with which we are in direct contact and so we exchange our own matter waves with that of an object. Quantum events and actions reveal that there is a relational dimension in our quantum existence, even though we normally only imagine a Cartesian world of objects from our relational experiences with those objects.

It is from our relational experience with an object that we project its Cartesian or ballistic reality and so that is the dilemma of existence. It is only possible for us to experience an object through our relations with an object’s matter waves, but we then imagine a ballistic Cartesian existence in our mind that represents that object on a trajectory in the space outside of our mind.

We can prepare a coherent state that represents a particle’s matter wave amplitude at two places across the universe from each other with different phases. However, once the particle interacts with an object in one place or the other, that action can dephase or collapse that matter wave and therefore localize the matter wave to a particle in that one place.

The background matter of the universe, whatever you want to call it, is mostly what defines the universe and there is necessarily a coherence in time for any matter action. The phase of an action of a particle defines the location and direction of the particle journey and so a particle reality occurs in just one location. A particle amplitude, though, goes into and out of existence as its matter wave oscillates in time, in principle for the whole time of the universe. And a particle as a matter wave at a given moment also varies in the matter spectrum of the universe, in principle involving all of the matter in the universe.

One way to unite gravity and charge force is by the principles of discrete matter and time delay. In discrete matter time, light is the exchange particle that is responsible for both charge and gravity forces. Light binds charges together into an atom with a single photon and light also binds atoms to the universe with photon pairs as an exchange that binds atoms to each other with gravity.

In much of our experience, particles are well localized and that means particles are dephased and incoherent and ballistic in both the time and matter of the universe. In quantum parlance, this is what we know as our Cartesian reality, where particles and objects all seem to behave ballistically and independently. If a particle is on a trajectory through space, that trajectory represents a continuum of displacements along that trajectory.

However, a particle as a coherent matter wave manifests itself with additional possible futures in both proper and action times of the universe. While charge force is a local exchange on the dimensions of an atom, gravity force is the stabilization of that atom with a photon exchange that occurs on the dimensions of the universe. A coherent charge state binds each atom with a coherent gravity state due to an emitted photon wave, a wave that has 2π symmetry. Gravity force, though, is a result of two complementary photon waves, which are the exchanges of photons on the much larger time and matter dimensions of the universe and therefore have a 4π symmetry.

In effect, gravity force is therefore coherent with charge force and the action of light scales both gravity and charge forces by the matter and time dimensions of the universe. The photon, electron, and proton of each atom are in an action that binds the atom together while a complementary emitted photon wave exchanges with discrete aether and binds atoms to each other through the universe of matter.

Coherent gravitational states are therefore possible, but only with very simple gravitational matter. The boson accretion that we call a black hole, for example, is an example of highly coherent gravitational matter.

In principle, a gravity beamsplitter as shown in the figure at right prepares small objects like atoms or molecules into a superposition of coherent gravity states. Two identical massive bodies like the earth and moon orbit each other around a center of mass as in the figure. Two much smaller and identical objects, A and B, are in orbits that intersect at a gravitational Lagrange point between the earth and moon.

It appears that any gravitational Lagrange point can result in generating coherent gravity matter states for small objects on different orbits. Moreover, two stars that are equidistant from a third star result in a similar degeneracy that results in a coherent matter wave resonance that affects all three stars. Such matter waves perturb the underlying discrete boson aether of the universe and so matter waves affect both charge and gravity actions in complementary ways.

Coherent matter states in the universe have the same proper times relative to a source event, even though they are widely separated in action time. While a matter wave can remain coherent with a source for a very long time, that does not mean that a particle’s existence is uncertain; it does mean that a particle’s state or future is uncertain.

There is a conflict between the ballistic Cartesian existence for an object that we typically project with our mind and the relational existence that actually binds us to the matter waves of objects with matter exchange. These two dimensions of existence represent the dual aspects of our quantum reality as well as the duality of Descartes’ and other philosophies. In our ballistic Cartesian experience, existence has one meaning; an object that exists does so right here and right now as part of a proper existence.

In our relational experience, the matter waves we exchange with objects only represent possible futures. When we exchange discrete aether waves, we in essence share or exchange both matter and phase with objects in the wavelike realm of quantum exchange, and existence of quantum matter waves means something more than Cartesian ballistic existence. The relational aether wave exchange that binds us to an object means that the object becomes a part of us and we become a part of the object, even though we only sense some small fraction of that matter wave exchange.

When we exchange matter waves with an object, we call that experience, and there is always a period of both matter exchange as well as phase coherence between two objects. Any residual coherence between us and the object can result in a further relational component beyond a mass change and is a quantum entanglement that is beyond the typical ballistic Cartesian experience of action and reaction that we imagine. Note that Cartesian and relational dimensions of experience are really both part of a dual quantum reality.

We can and do imagine and know that there are other possible futures for any event that we experience. In particular, an action can dephase a photon from its source in which case the photon becomes ballistic. But as long as a photon remains coherent with its source, a matter wave binds not only the photon to the source, but to other objects as well at the same time distance from the source.

The photon could have a single ballistic future or it could have the many possible matter wave futures that entangle it with other objects. It is the other possible nonlocal and unknowable futures that somehow bother our causal ballistic natures. We want to place each object that we experience on a single ballistic Cartesian trajectory that is continuous from an origin to a destiny. Our intuition does not have much patience for the seemingly endless waves of quantum coherency that entangle local aether waves with other aether waves on other trajectories in the universe.

A photon that remains coherent with the action of its source has different possible futures from a photon that has dephased from its source. A photon that has dephased from its source has a single ballistic future much like any macroscopic object. All macroscopic objects, though, continually emit and absorb light and particles with incoherent phases and so a macroscopic objects’ decoherence times can be quite short. Simple quantum objects like photons, though, can retain coherence with their sources across the universe.

We are very comfortable with the causal notion of directional coherence and expect that a single point of an object emits photons in a single direction. When we see a photon from such a point on an object, we know the direction from which it came and our quantum logic does not change that truth. Where we have trouble is in imagining a single photon event that also has a transverse phase coherence as a matter wave that is perpendicular to the photon direction from a source. Transverse phase coherence means that a photon amplitude travels as a coherent wave in different possible directions at the same time even though the photon will only be absorbed by another matter wave in one particular location or phase.

There are actually two dimensions to time and our two dimensional time along with two dimensional matter represents a total of four dimensions in matter time. Given a π/2 or perpendicular phase relationship between matter and time, these four matter time dimensions reduce to three; matter, time, and phase. Time’s two dimensions include a proper time and an action time and matter’s two dimensions likewise include proper matter and action matter.

Our proper time is relative to the CMB in our 371 km/s velocity inertial frame. Action time is that associated with velocities of common experience, perhaps all of several meters per second and so action time represents displacements that are orders of magnitude less than the displacement of proper time.

Proper matter describes our galaxy as it moves at 550 km/s with respect to the CMB and rotates at 200 km/s, while our sun moves at 220 km/s, about 20 km/s faster than the galaxy rotates. These actions all make up the proper matter that results from our 371 km/s proper motion with respect to the CMB while our action matter is what occurs at lower scale.

Earth rotates about the sun at 30 km/s and spins about its axis at 0.47 km/s while we travel down the freeway at 0.027 km/s and walk around at about 0.001 km/s. Matter is likewise two dimensional with one dimension being the proper matter of our comoving frame of reference in the universe. The second matter dimension is the action matter of common experience that we call kinetic and potential energies.

Each atom of the universe forms as bound charges in a quantum exchange of light and other bosons that complements a gravitational quantum exchange orbit of that atom with the gaechron matter of the universe. We like to imagine a ballistic orbit for gaechron around an atom through space just as we like to imagine an electron in a ballistic orbit around a proton. But the atom-gaechron orbit is through time and quantum phase and not through space just as the electron orbit is through time and quantum phase as well.

While continuous space and motion are very useful ways to imagine the universe, continuous space and motion do not always represent either electron-proton states or atom-aether states very well. In addition to the time of this atom-aether orbit, there is a quantum phase angle between time and matter and for typical action, and it is from matter and time and from that phase angle that we project what we call space.

For any pair of atom-universe bonds, the shrinkage of the universe aether is the gravity force by which atoms appear to attract each other. In fact, the shrinkage of the universe is responsible for both charge and gravity force, just at very different scale. Eventually, these gravitational accretions of fermionic matter evolve from hydrogen into other elements in stars and that nucleosynthesis releases more action matter. A portion of the total energy and luminosity or action matter of each galaxy derives from nucleosynthesis and that action matter eventually ends up as large boson accretions known as black holes.

The formation of protons and electrons from the aether of the early universe results in a light that is the integrated CMB luminosity at 2.7 K, very much colder than the 70-80 F that people prefer. Once stars begin to fuse hydrogen into other elements, there is enough action matter to reionize hydrogen as well as to begin to fuse matter into excited states of the universe. And this reionization is an additional source of energy that then contributes to an overall universe energy balance.

Suppose you see an object along path A, if the object was at some incremental displacement as A – ds the previous moment, then the object was ballistic and its action was local. There are objects that exist in a superposition of quantum states, {A, B, C, …} and such an object can distribute around the universe according to some prior coherent quantum action. Note that a ballistic object actually also follows that same quantum logic, but a ballistic object has dephased and no longer coherent with its source.

The action of a beamsplitter creates coherency between the two paths A and B and some kind of magic occurs at the beamsplitter that makes 50% of photons disappear by destructive interference at both A and B. The ballistic Cartesian interpretation is that the beamsplitter reflects 50% of the photons as particles to A and transmits 50% to B and although this answer is technically wrong, it is good enough for many applications. If all you need is a one-way mirror or a grayed window or sunglasses to block sunlight, you really do not need to know much about single photon coherence. Thus our ballistic Cartesian reality does work fairly well for most predictions of action, even for those quantum actions with quantum devices like sunglasses.

We often lack knowledge about the appearance of an object even though that object exists as a single state and its appearance is in principle knowable. We can also lack knowledge about the state of an object, but if the object does exist in a single state, that single state is in principle knowable as well and not subject to quantum entanglement. When an object or image is a superposition of two coherent amplitudes, though, a single state is not yet realized and therefore not even knowable in principle. The object or image will not appear until we or other objects dephase the amplitudes from each other and a single state occurs.

Using logic to test quantumology tries to get a more graphic description of nonlocality. Remember, though, that quantum logic is already quite rigorous since it is based on math. It is rather the word descriptions of quantum logic that somehow fail to convince our common ballistic intuition of the principle of coherency. Our language is full of loopholes and conundrums and logic itself is often thwarted by the words that confuse meaning.

You say A is B or A is not B, but of course, we have a lot of examples of words that provide ambiguous meaning even to simple logic statements. Nothing is true, but if that is correct, it means that nothing is not true as well. The universe is finite, and if that is true, it would mean that the universe is not finite as well. Everything is finite and if that is true, nothing is finite since nothing is a part of everything. If there is anything that is really true, it is that nothing is really true. But if nothing is true, then anything is not true as well.

Is matter real? Is time real? Is action real? What is matter and why is matter the way that it is? What is time and why is time the way that it is? What is action and why is action the way that it is? Why does the world exist?

Thinking is being, but thinking is in our mind and being is not in our mind, and if that is all true, thinking is not being.

One very significant issue with quantum versus gravity actions is in the definition of consciousness. Unless there is a way to express conscious choice in the context of quantum action, there will always be those who believe that conscious choice is an illusion of the chaos of a ballistic determinism. Usually the reasoning goes that all action in the world is actually deterministic, but the world it is also just really, really very complicated and so we can never hope to know all of that complexity and chaos.

In a world of chaotic determinism, while it seems like we have free choice, this is just an illusion and the truth is that we just have more choices that we can ever possibly know about. However, philosophers who take this position then need to stipulate that there is still a need for personal responsibility and morality. In a deterministic universe, it is not clear that anyone is really responsible for their actions. After all, action and behavior are simply the some total of their genes and experiences up until that point.

All choice comes down to a binary decision between action and inaction at some threshold of a neural action potential and since quantum probability determines the neural action potential as it does all action of the universe, quantum probability also governs choice. Circumstances at the time of a choice predetermine most choices that we make and so in that sense, even binary decisions are not random. Each set of circumstances determines the threshold of action, but at the threshold of each action/inaction there is a distribution of quantum possibilities and a superposition of action and inaction states. In particular, there are a number of even odds choices that we make that may still substantially change the path of our lives. Every action, then, is a quantum action and involves some superposition of states for some period after the action.

An aware matter algorithm is part of our consciousness is therefore an important part of what makes us us. While most actions have fairly predictable results, there are no perfectly predictable results of action, especially for the results of human actions. Given the free choice that is quantum action, we do have a responsibility for choosing moral action since we freely choose our path in life as part of our purpose.

What we know of as right and wrong and just and unjust is part of the purpose with which we journey in life from our origin to a destiny. We are not programmed to be good or evil, but we are free to choose our destiny despite any experience of our past.

Some of what happened in the past involved objects that persisted as amplitudes and never collapsed into intensities. What this means is not that these objects do not exist as one phase, rather it means that the objects persist with more than one possibility as matter amplitudes that still project into more than one spatial location in the present moment.

Continuous space and motion are really just the results of discrete matter and action and so space exists only as a result of discrete matter, time delay, and the action of matter exchange. What this means is that while space is a convenient and necessary way to imagine discrete matter and action, the notions of continuous space and motion are limited. Although we find it useful to remember space as an object of the past that contains objects of action, the universe exists as an object of matter and its matter spectrum is what actually exists. While we get confused by objects that appear to simultaneously exist in different places in space, the state of the universe matter spectrum at any past time is knowable.

Sunday, May 17, 2015

Augmenting Relativity

The overwhelming success of general relativity for mainstream science's macroscopic reality of continuous space and time cannot be overstated. Likewise, quantum mechanics represents an even more successful understanding of our microscopic reality of amplitude and phase. All of relativity’s reported successes, though, are really due to the two key notions of mass-energy equivalence (MEE) and gravity time delay of light. Lorentz invariance, the constant of the speed of light irrespective of velocity, simply follows directly from MEE and means that the gravity deflection of light follows from both light’s gravity MEE and the extra time delay of light.

Likewise, it is the quantum coherence of microscopic matter as amplitude and phase that is largely responsible for quantum's microscopic success stories. The quantum story is built upon space and motion, just as is the GR story, but for GR, space and motion do not apply everywhere in the universe while quantum amplitude and phase apply everywhere. In the GR or mainstream science, velocity and acceleration in empty space make up frames of reference from which emerge changes in inertial matter and time delays of light. Gravity affects light once as light’s MEE mass and then again as gravity’s acceleration and red shift and so gravity deflection of light is twice that of just light’s MEE gravity deflection.

Augmenting continuous space, motion, and time with the more general notions of discrete matter and time extends the validity of gravity to all of the universe. In a sense, this means that space and motion actually lie within the the domain of discrete changes in inertial matter and the time delay of light by gravity, not the other way around. In other words, augmenting continuous space and time means that the basic principles of MEE and gravity time delays still apply to that part of the universe. however, the spatio-temporal tensors of GR do not apply outside of the limits of continuous space and time and so a change in inertial matter emerges as motion in spatial frames of reference and it is from changes in gravity that space emerges from gravity time delay. Thus, space and motion are both within the domain of changes in inertial matter and time delays and not the other way around as shown in the figure below. The total time delay for light due to gravity is after all a factor of two greater that of just light’s gravity MEE time delay.
Any model of the universe with both gravity MEE and time delay will also be consistent with the observed gravity light deflections, but there are further notions of relativity that do not necessarily follow from gravity MEE and time delay. For example, GR lacks an absolute frame of reference even though the CMB seems to be an absolute frame of reference and given an absolute CMB frame simply limits the scale for GR tensor algebra.

Also, the determinate geodesic paths of GR objects in a 4D spacetime are inconsistent with the microscopic probabilistic quantum paths of the very successful quantum action. In fact, the determinate GR geodesics in effect do away with the quantum notion of time since time becomes just a GR displacement and it is the 4D geodesic paths that then determine the futures of all objects from the initial conditions of the universe.

In contrast, quantum mechanics shows by many different measurements that there are no determinate geodesic paths for quantum objects. In fact, there is a fundamental lack of knowledge of certain quantum paths and a fundamental uncertainty principle limits all quantum paths. Yet despite the limitations of GR, the predictions of MEE and gravity time delay corrections allow our GPS satellites to work and explain the deflection of starlight and the time delays of quasar radio sources by the gravity of the sun as well as the lensing of galaxies by other galaxies. All of these measurements are consistent with gravity MEE and time delays and so any theory that incorporates MEE and gravity time delays will also be consistent with all of these observations as well.

The further notions of a lack of an absolute frame of reference in GR and GR determinate geodesics are then both open to question and neither has been verified by measurement.  The CMB does seem to represent an absolute frame of reference that then closes all motion in the universe and the well demonstrated quantum uncertainty does seem to rule out any determinate GR geodesics. Thus there are still notable limitations embedded within general relativity despite GR’s notable successes with gravity MEE and time delays. Furthermore, as science better understands the universe, the limitations of GR become even more apparent.

Black hole singularities are inconsistent with quantum action
Probably the most famous of all of general relativity’s limitations is the notion of a black hole singularity. Given enough mass, light’s gravity time delay will eventually be sufficient to capture light into a singularity and therefore stop atomic time at an event horizon, two well worn predictions that simply cannot be the whole story.

Black hole event horizons are inconsistent with quantum action
A particle of matter that encounters the event horizon of a black hole is subject to two quite different predictions; gravity and quantum. According to much of the historical black hole modeling, such a particle simply becomes part of the mass accretion and loses all information about its past.

More recent calculations find that, prior to reaching the event horizon, a particle is ripped into successively smaller pieces until the very, very small Planck limit. Those tiny pieces of matter begin collapsing before they accrete and therefore never actually become part of the primary black hole. These eternally collapsing objects, eco’s, take the place of the primary black hole, but do not really resolve the quantum paradox.

Quantum calculations predict something for a particle of matter at an event horizon, tearing into matter and antimatter particles, resulting in so-called Hawking radiation. The black hole event horizon turns into a quantum firewall and just like with the eco, accretion action stops near the event horizon. There just cannot be these two very different fates for the same neutral particles.

Proper time is inconsistent with quantum time
Proper time is a key notion of GR and that proper time then becomes the fourth displacement of 4D spacetime. Ironically, time as a GR spatial displacement in effect does away with the uncertainty of time. Because all motion in GR occurs as a result of gravity along determinate geodesic paths, the future is completely determined by the past.

Quantum time, on the other hand, is both reversible and uncertain and there is no stopping quantum time at a GR event horizon or anywhere else in the universe. However, time is simply a quantum progress variable and there is therefore no quantum expectation value for a time duration or delay.

It is clear that the future for a given object simply cannot be both deterministic by the principles of GR and probabilistic by the principles of QM and it is likely that both GR and quantum times will therefore need some kind of augmentation.

Dark matter and dark energy not explained
Dark matter is an extra gravity correction that explains the stabilities of galaxies and galaxy clusters while dark energy is yet another gravity correction needed to hold the universe together as the CMB. The absence of any sign of these gravity corrections in GR is a little disconcerting and seems like a major flaw of GR to simply invent matter and energy objects.

Determinate geodesics inconsistent with quantum action
One of the basic assumptions of GR is that gravity action distorts or curves the 4D spacetime and that objects simply follow predetermined geodesics as minimum energy paths. Of course, quantum action not only does not distort 4D spacetime, quantum action results in likely but not determinate futures. In quantum gravity, there will very likely be a number of possible futures instead of a determinate one.

Lack of amplitude, phase coherence, interference, and entanglement
Our quantum reality depends on both the phase as well as the amplitude of matter. However, gravity force in GR only deals with the norms of quadrupole matter and time and so there is no role for phase coherence or interference or entanglement with gravity. Since all of these notions of amplitude and phase figure prominently in quantum action, it is a major flaw in GR that there is no corresponding quantum monopole or quadrupole gravity to complete our quantum reality of dipole charge.

Planck limit inconsistent with quantum uncertainty principle
Once a particle gets small enough, its own gravity will collapse it into a microscopic event horizon where time stops and quantum action does not apply. But quantum action functions everywhere in the universe, even inside of black holes and there is no stopping quantum time. Quantum action limits the divisibility of matter and space to the uncertainty principle and to the quark, but there is still something wrong with quantum time.

No absolute frame in GR
The basic relativistic tensor math of GR depends on the absence of an absolute frame of reference within continuous space and time. However, the CMB seems to represent just such an absolute frame of reference for everywhere in the universe. In GR, the lack of an absolute frame means that we only see light in the universe within our event horizon or light cone and that there are past events that are now beyond that event horizon. For example, the universe expansion means that the CMB will eventually move beyond our event horizon in about one billion years or so.

It would seem to be much more likely that the CMB represents an absolute frame of reference that all can seen and that necessarily closes the universe. We would not then be in an expanding universe at all and the CMB will still be a CMB in one billion years, albeit somewhat evolved.

Quantum time is not consistent with proper time of GR
A determinate time in GR is incompatible with the uncertainty of quantum time. Quantum atomic clocks tick very precisely but their precision is limited by the uncertainty principle. Moreover gravity clocks that tick like millisecond pulsars are also very precise and yet ms pulsar gravity clocks all decay. While that decay can be largely due to gravity and/or EM radiation, there is an average intrinsic decay as well of 0.255 ppb/yr. That intrinsic decay means that ms pulsars tell two distinct times as their pulse periods and as their average decay.

It is therefore likely that quantum time also has both atom pulse periods and the same slow decay of atomic time as ms pulsars; 0.255 ppb/yr. This means that time actually has two dimensions; an atomic time period and a gravity decay period and that two dimensional quantum time would then be consistent with the two dimensional gravity time of gravity ms pulsars.

Quantum space and motion are inconsistent with GR space and motion
Empty space and motion in empty space are both infinitely divisible notions that deeply underscore much of mainstream science. But while quantum space and motion are both quantized, GR space and motion are both continuous and it is clear that notions of space and motion are simply fundamentally incompatible between QM and GR.

Many very smart people have worked very hard for nearly a century to make space and motion consistent between gravity and quantum, but to no avail. In fact, the notions of infinite divisibility for both space and motion have actually been problematic since the time of Zeno of Elea, the Greek philosopher of 460 BCE.

The continuum of sensation of objects that fills time contrasts with the void of sensation that we presume exists as space
Unlike the void of empty space, for which we have no sensation, time is filled with a continuum of waves of sensations. There are no empty voids of time since all of light, sound, touch, smell, and taste shine continuously onto us and our senses with a continuum of sensory information about objects and their backgrounds. Our sensation of object changes and time delays result in neural packets of aware matter from which consciousness extracts information useful for prediction of action.

It is from this continuum of sensation that our consciousness imagines objects and also ignores or renormalizes any background time delays. Even though there are no voids of sensation in time, our minds assign differences between object and background time delays to the lonely nothing of empty space. Space emerges to keep object sensations different from background sensations.

Objects that we sense have a different time delay from the backgrounds that we sense along with those objects. Our minds use space and motion to represent the difference in time delays as an absolute time or Cartesian distance that separates objects from other objects and their backgrounds. Space and motion, in this sense, simply emerge as whatever they need to be in order to properly represent the object changes and time delays of sensation, but space and motion do not exist in the same way that matter and time exist.

Therefore, the lonely nothing of empty space and motion within that space are notions that emerge from a more primitive reality of object changes and time delays. The nothing that we imagine as space and the motion of objects in that nothing of space are both simply very useful representations of consciousness. Notions of space and motion help consciousness keep track of objects and make predictions about the futures of those objects.

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Cartesian Space and Time Emerge from Quantum Aether

Space is an infinitely divisible empty void that makes up most of the universe according to common understanding. In other words, space is nothing and we do not sense space and it is only the something of objects that we do sense as part of our outer lives. We sense objects and their backgrounds with different time delays and from the difference in those object time delays emerges the nothing of empty voids of time and space between those objects. Although discrete sensations of objects continuously bombard us, we all believe very fervently that a continuum of time and empty space exists as a container for objects. Even though we do not sense space, we are never without sensation of objects of our outer lives. We sense objects from a continuum of discrete sensations at different time delays or perspectives and those time delays involve various sensations and from those discrete neural sensations emerge the singular nothing of space; we simply believe a singular space exists because that is the way the we believe the universe of our outer life is.

Although the notions of space and motion are very useful for making sense out of our reality and predicting action, continuous space and motion do have their limitations, both at very large and very small scales. Space and motion are also very different between macroscopic general relativity and microscopic quantum action and that difference is a source of endless confusion. There is a more primitive reality of discrete matter and time delay from which continuous space and motion emerge and for very large and very small scales, this primitive reality closes the universe.

The figure below shows how the three orders of consciousness represent our perception of the universe. Our first order Cartesian reality represents objects outside of our mind in our outer life on trajectories in an otherwise empty void of space. This is how we view most of reality and that first order consciousness has been very successful for life in general. Gravity is the main force acting in our outer lives and the outer life is called objective or things in and of themselves or Descartes body or Kant’s phenomenon and this is how the inner life of our brains work. We learn a Cartesian consciousness of an outer life even before we learn to speak and simply come to believe with an inner life the outer life just as it is.

The second order is a relational reality in which objects are made up of pieces and parts held together by all of gravity, charge, strong force, weak force, and even the very weak bonds of neural synapses. Our second order reality represents the world of ideas or subjects inside of our mind and of discrete sensation that never stops. We learn these more elaborate stories about how the world works mainly in school, but also on our own and from our parents and friends. This more precise view of reality helps us be part of the cooperative civilization that we now are part of. Although gravity force still determines much of action, it is the amplitude and phase of charge force that is really what holds microscopic matter together.

This relational order is what is called our subjective reality of our inner life where each person has a separate and unique experience with objects as ideas. A relational inner life is Descartes’ mind or Kant’s noumenon and is how reason works. With the reason of our inner lives, we can imagine many more possible futures in the superposition states of the aware matter of our minds. Our minds interact with other aware matter and form bonds and conflicts through sensation and the resultant cooperation and conflicts among people allows us to reach futures that other sentients cannot even imagine.

There is a further spectral order of consciousness, which is a level of consciousness that most people do not experience. With spectral order a matter spectrum represents each object as amplitudes of matter just like a time spectrum represents each object as a pulse of matter in time. The peaks in a matter spectrum are amplitudes with either plus or minus phase and represent all of the interactions or relations of all of the pieces of matter that make up that object's matter spectrum. Thus even the EEG spectrum of neural aware matter represents all of the bonds and conflicts of aware matter in the brain, now as a power spectrum of consciousness. There is also a great deal of phase information embedded in neural aware matter, but the typical EEG does not measure the phase information of neural aware.

Our reality is determined by a continuum of never ending discrete sensations and the actions of sensation always involve the norms or squares of amplitude. Although neural phase coherence does affect our reality, we mainly see those effects with light and electricity. We do not normally sense phase as distinct from the intensity of matter objects and their time delays. Thus spectral consciousness is a level of awareness that is beyond just the typical Cartesian and relational realities that we experience every day.

Although the notions of space and motion are extremely useful in many contexts, space and motion often confuse our notions of matter and time and that confusion has thus far precluded any unification of gravity and charge forces for mainstream science. In order to unify forces, science must first resolve the confusion of space and time by realizing the limits of space and motion. By setting aside the more intuitive conjugates of space and momentum that are such an integral part of our Cartesian and relational consciousness, science might then use our more primitive spectral reality.

In order to build a quantum reality, science must first recognize the limits of space and motion compared with the alternative conjugates of matter and time for the same quantum reality. The conjugates of matter and time nicely unite gravity and charge forces by aligning the concept of a two dimensional time between gravity and charge as a unified quantum force. The notions of space and motion then emerge from the actions of matter in time and we see space for what it is; a convenient white board for keeping track of objects and action.

In fact, it is ironic that we seem to be more certain about the existence of the absolute nothingness of space as an empty object than we are certain of any object that we actually do perceive. After all, it is certainly true that there is something that separates objects from each other in time. So it is quite natural to conclude that there are large amounts of the absolutely static nothing in between objects within the infinitely divisible void of static space.

Even when we sense an object, it is not always apparent whether or not that object actually exists. Our senses are bombarded with a continuum of light, sound, touch, smell, and taste and our minds use only a small fraction of that sensation to represent an object. The object could still be an illusion or it could be a mirror reflection or it could be a picture of an object or even a hologram projection of an object. And yet even though we do not see or sense the nothing that is space, we always sense the something of objects and we invariably conclude that the different time delays of objects means that an empty void exists between objects that we call space. However, there is never an absence of object sensation in the continuum of experience even while we never sense space.

Continuous time is then primal belief that we have as part of the foundation for understanding the universe and it appears that the empty void of an infinitely divisible space as well as motion in space both emerge from the actions of matter. That is, the infinitely divisible nothing in which we all fervently and intuitively believe, really just emerges from a simpler primitive reality of just matter and time.

It should not be too surprising that the three dimensions of Cartesian space and motion emerge from a simpler primitive spectral reality. After all, a belief in space as an infinitely divisible void of nothing is a kind of oxymoron. To believe in the existence of an object like a tree is one thing; but to believe in the existence of the nothing of empty space is quite another thing…literally a belief in nothing as something. We sense objects at different time delays or perspectives and suppose therefore that space exists as a nothing that is what separates those objects. But what then fills space? There was a persistent belief up until the last century that an aether filled space and so gravity and charge forces transmitted by means of aether.

However, once mainstream science became comfortable with the magic of action at a distance for the force fields of gravity and charge in an absolute vacuum, the possibility of the aether of Newton faded into the uncertainty of time.

So why do we continue to believe so fervently in something that is really nothing at all? Space and motion emerge proportional to time and matter to order our reality and we effortlessly sense the motion of objects and actions through the empty spaces outside of our minds. This is the Cartesian reality of the Figure. We imagine those objects on various time trajectories in this object of space even though we never sense the space between objects. Rather we sense objects and their motion at different time delays and from different perspectives emerges the empty void of space to separate objects from each other. Empty space then seems to provide a way for those objects to move about.

In fact, it is time delay and matter change and action that separates objects, not really space. In other words, space and motion emerge from a continuum of matter and action that fills all time and it is rather the conjugates of time and matter that are the true axioms of a primitive quantum action. When we imagine action, we first begin with empty space and then imagine an object moving in that empty space and so time simply becomes equivalent to motion in space.

If instead we first imagine time delay as a primal dimension, object matter changes by exchange of matter with us and other objects in order to bond and conflict in a never ending continuum of sensation that involves exchanges of matter. Our minds extract certain changes in the matter of objects over time as action from which emerges our notion of object motion through Cartesian space. Just like science often uses time as a distance in measuring the cosmos, we also use time delay in many common descriptions of distances on earth.

And yet we continue to believe very fervently in the empty void of a continuum of space that defines the time delays of our journeys in life. If time is a primal dimension that truly separates objects, then it certainly also seems reasonable to suppose that Cartesian space and motion simply emerge from time delays and matter change. All of the spatial dimensions of forwards and backwards, left and right, up and down, seem so intuitive that we forget how complex and difficult it was as children to learn a Cartesian consciousness.

We fully realize that as children we learn to speak and understand language, a likewise difficult and complex skill, but we do not seem to realize that we must first learn about objects and motion well before language would even make sense. We and other objects move so effortlessly through the emptiness of space that existence seems impossible without both an empty and continuous space and time and mainstream science calls its paradigm spacetime for this very reason.

There does not seem to be any science or any Western philosophy that supposes space emerges from the changes of objects in time embedded within a continuum of sensation over time. There is, however, much Eastern thought that teaches about the illusion of reality and it does turn out that our notions of Cartesian space do end up distorting and therefore limiting our understanding of the true primitive natures of the axioms of time and matter.

Instead of recognizing time as a distance that is always connected to a determined future, there is also a second time dimension. In fact, the past is not really a part of time and the past is only the fossil memories and objects that we use to predict the future. Although we think of time as a continuous single dimension with a past, present, and future, this makes time just another dimension of Cartesian space.

Eastern philosophy does reveal the illusion of our sensory reality and Hindu Vedic beliefs emphasize the illusion of reality, the Maya. It is only with a lifetime of ritualistic meditation that one can ever hope to understand this illusion. Buddhism likewise teaches that sensation misleads us about reality and it is only by a highly prescribed ritual meditation that we can hope to understand the illusion of reality. It is only by quieting the maelstrom of the aware matter of our mind that we lose self and thereby achieve a better understanding of the world. However, we can never really step out of the continuum of sensation over time since we are embedded into the universe.

A much more straightforward explanation for these intuitive notions of an illusory reality is that Cartesian space and object motion through space emerges from a simpler reality. Space and motion emerge from the time delays and exchanges of matter among objects, which is the action of matter time that is our primitive reality. The neural packets of aware matter that make up conscious thought come from the mimes of sensation. Mimes are the brain matter structures that mime or replicate the sensation of an object and then allow us to make sense out of sensation. The irony of reality is that our consciousness is really also just matter changes in time and so in a very real sense, space and consciousness both emerge from the primitive characteristics of time delay and matter in our brain.

A finite line in Cartesian space nevertheless has an infinity of points and we associate similar infinities of points with all space and time. On a line, there is a current position as a point as well as preceding and following points and time then emerges as a similar line that has a present that connects past and future. In contrast, a Cartesian line that emerges from time delay is not infinitely divisible but instead is made up of moments since time delays are moments. A series of moments would be a memory of the past, but there is no action to replay this memory and the past is not therefore part of time’s dimension. We imagine a set of future moments as possibilities and so the present is a moment of memory and action while the past is only memory stored as brain matter, a fossil of the past. There is not just one determined future since the present moment is only one of many possible futures, but our sensations represent a continuum of discrete moments of time.

Neither a straight Cartesian line nor even a single connected line emerges from time delays. We can predict the future perfectly well with only the time delays and changes of matter in time, which is action and we do not really need the a priori notion of motion in Cartesian space. However, Cartesian space and motion are still extremely useful and only misleading for predicting action at very large or very small scales.

So a mathematical representation of a quantum reality can predict action equally well with the conjugates of space and motion or with matter changes and time. In fact, our minds fill in most of what we perceive as motion in Cartesian space from just a few sensations that we extract from the continuum over time and that is the reason that a quantum reality without space and motion is therefore difficult to imagine. The very powerful Cartesian notion that evolution has given our minds simplifies the complex time-ordered continuum of sensations of matter changes for objects in time that our minds process. The mimes of sensation then result in our feelings about objects in our primitive minds and those feelings result in both conscious and unconscious actions.

It is important that there are two dimensions for time and not just one; a moment of atomic action and the decay of those moments as memory or intrinsic decay. What we think of as past is just a memory of action as experience and not a dimension of time, so time is not just a memory and yet our past is only such a decaying fossil memory of action. Time is always both a decay along with an action and since we cannot journey into a past memory, it does not make any sense to journey to a past event.

Unlike a return journey in Cartesian space, the past is merely a fossil memory of actions, nothing more and nothing less, even though memory is an intrinsic part of time along with action. As we approach an object, the time distance we journey is the memory of our stride or the turns of a wheel or the clicks of an odometer as well as the action of our stride, wheel turns, or odometer clicks.

Matter changes are a part of what time is and those matter changes can be our own memory or they can be the hands of a clock or the sand of an hourglass or the geological layers of sedimentary rock or the spin the earth or the pulsar timekeepers of the cosmos. The memory of time can also be in the calendar of the year, in the relics of civilizations, or in the fossil record of life. The matter changes that we call the past are different from the action and memory that we call the present and that is different from the superposition of possible futures and so time is not a linear dimension as past, present, and future.

What we call past and present are both simply a part of the time dimension as memories of events, either our own memories of the fossil record of action of a clock or calendar. What we call the present is then the two dimensions of decay and action, which is what time actually is. What we call the future are the many possibilities of action that we imagine and there is not a determinate future.

A principle in science known as the microscopic reversibility of time seems to show that time is reversible. At a microscopic scale, the scientist/philosopher Poincaré supposed that the collisions of atoms or subatomic particles in space are completely symmetric in space and time and therefore completely reversible. In fact, Poincaré showed mathematically that there is therefore a finite probability that any configuration of particles will exactly repeat itself over time.

In the quantum atomic world, there is also a strong principle of time reversal symmetry, but that is simply a characteristic of one time dimension, atomic time, and the principle does not consider the universe decay time as a second time dimension. Once science recognizes that we live in a universe with a second time dimension as matter decay, matter decay introduces a very slight asymmetry in time as well as determining the nature of all force. Thus, even at the microscopic level, matter exchange among objects and therefore also matter action has the well-defined time arrow of matter decay.

Even at the subatomic scale, time is only a memory of action even as Cartesian distance emerges from the time between sensations of objects. The emergence of Cartesian space simplifies the complexity of the continuum of time-ordered sensation and helps us do what we really need to do…predict action. What we really need to do with sensation is predict what is likely out of all the possible futures to where we might journey by our chosen actions. In fact, consciousness itself is really just another representation of time since consciousness is our memory of the actions that are the neural impulses of our minds’ aware matter.

We imagine futures with our minds and then select a desirable future based on the singular feeling of our primitive minds and choose actions to journey to those futures. We never actually reach the exact future that we imagine, both because of the imprecision and uncertainty of action but also because of the imprecision and uncertainty of feeling. During a journey, our feelings evolve, others’ feelings evolve, and the world around us evolves. By the time we reach the future that we desired, the world has changed and along with it, our feelings and the future we imagined have also changed.

The mathematics of science called quantum mechanics can predict action with just the representation of matter, time, and phase. Quantum mechanics and its wavefunctions only depend on a conjugate pair of operators and those operators do not have to be the typical choices of Cartesian space and momentum. In fact, avoiding the empty void of space resolves many quantum conundrums, and that includes the conundrum of quantum gravity.

Coherent quantum states can persist across the time of the universe and coherence is a common feature of quantum action that results in something known as entanglement. But Cartesian space and motion do not permit the coherence of two events across the universe since coherence seems to imply coincidence and instantaneous action by the strictures of relativity.

Our intuition demands that, with increasing separation of an empty void of space between objects, objects become increasingly independent of each other. All effects by this logic must have local causes by local objects and therefore causes and effects are always limited by the speed of light in space. But quantum coherency seems to violate a local causal principle since quantum states can be instantaneously coherent across the universe. Yet this quantum coherence of states is always tied to a single common source and therefore a single local cause. Therefore the fact of coherence with a source is indeed limited by the speed of light in space.

It is the emergence of Cartesian space from matter time that intrudes into our interpretation of motion through space as time and velocity. What about the speed of light? The speed of light actually emerges from the decay rate of the universe matter in this epoch and the radius of the hydrogen atom. We project a gaekron action of time as the void of Cartesian space and the speed of light in this epoch then emerges from the three constants of matter time.

Universal matter, matter exchange, and decay are the sources of all time and gaekron decays more or less uniformly throughout the universe. So gaekron matter and decay together also define space while the objects of observable matter are gaekron matter condensates that are only a portion of the basic gaekron matter of the universe.

The presence of coherent matter across the universe is not just an anomaly of microscopic quantum mechanics, in matter time coherency and interference are causal features of all reality. Every time we observe an object, what we sense is still just one of many possible futures for that object. From a whole series of sensations, we deduce the reality of that object and are then usually very good at predicting the future of an object’s action. Once we sense an object reality, the other possible futures decay away very quickly, even if those possibilities existed on the other side of the universe.

However, we are not always correct about the reality of an object and we can be mistaken. But our very survival often depends on how well we predict object action, so that survival naturally favors a consciousness that better predicts action. Now those objects can be inanimate like cars and houses or they can be people or animals or they can be galaxies or galaxy clusters.

The existence of coherent states across the universe is linked to a coherence of matter amplitude phase, not matter intensity or proper time. In other words, coherent matter amplitudes can evolve as two or more different possibilities from the same precursor source event. The time distances as well as the matter amplitudes between those two possibilities differ only in phase coherence and as long as there is phase coherence, the fates are linked. Normally we do not think of phase as a causal agent, but there are any number of phase effects that exceed the speed of light, so-called superluminality.

Phase coherence can occur over what emerges as a very great Cartesian distance, but those coherent states are linked by the same time distance from a common precursor source event. Thus the time distance to the precursor event necessarily limits to the speed of light any communication of phase by either observer. Even though we imagine that a particle observed on path A instantaneously precludes its observation on path B, that is only one of many possible futures for that particle.

Observer A can not know of any other possibilities without more knowledge and that extra knowledge is necessarily limited by the time action of light from the source. If an observer sees a particle on path A, it is reasonable to assume that that particle was always on a journey from the event along path A. But since it is equally likely that another observer on path B will see the same particle and if that event occurs, the particle will not then appear on path A.

What gives? Which path was the particle on? How can a single particle seem to be simultaneously on both Cartesian paths A and B? Furthermore, observation of the particle on path A seems to instantaneously preclude its observation on path B. How can this cause be instantaneous? This piecemeal reality appears to spread the possibilities of a particle over the wide expanse of the cosmos.

Instead of the speed of light in space, time action is limited by the matter decay rate of the universe. Since all force is due to the exchange and decay of gaekron, all action in the universe is in some sense always coherent with all other action and always limited by that universe decay rate. The appearance of an object simply means that there is constructive interference of gaekron in time while the absence of an object in time means that there is destructive interference of matter, which is what we call space and is the absence of matter in the time between the objects. The absence of objects is due to destructive interference and simply represents dephasing of gaekron matter.

However, gaekron matter does not fill space, but rather space emerges as a convenient and simple representation in our minds for both gaekron matter and its changes in objects over time. Space and motion emerge from the actual complexity of sensation and action in time. The time between sensations is what separates objects and an object matter spectrum shows its relations with all other objects and so the matter spectrum is a complementary representation of an object in matter time.

It is obvious that most of the universe is made up of empty space and that most of an object is also made up of empty space since there is space between atoms of any solid object and there is even more space between electrons and nuclei and then even more space between quarks in the nucleon. But, once again, the Cartesian space within an object emerges from the changes in its matter spectrum over time. One might also say that all of objects and the universe are just different peaks in a gaekron matter spectrum, but that statement would not be very useful either.

The objects of matter exist as gaekron in various time and phase amplitudes according to quantum mechanics. More than one possible realization of an object in very different Cartesian locations may emerge from its matter spectrum. All of these possible futures for an object in time do exist with very different phases and while it seems to our Cartesian logic that action has only local causes, it is rather the case that quantum logic determines causality as the evolution of a matter spectrum.

We imagine ourselves in a frame of reference at rest and further imagine light from a source traveling away from us at the speed of light. If instead we imagine that light source creating stationary photons and moving away, it would rather be us and our comoving frame traveling away from the particular photons that we have emitted given the collapse of that world line.

Certainly it is much simpler to imagine with our Cartesian logic that incoherent photons emit and move in all directions away from a stationary source. But the universe collapses in all directions and from all points into itself and it is the rate of that collapse that determines all force.

Phase is a dimension of matter time that is very common for light but not otherwise explicitly incorporated into the everyday reality of other objects. We are made up of matter that has amplitude as well as phase but sensation is the result of the norm of matter waves and does not include phase. Similar to polarized light, the polarization of matter can contribute to a confusion of causation, but only in very controlled experiments. Polarizing a single light photon along one axis at 0° means that that photon will not pass through an analyzer oriented at 90° and these two devices will not transmit the polarized photon. However, inserting third polarizer at 45° in between the polarizer and analyzer allows that single photon to now pass 50% of the time because the 45° analyzer creates two possible polarization states from that one polarized photon.

Thus even though we imagine a single polarized photon along one axis, a single photon always exists in a superposition of two polarization states. A linearly polarized photon is really a superposition of right and left circularly polarizations even while a right circularly polarized photon is a superposition of linearly polarizations phase shifted by ¼ of a wavelength. In fact, a single photon actually has in general an elliptical polarization because the two possible polarizations can be related to each other by an arbitrary phase angle.

The third polarizer inserted at 45° distributed that single photon polarization between the two orthogonal Cartesian directions, not just one. The phase coherence of a single photon between two Cartesian axes is straightforward to calculate, but difficult to imagine. We want a photon to be polarized in only one way, but then we find out that that one photon always exists as a superposition of two circularly polarized states at different phase angles, one of which we observe as a linear polarization.

Ancient people drew pictures of the realities they saw and those pictures seem to us rather flat images with odd perspectives. Classic Egyptian art, for example, shows people and animals without perspective and with profiles that are not what our cameras of today project. Ancient pictures showed a great variety of object projections onto flat images until the realism of painted images and camera photography in the renaissance. We take for granted the camera-like projections of objects onto flat surfaces, but those projections are actually not what we sense. The imagery of our art tracks the evolution of our civilization and of consciousness itself.

Surrealist and impressionist artists have shown over the last one hundred years or so how we can perceive objects in many ways that contrast with a camera image. Artists often produce images that are manifestations of a projective Cartesian reality. In fact, such art often shows a combination of the two different representations for reality, Cartesian and relational, and we use both of these representations to predict action. Whether we project an object as a Cartesian camera flat image or we project the relations between objects onto a flat image as a relational representation, both projections represent objects for us.

A relational camera would take a very different snapshot of reality. Instead of recording the light intensity projected as an image on a flat surface, a relational spectrum would record the interaction or relational intensities among the objects of a scene onto the same surface. A relational spectrum shows interactions and therefore also shows the many possible futures of objects in a scene as opposed to their static Cartesian projections of that captured moment. That is, the strength of all of the charge and gravitational bonds would mean that matter objects would look like x-ray images, but with gravitational bonding at 1e39th less intensity than charge bonding.

Cartesian projections tend to be image frames that capture a moment of a time-like representation of a scene and so that is why our projection of space is time-like. Relational spectra, on the other hand, tend to be matter-like and action-like and capture the matter relations among objects. A relational spectrum shows the way an object interacts with other objects at a moment, but does not capture the Cartesian distances among objects very well.

If two people have a relationship, that relationship is a bond that represents a peak in each of their relational spectra just as the gravity that bonds each of them to earth as well as all of the charge bonds are also peaks. Just as charge bonds the charges of atoms, molecules, proteins, and lipids of their body’s cells together, the neural bonds of consciousness hold their realities together; their relationships with all the objects around them are also peaks in their relational spectra.

We tell word stories about the relationships that we have with each other and with other objects and these word stories are more like a relational spectrum than just a Cartesian image. As opposed to a photograph of moment, a word story describes the relational spectrum that complements that moment of a Cartesian representation of object time relationships.

Sunday, April 26, 2015

Deflection of Starlight by the Sun

The first verification of Einstein’s relativity came with the observation by Eddington during an eclipse in 1919 of starlight deflection passing close to the sun. Einstein had predicted in 1915 that the sun's gravity would deflect star light, but it actually took many more years to really put this issue to bed. This is because there are two separate but equal terms for that deflection and it even took Einstein time to realize that this was so.

The first term is due to the mass-energy equivalence (MEE) of photon energy and is really then just the Newton deviation of classical gravity of an object trajectory close to a massive body is shown in Fig. 1 and is based on just gravity and mass equivalent momentum. In other words, there is both a classical Newtonian deflection of star light as well as relativity's deflection of light by gravity. The real question is why relativity predicts twice the deflection as predicted based solely on Newton's gravity, but including the mass equivalent energy of light.

And of course, since the energy of a photon is equivalent to a rest mass, this is the Newton deviation for a photon particle as mass or momentum as well. These units are all in radians, Eqs. 1 and 2, where 2π radians equals 360°, [1], [2].

For relativity, though, there is an additional deflection due to the gravity time delay and spatial distortion and a progressive gravitational redshift of light. That is, the deflection of light due to an extra gravity time delay exactly doubles the deflection due to gravity as MEE, Eq. 3.

The fact that these two effects, gravity MEE and time delay, are equivalent but distinct was not immediately apparent to Einstein and others in 1915, but eventually Einstein recognized that his relativistic deflection was indeed twice the Newton gravity deflection for light in a vacuum. So the total deflection is the sum of both Newton and redshift contributions as Eq. 4:

The original Eddington results from 1919 showed a deflection of the starlight by the sun, but those results had a fairly large uncertainty as shown in Fig. 2 and so really did not validate Einstein's Eq. 4 over Newton's Eq. 2. Since then, many different kinds of measurements have indeed verified the extra gravity deflection of light predicted by Einstein. Figure 2 shows starlight deflection data from the 1976 eclipse along with the Einstein and Newton predictions along with the range of data from Eddington in 1919. Although there is substantial scatter in the measured deflections, this paper confirmed Einstein’s prediction over Newton's with a 95% CI.

The much more precise time delays of quasar sources across the sky by VLBI radiotelescopes measures time delays between stations across the width of the earth, ~6,000 miles, to derive the same light deflection for these radiowave quasars. A more generic expression that is valid for objects across the entire sky is Eq. 5 as

where the angle, theta, is the elongation angle between the sun and the source and g = 1 for GR and g = 0 for Newton.

Travel through a gravity gradient in effect delays both photons of light as well as bodies of matter and from the precise measurement of that time delay emerges the deflection of light in space. The measurement of starlight deflections during a 1976 solar eclipse shows a dataset that is consistent with Einstein gamma = 1 and not just Newton gamma = 0. However, the scatter in the starlight deflection data in Fig. 2 shows how difficult this measurement really is.

Figure 2 also shows the three of the five much more precise VLBI results reported in a 2015 paper for a series of VLBI measurements of quasar time delays from 1991-2001 that also followed the expectations of Einstein’s relativity and gamma = 2. Unlike the measurements that depend on an eclipse, measured VLBI time delays occur throughout the year and over ten years and showed circular paths for each of five different quasar radio source deflections. One example is the blazar 1606+106 deflections in Figs. 3 and 4.

This data revealed very precise measurements of the deflection of quasar radio signals over the course of ten years for quasars that were located at the minimum angle 30.9° from the sun, a much greater elongation angle than any previous report. Once again, these datasets support the deflection predicted by Einstein’s relativity and gamma = 1 over that of the mass-energy equivalence of light and gamma = 0.

Instead of measuring starlight deflection only during an eclipse, the VLBI measures radio source deflection over an entire year for all of ten years. Each quasar radio source reveals a circular pattern that shows the same deflection observed with the eclipse datasets. Figures 3 and 4 show the deflections of blazar 1606+106 that is located 31° or 124 solar radii from the ecliptic and would be the elongation at the maximum deflection.

The much more precise VLBI data is also consistent with the nature of relativity to an extent that seems quite convincing. However, there are still other explanations besides Einstein’s relativity for the deflections of starlight and radio sources that are fully consistent with these measurements. These results all derive from approximations that use only the leading terms of various series expansions to simplify the complex tensor algebra of the relativistic equations. As a result, these same approximations are actually valid for any number of alternative scenarios as long as they all incorporate the same basic principle of mass-energy equivalence (MEE), i.e., E = mc2

There are some big flaws in Einstein’s general relativity, but starlight deflection by gravity is not one of them. In fact, far from validating GR, starlight deflection is consistent with any number of other theories as long as those theories incorporate gravity MEE and therefore time delay. For example, MEE is a founding principle of discrete aether and so star light deflection by the sun is not so much of a verification of GR as it is of gravity MEE and time delay.

A spherical gradient index lens, for example, deflects starlight in the same way as a gravity body like the sun. For a gravity lens, the starlight first redshifts in its approach and then blueshifts as it leaves the gravity field deflected as shown in Figs. 1 and 5. Similarly, for a gradient index lens, the starlight redshifts and delays as it travels the index gradient and then starlight blueshifts as leaves the index gradient. Similarly, a body of mass accelerates and gains energy upon entering a gravity gradient, then decelerates and loses energy and is also delayed upon traveling the same gravity gradient, but only one-half as much delay as the starlight.

The dielectric effect delays light that travels through a dielectric medium since light slows down in a medium with an index of refraction greater than vacuum. In a fully consistent manner, a gravity field slows light and therefore results in the same index gradient, which is an alternative explanation from relativity. Whereas Einstein supposed a distorted 4D spacetime where light followed geodesic paths (shown in Fig. 5), light does not change velocity along that spacetime geodesic. Instead, a gravity field dilates time and space by the same Lorentz factor in a gravity field, which maintains a constant speed of light in the moving frame.

In the moving frame, there is no change in the speed of light because both distance and time are dilated by the same MEE factor and so in GR, there is no way for the traveler to know about their motion without communication with the rest frame. However, in the rest frame, the deflection and delay of light in the moving frame is very apparent. The apparent speed of light for the photon does in fact slow down since there is a time delay just as there is a time delay for the matter body as well.

A positive gradient quadrupole gravity wave, shown in Fig. 5, is due to the exchange of image dipoles with the photon dipole and this is a dielectric effect. In effect, the photon travels through the gravity quadrupole field and that same quadrupole gravity field exchanges dipole pairs between the two matter object. It is the exchange of quadrupole photons that results in an increase in that object’s inertial mass and velocity.

A quadrupole gravity exchange with a photon of light results in an apparent red shift or mass loss followed by blue shift and mass gain and an overall photon delay even while the same quadrupole gravity exchange with a matter object first increases the decreases object mass and ends up with only one half of the time delay that a photon experiences.

A photon in a dielectric gradient generates an image dipole that results in an attractive force and a red shift of its frequency. In effect, the quadrupole gravity field derives from photon emissions of matter particles that end up folding back onto the particles with the folding time of the universe. The time quadrupole operator, Fig. 6, is the basic scaling for gravity force from dipole time operator of charge force.

Quadrupole photon gravity is a quantum gravity and is a part of matter time, where all force derives from the same fundamental decay of the universe. Photon delay in a gravity field is twice the delay of an MEE matter object due to the fact that a photon undergoes an additional dielectric delay that is equivalent to its MEE delay.

It is from these time delays that our notion of space emerges from the action of matter. Therefore, the fundamental flaw in Einstein's GR is that a deterministic geodesic path like Fig. 5 exists. Although this is an excellent approximation, that path in a quantum gravity actually emerges from the exchange of biphotons. Similar to the exchange of virtual photon dipoles that represents the basic nature of quantum charge, it is the exchange of virtual biphoton quadrupoles that represents the basic nature of quantum gravity.

The factor of two for relativity's delay of light is actually the same factor of two that shows up in the gyromagnetic precession frequency between relativity and classical frequencies of rotating charge. This means that the g-factor that relates quantum to classical charge is the same g-factor that relates quantum and classical gravity, finally resolve the discrepancies between gravity and charge.

Eddington, Arthur Stanley (1919). “The Total Eclipse of 1919 May 29 and the Influence of Gravitation on Light.” The Observatory 42, 119-122.

Sunday, February 15, 2015

Aethertime Cosmology

Instead of a big bang, the discrete matter and action universe decoheres from its precursor antiverse expansion and the decoherence rate is what drives both charge and gravity forces in the shrinking or collapsing epoch of decoherence. The current decoherence rate is 0.255 ppb/yr, which is about 9.6% per Byr matter decay and force growth and means that the current universe is only about 81% of the mass of when decoherence began at creation but the speed of light at creation was zero. The ratio of the time size of the universe to the time size of the hydrogen atom represents the ratio of charge to gravity forces and force also evolves along with universe decoherence.
Instead of the Hubble constant deriving universe expansion from galaxy red shifts, the red shifts of the Hubble constant just define the size of the universe given the speed of light in this epoch. Equivalently, Hubble is just the product of the current rate of the universe decoherence and the current speed of light, H = αdot c. The aethertime Hubble constant is then purely a classical constant and simply depends on constants that are the ratio of gravity and charge forces, H = mH2G / (q2 rB 1e-7). This means that the size of the universe scales from the size the hydrogen atom and the ratio of gravity and charge forces.

And what do you know...the universe is shrinking...universe is slowly dying reported at 50% over 2 Byr. The paper Galaxy and Mass Low z shows a decay of three times,  {2.25, 1.50, 0.75} Byrs as {2.5, 2.25, 1.5} e35 W/Mpc3 at h70. Since the current universe is about 0.32e35 W/Mpc3, which is the Virgo cluster luminosity over its 0.11 Blyr time size.

So the very latest decoherence would show the accelerating collapse of 6.3e35 W/Mpc3/Byr, not just 0.63e35, which is 50% over 2 Byrs. The dephasing of discrete aether shows this decoherence is actually due to universe shrinkage and not expansion, but the time delays are not the same between expanding and shrinking universes. It is fun to suppose that this measure of universe decay is consistent with an aether decoherence that drives all force. The universe actually decoheres at -9.6%/Byr, but the universe decoherence presumes a constant c, which doubles the apparent matter decay to -19%/Byr.