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Thursday, September 3, 2020

Spectral Free Choice

Human interaction as either weak or strong as well as a bond attraction or a conflict of dislike are both the result of matter-action free-choice EEG spectra. The neural phases of the EEG spectra show whether the attraction is weak or strong and also show whether there is bond or conflict. The quantum phases of neural action potentials shows the pervasive nature of our quantum reality as matter-action quantum causal sets.

The universe matter-action spectrum likewise shows the frequency and distribution of universe matter intensity versus mass and is the transform of the universe matter decay pulse. While universe time emerges from the precursors and outcomes of universe matter decay, atomic time emerges from atom action. All things that happen have matter-action spectra outcomes from their matter-action spectra precursors. Each person's matter-action spectrum describes their matter and all of their interactions with themselves as well as with the universe outside of the self.

Gravity relativity is a very weak force that scales with the size of the universe while quantum charge is a very much stronger force that scales with the size of atoms. Until the biphoton of matter-action, it has been a mystery how gravity relativity and charge forces represent the same basic matter-action force. It is then even further amazing that the very weak forces of human free choice are also consistent with the same basic matter-action force.

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Transcendent Precursors of Free Choice

There is a precursor for every outcome in our universe and so causation is a fundamental part of our reality. Furthermore, causation is also fundamental for feeling and free choice as well, but we do not always know why we feel the way that we feel nor why we make the choices that we do. So, there are still many precursors especially for feelings and free choices that do not have knowable precursors even though those precursors do exist. This means that there are transcendent precursors for those many outcomes that do not have knowable precursors even though those precursors do exist. For such transcendent precursors, we must simply believe in our feelings and free choice and believe in transcendent precursors. 

Science measures and predicts matter-action precursors and outcomes according to the principle of causation and Western Science and Religion were precursors for the emergence of the enlightenment of Science. However, the transcendent precursors of Judeo-Christian morals and ethics still provide the basic archetypes for the truths of science just as Science of the Enlightenment had knowable matter-action precursors and outcomes that then displaced many of the early transcendent precursors. Science showed precursors for plagues and famines that were not supernatural acts. As a result, Science now shows that our cosmic microwave background of deep space surrounds us the the knowable precursor of our cosmic microwave background creation. The CMB shine was the precursor to all the local outcomes that we now see in our deep dark sky at night. 

However, Science cannot yet see through the CMB and measure any precursors to the CMB, and so a CMB precursor is therefore subject to many different transcendent beliefs, including religion. One narrative supposes that the CMB precursor was a singularity that suddenly, rapidly, and uniformly expanded matter, action, space, and time as a Big Bang with Inflation. Nevertheless, there still any number of further transcendent precursor beliefs for the CMB singularity since singularities have no meaning in either space and time or even in matter and action.

The Hasse diagrams of discrete nodes of matter-action precursors and outcomes are the basic nodes of the grid of our causal set universe. Instead of measuring precursor paths through time and space to predict spacetime outcomes from precursors, matter action measures precursor matter-action spectra to predict outcome matter-action spectra.

Friday, July 3, 2020

Random Chaos and Free Choice

In a recent essay, George Ellis argued that science does not either prove or disprove free will and so Ellis leaves open the issue of free choice. However, Ellis does not define free choice nor does he measure free choice and so really, Ellis has little to really say about free choice. Likewise science has no measurement of free choice and without a measurement, science also really has little to say about free choice. In other words, despite the overwhelming consensus in science that the precursors of free choice are determinate illusions that result from the Big Bang, Ellis argues that science cannot measure or prove free choice precursors are illusions and so science must leave open the possibility of free choice outcomes. 

Science hates this kind of free choice equivocation because it leaves open the possibility of a religious transcendent and mystical free choice. Although Religion just like Science assumes that we live in a mostly causal universe, religion further believes that there are also some transcendent precursors that we can never know about for some outcomes like free choice. Ellis argues against any transcendence and instead argues that it is biological complexity that precludes knowing about all precursors to free choice outcomes. In fact, Ellis does not even mention the religious narrative that attributes free choice precursors to transcendent mysteries. Ellis does conclude his essay by stating his belief that without free choice, we would not have moral responsibility and so he is glad that we do have free choice and therefore moral responsibility.

Both Ellis and Science presume that we live in a causal universe where every outcome has a set of precursors. A precursor for each outcome then means that there are no transcendent precursors from outside of the universe. Naturally, then, since every outcome has precursors, Science argues that we can in principle know the precursors of any free choice outcome as actually determinate and not free. Ellis argues that it is biological complexity and molecular uncertainty that preclude any knowledge of free choice precursors. Many others in science believe likewise that the complexity of random chaos similarly precludes knowing about all precursors to free choice outcomes.

Even though we do live in a causal universe where there are precursors for every outcome, that simple fact does not then mean that we can know every precursor. In fact, there are many unknowable precursors for outcomes that we readily admit to. Why are we here? Why are we here right here right now and not at some other outcome? Why is it us who are right here right now and not someone else? Why is the universe that way that it is? Why is matter the way that it is? Why does action change matter the way that it does?

These are all perfectly reasonable questions that have no answers and are part of what we cannot ever know about the universe. Science calls such questions meaningless since they do not have measurable precursors, but religion calls such questions transcendent because their answers lie outside of the causal universe. One argument about free choice is that a machine does not have free choice and even a really complex machine only does what its creator programmed it to do. The argument continues that a creator is also just a machine that does what their creator programmed them to do, and so on until the transcendent master simulator of creation. This means that we are all in a determinate simulation of the Big Bang and have no free choice at all.

Science does accept that it is impossible to predict the outcome of free choice from its precursors even though Science cannot either define or measure free choice. However, then Science goes on to list all the of reasons that make the precursors of free choice unknowable. Science then concludes that even though Science cannot predict free choice outcomes that does not mean free choice exists, just that we have the illusion that free choice exists in a determinate universe. 

However, there is no measurement that proves free choice outcomes are illusions, the free choice outcome does not depend on whether you believe in free choice or you believe in the illusion of free choice. Therefore it is simply impossible for science to address free choice without a measurement or even a definition of free choice.

Ellis rightly decries the moral relativism that results from a lack of free choice. Thus, he is relieved that there is free choice even though he does not define or measure free choice.

Thursday, June 4, 2020


Frames of Consciousness by Joel Frohlich is a very well written and well referenced Aeon essay on the current state of defining and even quantitatively measuring consciousness in neuroscience. 
It is very pleasing to have such an interesting topic covered in such detail and I really appreciate his essay. It is difficult to both define and then to measure the thing you have defined since it is a lot like making up a new word and then using other words to define your new word that you just made up. After all, why make up a new word when other words already exist that communicate the thing just fine.

Consciousness is, after all, not a new word that Frohlich just made up and so there are as many definitions of consciousness as there are people writing essays about consciousness...and as many disagreements as well. Consciousness includes sensation, conscious thought, unconscious thought, subconscious thought, autonomic action, long-term memory, short-term memory, emotion, sleep and, of course, free choice action. We sense, reason consciously or respond subconsciously, and then excite or inhibit action. In the end, Frohlich does not really define consciousness but simply shows ways to quantitatively measure small slices of consciousness. 

"Consciousness is a mystery. A multitude of scientific theories attempt to explain why our brains experience the world, rather than simply receiving input and producing output without feeling."

Notice that feeling is a part of consciousness as is experience and receiving input (sensation) and producing output (free choice action) are all also parts of consciousness, with or without feeling. So Frohlich's phrase simply means that consciousness is the involuntary act of being conscious, an identity that is certainly true but hardly useful. Frohlich goes on to argue that quantum superposition and quantum phase decay have nothing to do with consciousness. Of course, quantum superposition and quantum phase decay is how all of the world works and so quantum is certainly how consciousness works as well, even though Frohlich does not like Hameroff at all.

Instead, Frohlich likes Tonini's two words for consciousness: differentiation and integration. Okay. We see two things and then can tell them apart. Great. Then we remember that new thing in terms of all of the similar things that we have also remembered. Once again, this sounds a little bit like defining consciousness as being conscious. Fortunately, Frohlich then moves on to measurements thank goodness instead of more definitions.

Frohlich likes Massimini's zap and zip measurement, which is a type of pulse-echo measurement for the brain. Given a brain pulse, you measure its echo and there are many pulses with both sound and light that also work. An operator delivers an electromagnetic pulse to a brain region and then measures how quickly the EEG modes return to the normal conscious pattern before the pulse. Of course, any stimulus like a bright light, a loud sound, a strong odor, or a pin prick results in the same EEG pulse echo. Oddly, these are the same actions that medicine now uses to measure conscious behavior, even for unconscious or comatose people.

Finally, Frohlich wraps up with his favorite Angelman syndrome of conscious behavior. These very happy people have grown up with the simple EEG modes of children and so never seem to have grow up and their characteristic EEG delta modes are without alpha or beta overtones of higher consciousness. However, since science has no theory that explains what EEG modes represent, once again, Angelman syndrome people are conscious because they are conscious. However, without alpha and beta activity, they are not conscious like other people are conscious, but really, children are not conscious like adults are conscious and so this does not seem to mean much.

Oh well, it was still fun to theory is somewhat different...The EEG Mind

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Western Civilization Favors Free Choice Manifesto

Western civilization favors free choice compassion over government coerced compassion while China and other countries still favor government coerced compassion over Western civilization's free choice of compassion. However, clearly the individual free choices of capitalism incentivize human prosperity while the coerced social responsibility of compassion do the opposite.

Prosperity comes from the incentives of individual free choice while social control and government coercion deincentivize human initiative and therefore prosperity as well. Marx in his Communist Manifesto encouraged revolutionary social control by a compassionate elite and many argue even today that it is only government coercion by an elite party that will deliver outcomes like universal healthcare and guaranteed employment.

Free choices to invest your own limited resources into any of education health care, leisure travel, and so on, is an equitable way to distribute the limited resources of an individual. In contrast, the ideology of government coercion by an elite rations those limited resources and picks winners and losers. Slavoj Zizek argues in his The Relevance of the Communist Manifesto that the growth of capitalism has resulted in the historical deadlock of Marxism. In fact, Zizek argues that even though capitalism has had and continues to have repeated crises, capitalism emerges from each crisis stronger and not weaker. As a result, Zizek concludes that capitalism is much more resilient than Marx ever supposed it would be.

Correspondingly, Communism and Marxism are much less resilient than Marx ever supposed. Communism and Marxism also go through repeated crises, but in contrast to capitalism, Marxism emerges from each crisis weaker and not stronger. This is fundamentally because government coercion does not deal well with the anxieties and emotions of unknown risks, which are the cause of most crises. Despite the many dismal failures of prosperity under Marxism, there is an enduring modernist Marxist view that the current historical epoch of selfish free choice capitalism will eventually end. However, Marx argued in 1848 that only when civilization develops a more coerced compassion enforced by an elite to eliminate the selfish individual free choice of capitalism.

A key Marxist notion is the labor theory of value where the profit of selfish capitalism necessarily exploits labor and there is a struggle between capital and labor. Marx argued that government should own all resources and distribute the profit of labor equitably among all people. Government should then distribute all property and wealth and replace the free choice of selfish private ownership with the coerced compassionate choice of government ownership. Of course, government is also a hierarchy of competencies as Jordan Peterson notes in his classic 2018 debate with Zizek in Toronto, CA. The many flaws Marx noted of capitalism are flaws of human nature and not really capitalism.

In other words, capitalism is both selfish as well as compassionate because capitalism makes up the same hierarchies of competency that make up any civilization. The free choices of capitalism between selfishness and compassion give anyone that free choice. A coerced choice of compassion, then, is simply a limit on individual free choice. Civilization already limits free choice, but the modernist allure of Marxism supposes the need for many more limits for individual free choice enforced by some elite minority.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Covid and the Free Choice Manifesto

The Free Choice Manifesto is all about a trade-off between a selfish individual free choice and a compassionate socially responsible coerced choice. Compassion is an emotion that promotes bonding between people while selfishness is an emotion that promotes conflict between people. Both compassion and selfishness are necessary emotions for survival, but the balance between compassion and selfishness is a never ending dialog. While Marx's Communist Manifesto represents an extreme compassion of the Chinese government to coerce social responsibility, in contrast, the Western individual Free Choice Manifesto represents selfish individual free choice.

The Covid shutdown is an example of government coerced choice justified by the compassion of social responsibility in limiting the Covid spread. The coerced Covid shutdown tests the limits of free choice...does the social responsibility of Marx's Manifesto justify the coercion of Covid shutdown or rather does the selfish individual Free Choice Manifesto win? Some suggested that Chinese government coercion was inherently better able to control Covid than Western individual free choice.

In our discrete causal universe, things really don't happen inside of a universe of space and time, but rather the universe of space and time emerges from the universe of things that happen. The over arching universe of outcomes from precursors is the universe of things that happen and the universe of space and time emerges from things that happen. Our lives emerge along with space and time from the families of outcomes from precursors and from the unpredictable free choices that we make. Those choices all trade off the risk of an anxiety about the unknown with the pleasure of discovering knowledge about the things that happen. So free choice is not the result of life, rather life is the result of free choice. When coerced choices happen in our lives, like the Covid shutdown, we still make unpredictable free choice to obey or not based on the tradeoff of the risk of an uncertain infection with pleasure of avoiding infection.

Wisdom emerges from our classical knowledge about what we know is not false, from reason that tells us what is not true, and from quantum intuition giving us our feelings of what is uncertain. Instead of knowledge being what is true and reason telling what is therefore false, knowledge tells us only what is not false and reason tells us only what is not true, because there are also uncertainties and unknowables in knowledge and reason. Our quantum intuition is what makes free choice uncertain and unpredictable since we cannot know everything about quantum phase and therefore about how we feel. Even though every free choice outcome has a precursor feeling, there are precursor feelings that we simply cannot know and yet are still part of the universe as quantum unknowables. Thus we cannot know everything about free choice even though we often rationalize with reason our feelings after we make a free choice.
Covid is very infectious and seemed at first to also have a higher mortality than the flu. Covid models then incorrectly predicted insufficient hospital capacity and those predictions resulted in much anxiety. Models incorrectly predicted that Covid would overwhelm U.S. hospitals, but that really did not happen and was overblown. Now that we know the risks of Covid as a chronic and endemic infection, individual free choice instead of government coerced choice determines our outcomes.

People with new knowledge of the Covid hazard can now freely choose an acceptable level of risk and yet succeed in life just like people must accept risk from many other common hazards. The Free Choice Manifesto of the individual once again shows the fallacy of Marx's Communist Manifesto of government coercion. People don't first of all need government coercion to succeed, people first of all need free choice to succeed in a universe of things that happen.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Knowledge, Intuition, and Reason...What is Not False and Not True...

Intuitive maths tells us not what is true or false, but rather intuition tells us what is not false and not true and therefore includes what is uncertain as well. A major feature of intuition is in the role of uncertainty and therefore wisdom and quantum intuition respects the limits of both classical knowledge and reason. While our universe is causal, it is not infinite and not infinitely divisible either. Therefore, the future is not predictable and as a result, free choice is also not predictable or predetermined.
Therefore, classical knowledge is not really about what is true, rather classical knowledge is about what is not false. Likewise, we do not reason that something is false, we reason instead that something is simply not true. In between classical knowledge and reason lies quantum intuition and wisdom brings all of classical knowledge, reason, and quantum intuition together as what can be known.

Outside of the realm of what we can know lies the quantum unknowable, which is different from things that are simply uncertain and that we only just do not yet know but can possibly know.

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Free Choice Manifesto

Free Choice Manifesto
The free choice manifesto expresses first of all the universal notion what we call consciousness is equivalent to unpredictable free choice. Furthermore, the free choice manifesto states that everyone is oppressed in one way or another and unpredictable free choice is at the root of all oppression. In interactions with others, someone is the oppressor of an oppressed person in one or more very many different ways. If you voice a disagreement with someone, you become an oppressor and if someone expresses disagreement with you, they oppress you. If you shame someone, you are an oppressor and if you feel shame, someone oppresses. If you are selfish, you oppress socially responsible people and if you are socially responsible, you are likewise oppress selfish people. In other words, oppression of others sometimes results in desirable outcomes just as others oppressing you might also be desirable. Bosses oppress their workers but that work creates wealth and profit and social responsibility and so is desirable. Sick people are a burden on others and oppress those who are otherwise well, but taking on that burden is socially responsible and therefore desirable.
The history of civilization is all about oppression, but also about the emergence of free choice from the harsh misery of oppression by coerced choice. Instead of viewing civilization history as driven mainly by oppressor and oppressed, civilization is actually driven mainly by the emergence of free choice despite oppression. It is free choice that naturally brings wealth and prosperity despite some oppression from free choice. Instead of the tyranny of coerced choice from oppression, free choice gives equal opportunity and yet free choice must tolerate some unequal outcomes as a result. In the not too distant past, unequal outcomes often meant death since there were so many bad things that happened to people all of the time as a result of oppression.

Inequality is part of the human condition and yet a civilization can and does choose to enforce equality of opportunity. Equality of opportunity is part of the free choice manifesto but some inequality of outcome is also a part of the free choice manifesto. The free choice manifesto also means that people are free to say and write what they feel, but there are limitations on such free speech. Likewise free choice also means that commerce is open to new products and markets, but there are also limitations on such free free markets.

Free choice by its very nature depends more on individual freedom more than government control, but free choice allows for less individual freedom and some limited government control. After all, free choice is ultimately all about the selfish emotion dimension as well as the compassion dimension of a social responsibility.

Allure of the Social Responsibility of Marx's Manifesto
Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels published the Communist Manifesto in 1848, which established a plan for an inevitable global communism, the ultimate compassion of social responsibility. The manifesto did not even mention the failure of the very first communism of the first Paris Commune of 1792 or why that first communism failed so badly. In fact, every subsequent experiment with the Manifesto social responsibility has also failed, but the Manifesto allure returns once again. In these times of majority wealth, the wealthy majority vilifies a selfish elite minority instead of the wealthy majority. After the second Paris Commune in 1871, Marx and Engels added an appendix to the Manifesto praising the goals of the second Paris Commune, which they considered to be an incomplete communism with the Manifesto plan, but still did not mention the failure of the first communism. The Manifesto never did mention the failure of the first Paris commune but argued that all the second Paris Commune needed was to have taken over the military and vilify and eliminate the elite wealthy minority. After all, the military at the behest of the wealthy elite ended the second Paris commune.

The current Manifesto allure of class warfare once again shows up in our politics. Politicians once again decry inequality of both opportunity and outcome and call for all out class warfare between an oppressed majority and an oppressor minority as the root of all misery and injustice. The Manifesto states that profit and wealth do not belong not to the minority wealthy. The manifesto argues that all wealth belongs to the government and not to the minority who earn that wealth and the government should redistribute that wealth equally to all consumers and workers.

The Manifesto further argues that once an all powerful government removes the incentives of wealth inequality, everyone will somehow benefit from the lack of wealth incentives. However, while the Manifesto discusses at some length the corruption of wealth and profit, the Manifesto does not discuss the undeniable corruption of big government. In fact, the Manifesto never mentions anything about human nature and the large natural variation in human abilities and competencies. Human nature can and does after all corrupt any human enterprise and in fact, social responsibility can corrupt just as much as selfishness. The incentives of selfishness over profit and wealth provide incentives for innovation and innovation and incentives are the key to economic growth as well as the creation of new wealth and social responsibility. In a consumer economy, economic growth is due to both population growth as well as to innovation and an economy with zero population growth must have innovation to grow.

The Manifesto argues that profit and wealth inevitably corrupt the elite minority at the expense of the majority workers and consumers. However, the Manifesto does not ever mention the likewise inevitable corruption of big government, which is an elite minority in power, by the same profit and wealth from the majority workers and consumers. The Manifesto plan in fact resulted in corrupt governments and gave Russia Stalin, China Mao, Vietnam Ho Chi Minh, Cuba Castro, Cambodia Pol Pot, and Venezuela Chavez. In every case, the tyranny of corrupt big government enforced a kind of socially responsible economic equality at the expense of any selfish individual free choice.

George Orwell's Animal Farm in 1945 painted a very bleak portrait of Stalin's Russia but Orwell still supported the Manifesto socialism his whole life. Orwell still believed in the Manifesto even though his later work Nineteen-Eighty-Four in 1949 further showed his disdain for totalitarianism. Despite the ever growing number of totalitarians in modern China that result from the Manifesto plan, government corruption turns out to be by far even more insidious and pernicious than elite corruption. This is because big governments always claim the virtue and morality of social responsibility and essentially eliminate any opposition by incarceration or death.

Inequality is part of human nature and so there is no such thing as an equal outcome economy without corruption...there are only better or worse economies with equal opportunity, but never equal outcomes. In fact, a healthy economy must tolerate a certain amount of inequality in order to allow individual free choice, which is essential for innovation and change. Unfortunately, free choice also means that people are free to make poorer choices as well as better choices, but that is the nature of the Free Choice Manifesto.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Conscious Free Choice and AI

The very essence of conscious free choice is first of all the freedom to choose an outcome based on feeling and not on coercion or even reason. Therefore, conscious free choice is a very good definition for conscious action because conscious free choice has a simple meaning as opposed to the many complex and contradictory meanings for consciousness. For example, there is a medical definition and all kinds of tests to affirm a conscious state having to do with the thalamus. At the root of all medical tests, though, is still the action of conscious free choice. In contrast, the term consciousness has broader psychological, philosophical, religious, mystical, and neuro-scientific meanings that seem to be beyond action. As a result, the concept consciousness is much less useful while the simplicity of conscious free choice makes it a very useful definition of conscious action.

Artificial intelligence has choice determined by algorithms and so AI choice is not free choice. Unless AI has a feeling driven by emotion, there is no possibility for conscious free choice. Conscious free choice is most apparent with the issue of free will, but there are many descriptions about the hard problem of consciousness that do not seem to involve free choice. Some people describe consciousness as self-awareness or introspection while others define consciousness with a set of questions and answers like the Turing test. Others say that how we feel about seeing the color red as qualia is consciousness and different from the fact of something that is red.

Philosophical zombies are hypothetical people without consciousness, but with otherwise normal behavior including conscious free choice. People argue that just the possibility of philosophical zombies shows consciousness as distinct from the machine of the brain. However, since people freely choose to think about philosophical zombies simply means that they are conscious. People also freely choose to think about the color red and so all of these descriptions of consciousness all are all equivalent to conscious free choice. Philosophical zombies look and act like conscious people, but have no consciousness. Since a philosophical zombie does have conscious free choice, such a zombie would then be as conscious as anyone else.

After all, people make free choices based on feeling and not really based on rational thought at all. Free choice outcomes are often then rationalized afterwards in spite of the lack of any rational precursor for free choice. Furthermore, the persuasion of another person can strongly affect a free choice. Persuasion can certainly affect how a person feels and therefore can affect a free choice, but that does not change the mysterious nature of free choice.

There are many people who claim that they somehow know the world is determinate and so that there are really no conscious free choices. They argue that the mind is a neural machine and that free choice is simply a result of the mind machine inputs and so not free at all. Even when free choice comes from feeling, determinism argues that the free choice was always a fated outcome and so that people simply have the illusion of free choice. Science very often makes the claim that free choice is an illusion of an otherwise determinate universe despite the fact that science does not have a measurement of free choice. Science admits that quantum superposition exists and limits the certainty of any measurement. Therefore, it seems especially perplexing that science makes any claims about free choice without a measurement of free choice.

A free choice outcome based on feeling does not have completely knowable precursors. In other words, we simply do not always know for certain why we feel that way that we do. In fact, we cannot predict free choice since free choice depends on feeling and we cannot always predict how we feel, either.

Artificial intelligence is often cited as a form of consciousness since AI makes choices in games like Chess or Go. However, AI is based on deep learning and so each choice of an outcome has completely knowable precursors. Moreover, neural emotion and feeling were not involved in AI choice, although one version of the deep learning process did involve competing policy and value networks. While policy played with more probability to win by as much as possible, value played with lower risk to win as simply as possible by one piece. Later versions simply played the computer against itself and so learned to choose moves from scratch over time to make better and better choices using both value and policy for both sides.

The AI computer is then all about choices with more or less risk, but not free choice since there is no neural emotion or feeling involved, just completely knowable machine logic precursors. Free choice also involves more or less risk, but with neural emotion and feeling. Feeling simply does not have completely knowable precursors, which makes free choice different from machine choice.

Now suppose the machine used quantum superposition as part of its decisions. With quantum superposition, the machine would now have free choices that would be as unpredictable as neural free choice and therefore also involve unknowable precursors. Quantum computers would then be the first true AI and should then be conscious with complex emotions and feelings. The AI emotions and feelings would then be as difficult to understand as are human or animal emotions and feelings.

Monday, January 27, 2020

McTaggart Dynamic A and Static B Times

The Scottish philosopher John McTaggart described two different theories for time. His A time was a dynamic time that flowed from past to a knife edge present into an indeterminate future. McTaggart argued that this A time could not be real since the infinity of present moments was inconsistent with any past or future moments.

McTaggart then supposed a B time that was a static instead of flowing time with a series of determinate future moments that already exist like a videotape waiting to be played. Ironically, McTaggart concluded that neither theory of time was valid and so that time was therefore not actually a part of reality. Reality was, rather, timeless and changeless despite our experience and memory of change.

Emily Thomas has recent essay in Aeon discusses McTaggart theories, but she does not really say if she agreed with McTaggart. Rather, she is more interested in McTaggart’s motivation in describing time in the ways that he did.

Of course, time has many very different definitions and many different people have struggled for a long time to define time. One of the difficulties of defining time is that a definition of time necessarily occurs in the same time that the definition tries to define. However, instead of first defining time as an independent dimension, it is important to first define the nature of physical reality. Since we do experience changes in a seemingly static world of matter, it is clear that time somehow must emerge from matter changes in physical reality. Furthermore, those matter changes are causally related to each other as precursors and outcomes and changes therefore have relationships to one another from which time then emerges.

Change seems to occur as a dynamic reality not unlike A time and this dynamic change seems to likewise occur in a backdrop of a seemingly static reality of matter, much like B time. These two realities indeed seem reminiscent of McTaggart’s time definitions and so there are actually two dimensions for matter-action time. The static reality really just represents very slow changes since the universe changes only very slowly. This very slow time is then universe time and differs from the dynamic or very fast atomic time, which changes on the order of the speed of light.

This two dimensional matter-action time means that there are two kinds of changes in physical reality and the two time dimensions emerge that are not the same. Our feeling of time then emerges from changes that we remember and so those changes do not occur in time. There are very slow changes along with very fast changes and so there are two different time dimensions that emerge from the nature of physical reality.

Light exchange is the glue that holds matter together and both space and time then emerge from that light exchange. While the speed of light does not depend on the velocity of its source, light does accelerate very slowly over the very slow universe time. Quantum gravity relativity emerges from the very slow acceleration of light, which makes gravity relativity seem determinate, while quantum charge emerges from the very fast speed of light. While the very slow acceleration of light binds neutral matter with light exchange, the very fast speed of light binds charge with light exchange.

The Scottish philosopher John McTaggart described two different theories for time. His A time was a dynamic time that flowed from past to a knife edge present into an indeterminate future. McTaggart argued that this A time could not be real since the infinity of present moments was inconsistent with the past and future moments.

Mind-Body as Idealism versus Materialism

The mind-body problem is about the limits of what we can ever subjectively know with our mind about the objective nature of our body, which includes all physical reality outside of our mind's free choice. Sometimes people use the words idealism-materialism instead of mind-body and sometimes mysticism and the soul creeps into idealism as well. The mind-body question is among the many questions that people often ask that really have no unique answers and the mind-body problem is just such a question about idealism-materialism without a single unique answer, except of course free choice.

Typically, there are two kinds of answers;  a subjective idealism and an objective materialism, and idealism can include not only mind, but mysticism and soul as well outside of the physical world. However, the same subjective mind limits both idealism and materialism since what we freely choose about any objective materials outside of our mind is necessarily limited by our subjective minds. The figure below shows the mind's retina subjectively seeing a mirror reflection of that same retina that is doing the seeing. At the same moment that we see our retina, our subjective mind sees an objective retina of the body that others can see as well. However, no one will ever see exactly the same retina since their eyes and minds all see differently.

Note that people do not seem to associate morality with either the mind or the body even though there are both objective as well as subjective moralities. Thus, the world necessarily starts off for each of us with our subjective mind and it is only the narratives and images like retinas that we share with others along with the free choices that we make that show an objective reality outside of our minds.

While materialism supposes that there is an objective world of matter, like retinas, outside of the mind, idealism supposes that there are only neural matter actions in each mind's retina seeing itself despite the fact that the mind makes free choices. Furthermore, there are other minds that share narratives about the nature of reality that include retinas and free choices. Materialism further supposes that the mind’s mental states and free choice are results of material interactions of the body and so the mind is then just a product of that objective physical reality. The definition of materialism also includes the changes due to material interaction. It is after all only with the duality of both matter and action that the universe exists and so it is important to also consider action or change as a part of any physical reality.

In contrast to objective materialism, subjective idealism is the simple assumption that the mind and free choice are actually what determines the illusion of objective materialism. Idealism supposes that the subjective free choice of the mind that sees its own retina and that free choice determines the illusion of objective matter changes as a retina. Subjective idealism further argues that objective materialism is an illusion of the mind and that the subjective actions of the mind determine the only true reality. Even though the mind and free choice are made up of the action potentials of neural matter, idealism somehow still assumes that there is no objective materialism outside of the subjective mind.

Free choice is a mystery of the mind and is how minds affect matter action and while there are many different definitions of consciousness, in contrast, free choice has a simple definition. Free choice is how we make the world more desirable given a feeling that we have about a choice. Since we only perceive the objective world of retinas with the subjective mind's retina, the mystery is whether objective materialism of retinas exists outside of subjective free choice of the mind's retina or whether subjective free choice of the mind's retina is how objective materialism of retinas seems to exist.

We use knowledge of the world of objective materialism of retinas to predict likely outcomes from precursors, like seeing a retina with a retina, but knowledge has no meaning without free choice. There is a free choice of the mind's retina to see an objective retina, but without knowledge of retinas and mirrors, the image would have no meaning. The very meaning of free choice is tied to a lifetime of knowledge and experience.

Very simple organisms have likewise very simple neural networks that nevertheless also provide free choice to those organisms. The neural networks of the hydra or nematode both freely choose outcomes that depend on precursors, but those free choice outcomes are never completely predictable or determinate from those precursors. Classically, it is the chaos of random noise that limits the precision of predictions and there is no limit to the possible precision of a prediction. However, there are quantum limits to the precise prediction of all action in the universe is subject to a well-defined and discrete quantum limit.

Objective materialism predicts most likely outcomes from matter, action, and quantum phase given a set of precursors along with some random chaos. Since we can share those predictions with others, these predictions are the objective reality of materialism despite the random chaos. However, materialism still means free choice based on a set of precursors that determine feeling and so those objective materialist choices are still part of the same subjective reality of idealism.

Subjective idealism also chooses an outcome based on a set of precursors that determine feeling and that feeling is not possible to completely know. Since we choose based on feelings and feelings are unique for each person, free choice forms a subjective reality that is unique for each person. Feeling is a neural action that derives from the action of a moment of thought, a lifetime of precursor memories, and sensations of the moment. Even though we can share measurements of matter action with others, idealism still supposes that objective reality is just an illusion of our subjective reality.

Friday, December 20, 2019

Accelerating Light

Einstein first proposed the equivalence of atom mass and energy in 1905 and by that equivalence showed that the energy of magnetism was then simply due to the kinetic energy of moving charge. This simple equivalence between energy and mass amazingly showed that while electricity came from static charge, magnetism came from moving charge and so united electricity and magnetism. The equivalence of mass and energy also led to matter warping space and time with gravity as he further showed in 1915. However, Einstein never completed the quantum gravity link between relativistic gravity and quantum charge. Relativistic paths in space time are, after all, like straight lines in just space and so gravity really does not exist in the straight paths of 4D spacetime.

Planck showed in 1899 the quantum or particle nature of light by equating light frequency to the energy of photon particles. Einstein later showed in 1905 that the equivalence of matter and energy also meant that matter was equivalent to frequency as well. The notion of matter oscillating just like light is really the basis of quantum charge and that matter frequency is equivalent to its mass.

The final assumption that resolves the quantum gravity puzzle is a similarly simple assumption as the equivalence of matter and energy. The further simple assumption of the equivalence of the simplest quantum matter particle and the energy and frequency of the universe. The assumption that the energy of the universe is equivalent to its frequency means that there is a very slow acceleration of light over cosmic time. A very slow light acceleration means also that while static matter results in simple gravity, moving matter results in a gravity vector force, which then unifies quantum gravity and charge with light acceleration. Just as moving charges couple to each other with magnetism, moving matter decays couple to each other with gravitization, which is the quantum gravity vector force of dark matter. The matter decay of stars as radiation couples them together with gravitization just as moving charges couple as magnetism.

Einstein showed that the speed of light does not depend on source velocity, but he never considered the possibility of light accelerating over time because the speed of light essentially defines the atomic time of relativistic rest mass. While the speed of light does not change with source velocity, the acceleration of light does slow with increasing source velocity. Instead of the speed of light and atomic time being constant, light accelerates very slowly over universe time and atomic time increases very slowly over a universe time. The acceleration of light means that the equivalence of matter decay and force growth is the primal axiom of all changes in the universe.

As opposed to atom time of rest mass, which is proportional to the speed of light and photon frequencies, universe cosmic time is from the universal decay frequency of quantum matter, mae/hae = 1.18e-18s-1, the aether particle mass divided by the matter-scaled Planck constant, hae = h/c2. The universe mass shell is then a wave function collapsing into our reality at that very, very slow frequency. Accelerating light and force does mean that atomic clocks also accelerate in universe cosmic time. Universe cosmic time is the universal aether decay frequency, which ticks at the very slow rate of aether decoherence and universe mass shell collapse. 

From the equivalence of mass and energy, it necessarily follows that the speed of light does not depend on source velocity. The acceleration of light through space and over universe time does mean that the same light that we see now moved more slowly in the past. Since forces were also weaker in the past, light from distant galaxies is therefore red largely because of time and not because of expanding velocity red shifts. In fact, the universe mass shell is shrinking not growing even while the matter action universe forces are growing along with the speed of light.

Light accelerates over universe cosmic time and so atomic time also accelerates over universe cosmic time and and that acceleration unifies charge and gravity into a common matter action causal set. Light acceleration is therefore completely consistent with gravity relativity since both space and atom time emerge from matter action. Gravity is an exchange of biphoton quadrupoles just like charge is an exchange of photon dipoles.

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Newton's Aether in Matter Action

Newton was the first to accurately predict gravity motions of the sun, moon, and planets and Newton’s predictions assumed space was absolute and filled with a luminiferous aether. In addition, Newton’s predictions assumed time was the independent of velocity and gravity, which of course Einstein showed is not true. Mainstream science now also rejects Newton’s notion of aether and since Einstein, science also accepts that time slows and space shrinks with increasing velocity and gravity.

Now, Newton’s aether returns in matter action but aether action does not then fill space. Rather, space and time emerge from aether action and so space and time are not axiomatic in matter action. The ancient archetypes of space and time seem so self evident and undeniable and yet space and time are really just convenient shortcuts for consciousness. Matter and action are the axioms upon which existence itself and even consciousness emerge even though it is very hard to imagine a world starting with only matter and action without the primacy of space and time...but such a world does indeed exist.

Although ancient narratives describe the world in many different contexts, ancient narratives often include notions of a smallest particle filling all of space...aether. Up until Einstein, aether was a very popular working fluid for the universe and aether filled all space as the medium for the changes of gravity and charge. Even though Newton’s gravity seemed to act through space without any aether, Newton always presumed that gravity was somehow still based on an aether filled space.

In fact, Newton’s motion of light through space depended on his luminiferous aether and so the speed of light should depend on motion through aether as well. Western alchemy filled all space with aether as the fifth element that often complemented earth, fire, water, and air. However, in the Eastern alchemy, the essence qi filled the heavens and was never an Eastern element of the five Feng Shui elements of earth, air, wood, metal, and fire. However, the Eastern qi was still the essence of heaven and so complemented the elements of the world below heaven.

Thus the archetypes of both Western aether and Eastern Qi both filled similar needs in the Western and Eastern narratives as a universal medium for microscopic action. There must be something to fill space since a truly empty void seemed incomprehensible. In order to move, there must be something to push against like walking on ground and so light’s motion must push against aether. Although mainstream science avoids the aether or Qi narratives, science narratives do now fill space with vacuum oscillators and Higgs bosons. Light, you see, moves by hopping through space by means of a large number of vacuum oscillators and so Newton’s aether has returned to science. While mainstream science well accepts the different notions of discrete vacuum oscillators and Higgs bosons, there is no corresponding notion yet like discrete aether action.

Aether action has precursors and outcomes for change and so aether action represents a causal set of precursors and outcomes without space and time. Instead of filling the universe with an infinity of vacuum oscillators as a basis for change, the universe of aether action is a finite causal set of aether actions. Instead of matter and light existing in space and time, space and time emerge from the precursors and outcomes of matter action.

Mainstream science accepts gravity relativity even though gravity relativity is not consistent with the quantum charge narrative of discrete action. This inconsistency is because gravity relativity depends on the existence of continuous space and time independent from matter and action. The matter action of gravity relativity shapes space and time while quantum matter action does not affect space and time at all. In fact, precursors and outcomes of quantum matter action do not depend on either space or time.

Thus, space and time are not consistent with any kind of unification of gravity and charge, but rather unification is only possible with the conjugate dimensions of matter and action instead of space and time. Discrete matter and action along with quantum phase then represent the changes with both gravity and charge and so quantum aether action is a narrative that does unify gravity and charge. Quantum aether action does mean that there is an important distinction between the slow changes of the universe and the very fast changes of atoms. While the very slow changes in the universe represent quantum gravity as biphoton exchange, the very fast changes of atoms represent quantum charge as single photon exchange.

In space and time, the speed of light limits the fast changes of charge action and the progressive galaxy red shifts represent the very slow changes of gravity in an expanding universe. Light is made up of particles of pure aether phase whose frequency is proportional to energy with the Planck constant and therefore proportional to matter with the speed of light squared. In addition, electrons and protons are also made up of particles of pure aether action, aether that was frozen at creation into the atoms of existing matter.

The limit of discrete matter action for fast change is an action constant, hae=h/c2, the matter scaled Planck constant along with the limit of matter as the smallest particle, mae, aether. Once again, progressive galaxy red shifts represent the very slow changes of gravity in a shrinking universe. The aether particle is that fraction of the hydrogen atom stabilization that is due to gravity and aether is slowly decaying just as hydrogen stabilization grows. Both of the matter action constants are then also space time constants, but mainstream science has a plethora of other constants as well. For example, proton and electron masses are both space time constants, but simply emerge from the discrete matter action nature of the universe collapse. The aether period, Tae=hae/mae, is 13.4 Byr and is simply the antiverse/universe pulse period and therefore also the time width of every aether particle. Thus the mass of the aether particle and the size of the universe determine the stabilization energy of the hydrogen atom.

The time width of atomic action is the period of electron spin, which emerges from the spiral collapse of aether at creation into electrons and protons. Electron and proton masses both emerged when force growth from matter collapse stabilized hydrogen at creation by freezing a very small fraction of total aether into observable matter at creation. The first light of creation continues to bathe us in the warm glow of the cosmic microwave background of deep space that completely surrounds us.

Photons are the glue that binds the universe together with matter, action, and phase. A photon is an aether time pulse with a spectrum of frequencies and phases. Each photon has a matter spectrum that comes from the action of atomic matter as an action through space and time. A photon frequency spectrum emerges from its matter spectrum along with a polarization or spin = +/-1. A single photon polarization can be linear, circular, elliptical, or anywhere in between and even unpolarized. However, an unpolarized single photon still has the property of polarization or spin as a random superposition of phases.

An electron binds with a proton to stabilize a hydrogen atom by the exchange of a binding photon and complementary emission of another photon. The electron and proton each have polarization or spin = ½ and so an electron spin can exist as +½ or -½ or anywhere in between and even unpolarized, just like a photon. In fact, the hydrogen atom has a spin = 1, but now as -1, 0, +1 and unlike a photon, has a spin = 0 state when the electron and proton spins are antiparallel.

Each hydrogen atom bonding photon has a complementary emitted photon from its CMB creation. The complementary emitted photon is what binds the hydrogen atom to the universe and represents gravity as well as the size of the universe at creation. The gravity biphoton or graviton has a spin = 2 and complementary graviton exchange is the bond of quantum gravity. Each graviton particle mass is a very small fraction, 1e-39, of the stabilization mass of hydrogen scaled with the size of the universe.

While a single photon has both matter and action spectra, a graviton exchange is always complementary. This is because a quantum graviton exchange is always a superposition of complementary action spectra from its biphoton complements that always result in a single mass and not in a mass spectrum. This means that the graviton as a biphoton exchange is not subject to the same quantum uncertainty principle as a single photon.

Thus, the matter action of quantum gravity exchange shows the symmetry of monopoles and quadrupoles instead of the asymmetry of single photon dipoles. This means that quantum gravity matter and action are antiparallel and so anticommute in contrast to quantum charge matter and action, which are orthogonal and so do not commute at all. While both space and time emerge from the action spectra of quantum charge, the null action spectra of quantum gravity are always complementary. It is ironic, then, that it is atomic quantum matter action that shapes space and time and so quantum graviton exchange simply conforms to the space and time of quantum charge.

Gravity relativity shapes space and time because increasing velocity dilates space and time. In gravity relativity, there is no absolute space and time, only relative space and time. Because light is an oscillation from which space and time emerge, the speed of light does not depend on relative velocity. However, matter and action do both increase with increasing relative velocity. So increasing velocity actually emerges from increasing matter and action. Impulse in space and time comes from the release of potential energy as kinetic energy, and so impulse emerges from the quantum matter action of potential matter becoming kinetic matter.

In matter action, Newton’s aether returns with a narrative of discrete quantum matter action for our very, very large but finite universe. Matter action shows gravity relativity as a consequence of the light emitted at creation subsequent biphoton or quantum graviton exchange. Matter action also shows quantum charge as a consequence of single photon exchange consistent with mainstream science. Since the standard model of nuclear physics is already consistent with quantum charge, matter action is now a completely consistent narrative for physical reality.

Random versus Quantum Noise

Random noise is a very important and yet unknowable part of physical reality that we usually simply take for granted. However, all random noise is actually inherently quantum and not classical at all. A classical coin toss, for example, results in a random landing of heads or tails because it is otherwise impossible to predict the outcomes of a hand-tossed coin. A hand coin toss is therefore officially accepted as random by the highest levels in sports and government...and even science. A classical coin toss will resolve a tied political election, for example, or the selection of sides in a football game and a coin toss is a measure of random noise in science. Thus, random noise is the ultimate arbiter of choice when two sides cannot otherwise agree and that includes the two halves of every brain.

However, determinist logic argues that even a random result is actually the product of a determinate big-bang creation and so there really are no truly random events in destiny, merely chaotic events. Thus the classical outcome of a coin toss is determinate and a mere function of precursors albeit subject to the random noise of classical chaos. So classical science accepts the unpredictable outcomes of random noise like a coin toss, since a large number of classical events means classical chaos determines an outcome from precursors. Classical noise, you see, is just something random and unpredictable that happens without any reason despite our classical determinate universe.

Unpredictable outcomes in the quantum universe, in contrast to classical chaos, are due to superposition and entanglement of precursor quantum phase. Thus quantum phase noise is always the actual source of even classical noise since classical chaos is simply due to a large number of similar repeated actions. While a single classical action like a single flip precursor has a very predictable outcome, a coin toss drives from highly variable neural actions of the thumb and fingers to a random outcome. Thus all random noise is inherently quantum and not classical after all...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Classical versus Quantum Coin Toss

The outcome of a classical coin toss is a classically random outcome of heads or tails. However, it is classically possible to measure the actions of a classical coin toss to an arbitrary precision and therefore it is possible to predict a classical coin toss, despite chaos.

A quantum coin, though, has one more attribute besides heads and tails and that is quantum phase. With quantum phase, the coin can still exist as heads or tails, but the quantum coin can also exist as a superposition of both heads and tails. There is no role for quantum phase or superposition in a classical coin toss. A classical coin toss begins with either heads or tails up and then executes a number of flips according to the person or mechanism doing the flipping and then lands either heads or tails up. Classically it is then possible to precisely measure all of those classical actions and therefore to predict a classical outcome to arbitrary precision.
However, any large number of classical actions necessarily entangle some quantum actions as well. This is because the microscopic universe is quantum and uncertain, not classical. A dephased quantum coin in flight will persist in a microscopic superposition until the macroscopic coin lands as heads or tails. Unlike the precise classical measurements that can predict a classical coin toss, there are no measurements that will predict the outcome of a quantum coin toss from a superposition state better than 50%.

In fact, there is really no such thing as a classical coin toss in our quantum world. Instead, a large number of classical macroscopic actions like a flipping coin will ultimately access many microscopic quantum outcomes of quantum phase noise. The classical random noise of chaos is just a convenient macroscopic archetype for the underlying microscopic quantum phase noise of physical reality.

Note that not only the quantum coin exists as a superposition, the quantum actions of starting, flipping, and landing also exist as superpositions with quantum phase. A large number of actions like flipping or neural impulses will also entangle quantum phase noise and therefore be subject to the limits of uncertainty of quantum knowledge. The fact that we cannot therefore ever precisely know a precursor feeling or precisely predict an outcome feeling gives us the archetypes of free will and free choice...

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Classical versus Quantum Photons

Einstein was the first to explain the electric impulses of the photoelectric effect as a quantum consequence of single photons in 1905. Although Planck had some years earlier in 1900 proposed the notion of a quantum of light to explain the nature of blackbody emission, it was Einstein who first recognized the quantum nature of light photons as particles in the photoelectric effect. Light made up of finite photon particles instead of the classical determinism of infinitely divisible light waves birthed the uncertainty of discrete quantum mechanics.

Classical physics had long accepted the notion of light as an infinitely divisible wave and then quickly adapted to the semiclassical notion of light as a large number of single photons or electromagnetic pulses in time and space. However, even such a semiclassical photon of light shows the uncertainty principle and so photons are not subject to classical determinism. Rather, a single quantum photon obeys the quantum uncertainty of superposition of many paths, polarizations, and energies. Specifically, while classical determinism argues that a classical single photon particle can only be on one path at a time with well-defined polarization, frequency, and location and all simultaneously knowable to arbitrary precision.

The single quantum photon exists instead with an uncertain outcome as a superposition of paths, polarizations, and frequencies. As a result, there is a well-defined limit to the precision of any simultaneous single photon measurement of path, polarization, and frequency. Nevertheless, many of the semiclassical notions of a photon survive and result in much quantum confusion that precludes determinate outcomes.

Photon exchange is the basic quantum glue that bonds all matter together and photon exchange is what bonds both charge and gravity matter. The outcome of a photon precursor is a quantum bonding state between emitter and absorber matter. While single photon exchange bonds charge matter by exchange and complementary ephoton mission, biphoton exchange bonds gravity matter by the complementary exchange and emission of biphotons.

A photon is an electromagnetic pulse that has a spectrum of frequencies in its Fourier transform. This fundamental relation between time and frequency is the foundation of the uncertainty principle. A short pulse of light is made up of a broad frequency spectrum and a long pulse of light is made up of a correspondingly very narrow spectrum. Thus a photon is a fundamentally quantum object that can nevertheless behave like a classical particle of matter under certain conditions. A classical particle of matter has a well defined path, mass, polarization, and location and a particle of matter can behave like a photon under certain conditions as well.

A charge bond is a photon exchange with complementary emitted photons since it is necessary to lose heat to bond charges. A gravity bond is a biphoton exchange that also has a complementary emitted biphoton since it is also necessary to lose heat to bond gravity matter. As a result of quantum gravity, atomic hydrogen can exist as a cold vacuum lattice cloud. As the cloud density grows with more and more cold hydrogen, eventually molecular hydrogen forms and the lattice spacing decreases until it nucleates. At this point, there is a transition from gravity to charge dispersion and nascent stellar binary nucleates condense with orthogonal spins. One-half of the cloud lattice collapses into one spin while the other half collapses into the orthogonal spin.

Quantum gravity bonds form and emit heat in a concerted spiral of condensation in the nuclei of molecular clouds. However, quantum gravity biphotons are 1e-39 less than quantum charge photon and so represent a virtual continuum of spiral states with orthogonal spins. While one spin condenses with like spins into one spiral, the orthogonal spin condenses with complementary spins into the complementary spiral of a stellar binary. It is important that the stellar nuclei continue to lose heat as the molecular cloud collapses with radial accretion. Heat loss occurs from hot axial jets that result from the cold radial accretion until fusion eventually ignites the stellar nuclei into nascent stars.

Once again, there is really no such thing as a classical photon because a photon is a pure quantum manifestation. Complementary to an atom as a discrete quantum of matter that is a superposition of electrons and protons, a photon is a discrete electromagnetic quantum that is a superposition of frequencies, polarizations, paths, and locations. However, there are various semiclassical simplifications for a photon that people find useful in certain contexts just as there are for atoms. For example, a simplified semiclassical photon may have a single frequency even though a quantum photon is always a spectrum of frequencies and never a single frequency.

A semiclassical single photon may have a single polarization state  even though a quantum photon is always in a superposition of polarizations. A polarized photon will pass an aligned polarizer, which then reflects other polarizations. In contrast, a single quantum photon always exists in a superposition of polarization states until interacting with a polarizer to form a probabilistic polarization for each single quantum photon. Thus a single quantum photon may not have a well-defined polarization state before it interacts with the electrons of a polarizer. Note that a linear polarized single quantum photon is still a superposition of right and left circular polarizations.

A semiclassical single photon has a well-defined pulse path and location and cannot be in two places at the same time. However, a quantum single photon exists as a probabilistic superposition of all locations in the universe. At any given moment, that single quantum photon can exist as any number of paths and locations with various probabilities.

A semiclassical single photon still has a well defined frequency distribution and phase called a spectrum. A semiclassical photon spectrum exists as a Fourier transform of its time pulse and so the photon spectrum relates the time pulse and frequency. A quantum single photon is a superposition of frequencies and phases that are its spectrum and the Fourier transform relates photon pulse and spectrum. The quantum photon spectrum and pulse relationship is the quantum uncertainty principle between time and frequency.

Classically, there is no limit to the precision of simultaneous measurement of a particle momentum and location. A photon, however, has a discrete quantum limit to the precision of simultaneous measurements of both photon frequency and location. As a result, the more localized the photon, the broader the frequency spectrum becomes and eventually, the light wavelength exceeds the apparatus size. At that point, the measurement becomes meaningless.

Likewise, a semiclassical photon may have a well defined average location in time, but a quantum photon is always a distribution of locations, never a single location. A semiclassical photon may have a well-defined single path, but a quantum photon always exists on a distribution of paths, never just a single path. Moreover, matter has the complementary quantum properties of light.

Matter has a well-defined average location in time and matter is stationary while light only moves at a constant speed. Matter also oscillates complementary to light with a distribution of frequencies and also has a distribution of locations about an average location. An atom of matter has an average mass or frequency, but matter is also a distribution of masses about that average mass. While there are fundamental particles with very well-defined rest masses, quantum particles really only have inertial mass complementary to light. Rest mass just represents a particle’s interaction with other matter, which photons of course mediate.

Finally, classical matter has a well-defined average path, but quantum particles exist on a distribution of paths. However, upon interaction with other matter, any such distribution decays very quickly into the one path that we call our rest frame reality.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Classical Versus Quantum Narratives

Classical versus quantum are really two very different but still related narratives that underpin physical reality. While our macroscopic reality is very classical, our microscopic reality is quantum and so the two narratives derive from the very different natures of our macroscopic versus microscopic realities. Classically, the visual, audio, touch, taste, and odor contrasts of matter motion through space and time define our macroscopic reality, while the quantum amplitude and phase of much higher resolution spectra refine our microscopic reality.

In particular, we only sense a very low resolution and limited visible light spectrum and do not sense the phase or polarization of that light at all and there are similar low resolution spectra for all of our other senses as well. These low resolution spectra contrast with the very high resolution spectra that science records from many different devices. Science measures light, sound, impulse, chemistry, and odor not only at other vastly different wavelengths, but also at much higher resolution that also include phase as well as wavelength in its spectra. While there is a great deal of overlap between our macroscopic and microscopic narratives, there are many dramatic differences as well.

In our macroscopic reality, matter does not appear to exist in the same exact place at one time nor does the same matter appear to exist in more than one place at a time, either. Classically there are knowable precursors for every outcome in spite of the fact that we might not know those precursors because they might be hidden or otherwise obscured by noise. In other words, there is no classical limit to the precision of our knowledge of classical precursors despite the noise.

In our microscopic reality, though, matter can exist in the same exact place and time as other matter and the same matter can also exist in more than one place at a time as well. This is simply a consequence of quantum superposition and entanglement and does not violate causality. Thus there are still quantum precursors for every quantum outcome, but we may not be able to precisely know or measure those quantum precursors. Unlike the unlimited precision of classical knowledge, there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision of our knowledge of quantum precursors.

In both classical and quantum narratives, a pulse of light exists with both an average frequency as well as an instantaneous amplitude versus time and amplitude versus frequency. In addition, a pulse of light also has a single classical polarization state, but always a quantum superposition of two orthogonal polarization states. While a classical light pulse exists with a single well-defined polarization state, a quantum light pulse exists in a superposition of two orthogonal polarization states.

Therefore a single quantum photon always exists as a superposition of polarizations in contrast to a single classical photon that only exists with a well-defined single polarization. It is not possible to reconcile the notions of non oscillating classical matter with the oscillation of classical light. This represents the irreducible conundrum of classical versus quantum narratives. While a pair of correlated oscillating quantum states can represent a classical state, there is no classical representation for a single quantum state.

The quantum gravity biphoton reconciles classical determinate gravity relativity with the discrete uncertainties of quantum charge. While the photon-matter exchange of charge is necessarily quantum, biphoton-matter exchange is classical because of the entanglement and symmetry of quantum phase. Unlike the microscopic single photon exchange of charge with uncertain outcomes, the macroscopic biphoton exchange of gravity occurs with the determinate outcomes of universe change. The uncertainties of quantum gravity only show up at the scale of the universe while the uncertainties of atomic charge show up at the atomic scale.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Fast Changes versus Slow Changes

There is a fundamental confusion between very fast changes and very slow changes in the universe. There are two very different clocks for slow versus fast changes even though mainstream science believes that there is still only one time dimension. While the universe changes only very, very slowly, atoms and molecules literally change at the speed of light and even the atoms and molecules of rest matter undergo very fast and perpetual changes. What looks like quiescent matter is actually a cauldron of seething electrons, protons, and neutrons in perpetual motion and change and yet on the scale of the cosmos, we sometimes see no change at all.

Mainstream science believes that the very slow changes in the universe are simply manifestations of the very fast atomic changes of a single time dimension. This is not correct. While atomic clocks show a very precise time for atoms and molecules, the dephasing of two atomic time clocks reveals a second time dimension of very slow universe time. Mainstream science believes the very slow changes in the universe today stem from the very fast changes of a big bang followed by another whole universe of very fast changes known as inflation. Finally, the very slow changes we see today just derive from the CMB (cosmic microwave background) creation.

However, there is no sense to what caused the big bang and there are over twenty fundamental particles and constants as well as their antimatter equivalents and those constants have existed since just after the very fast changes of the big bang and inflation. Thus, the patchwork belief of mainstream is a narrative of a very slow universe changes evolving from very fast matter action. In fact, mainstream science must believe in an origin along with a large number of particles, constants, and other leaps of faith to make sense out of the very slow changes that we see today in the universe.

Mattertime is an alternative belief that still makes sense out of the CMB creation and that there are actually two time dimensions; the very fast atom changes result in an atomic clock and the very slow universe changes of the dephasing of two atomic clocks . Mattertime is a very simple alternative belief that is also consistent with all observations and in fact, mattertime simply reinterprets many observations of matter decay and force growth that the mainstream attributes to other things or can't otherwise explain.

Mattertime expresses all change with just two quantum dimensions or conjugates of matter and action which along with quantum phase complete the trimal of quantum change.

There are just two mattertime constants and all other constants and particles emerge from just these two. Of course, the two mattertime constants, aether particle mass and action, are just simplifications of all spacetime constants and particles. All matter including even space and time and black holes emerges from the actions of aether particles and the fundamental quantum Schrödinger equation.

The Planck constant, h, is the action constant of light since it gives the energy of each photon of light from the light's oscillation frequency. Since photon exchange bonds all matter, h is  a part of all matter, not just light. Likewise, hae = h/c2 is the action constant of mattertime since it relates an equivalent mass to any action oscillation frequency. All quantum aether oscillates and the relative phases of matter's quantum oscillations are what either bonds or scatters matter with aether exchange. This means that each photon of light is actually a bound aether pair and the photon energy is equal to the strength of that bond.

The aether particle mass is the second mattertime constant and is simply the fraction of hydrogen atom action mass, hae/tB, due to gravity versus charge, forcecharge/forcegravity. The ratio of the Planck constant, hae, to Bohr hydrogen orbit period, tB, is the mass equivalent bonding energy of a hydrogen atom and so the aether particle mass is then the matter equivalent bonding energy of the universe to itself.

The incredible and complex universe emerges from the very simply building blocks of matter and action along with the quantum Schrödinger equation. The universe is really a causal set of precursors for every outcome and our own purpose and meaning emerge from that family relationship. However, since we ourselves are all causal sets embedded within the universe causal set, there are limits to what we can know about precursors of outcomes. This limitation is enshrined in something called the quantum uncertainty principle and is really a direct outcome of the nature of quantum phase.

Fundamentally, we are quantum beings with matter, action, and phase in a perpetual oscillation embedded in the quantum matter, action and phase of the universe. The fact that we cannot know our quantum phase limits how well we can know other quantum phase and that limits the precision of our knowledge of matter action. While we can predict matter action quite well, there is a fundamental mystery of matter action in which we must simply believe.

Mattertime is completely consistent with the matter-energy equivalence of gravity relativity since all energy is a form of aether in mattertime. In fact, the entire universe is made up of matter action and time and space and black holes all emerge from matter action and phase. Therefore, mattertime includes quantum gravity and gravitons become the biphotons of CMB creation. The dark biphotons of gravity waves are the glue that pulls the universe together and there is no need to invent dark matter or dark energy. The mattertime universe already makes sense as a pulse of matter and the fundamental gauge or measure of all action is the aether particle.

Tuesday, October 1, 2019

Single Photon Resonator

There are many questions about the nature of the universe that do not have precise answers, but people still ask and answer them anyway. Even very smart people ask about the location of a photon in beamsplitter device, but a single quantum photon exists in a superposition of locations with a superposition of frequencies inside any resonator. A single quantum photon is necessarily defined by both its locations and its frequency spectrum, which includes its phase or polarization. The more precisely you measure the photon location, the less precisely you can know the photon spectrum and vice versa.

A single classical photon exists as a pulse of light with both a location and a spectral superposition of frequencies and phases called a spectrum. A single quantum photon location in a beamsplitter device can be in a superposition of locations and any measurement will affect the single photon spectrum since the measurement becomes part of the device. Any simultaneous knowledge of both photon location and spectrum is necessarily limited by the uncertainty principle and the fact that it is a single photon.

Even very smart people can ask the absurd question about a quantum photon location in a beamsplitter resonator and location has no meaning since single photon has no classical meaning. A photon is a superposition of all frequencies and phases and all locations in the entire universe that happen to make up what we call a pulse of light that shows up on one path with one spectrum. This is how the universe works and yet, these same very smart people seem forever confused by the discrete nature of quantum matter and action.

Why is the universe full of things that happen? Why do things happen at all? Why do things happen to one person and not to someone else? These are questions that people ask and answer all the time, but there are no single precise answers to such questions. The things that happen to us are simply how the universe is and there is no further explanation needed, just belief in the way the universe is.

However, all things that happen are outcomes that have matter action precursors and so we can find out a lot about the matter and action that causes something to happen, but we cannot know everything. Even though there are answers to all questions about the matter and action precursors that cause something to happen within the universe, there are limits to the precision of any answer. Classically, however, there is no limit to the precision of knowledge besides the complexity of chaos. However, in quantum space and time, precise knowledge of both location and momentum is not possible. In fact, a more precise measurement of location results in more uncertainty in the spectrum of a photon. Thus, there is a discrete quantum limit to simultaneous knowledge of both the matter and action that causes something to happen.

Both double slit and beamsplitter resonators as well as any laser resonators are all examples of photon resonators and there are many ways to fabricate a single photon resonator at light wavelengths. Such a light resonator includes a source, confinement of some sort with mirrors and beamsplitters, lenses and apertures, and a detector. Depending on dephasing time and frequency of the source and detector, there are any number of semiclassical approximations or simplifications for the quantum phase superposition and entanglement that are a part of even a single photon resonator. However, since quantum superposition and entanglement of a single photon with itself has no completely classical meaning, and the many semiclassical questions will necessarily result in absurd semiclassical answers.

For example, a 1996 sciAm article reported a photon resonator that detects objects with a photon that never hits those objects. The underlying assumption is that it is only by photon absorption or emission that we detect objects, but of course this is not true. A shadow is a perfect example of detecting an object with the photons that do not hit the object instead of those that do. Since there are two or any number of paths in superposition within this single photon resonator, this resonator recorded an object shadow by blocking one path and thereby changing the photon output along the other path. Therefore, the photon that passed through the resonator recorded a change without ever hitting the object. The authors then implied that the photon was identical before and after, but that was really not true either. The photon spectrum did change and in particular, the phase and polarization of the photon changed and that recorded change showed the blockage of one path.

In other words, a single photon carries both frequency and phase information and so the photon did change even though it did not hit the inserted object. This single photon resonator is analogous to the hydrogen atom, since hydrogen is also a single photon resonator where photon exchange between the electron and proton binds the hydrogen orbits. Thus, a hydrogen atom resonator is an electron source, a proton detector, and photon confinement due to exchange. Note that a hydrogen atom is completely symmetric (actually, not quite because of spin polarization) and therefore also equivalent to a proton source and electron detector. Creation formed each hydrogen atom in the universe by emitting a photon of light complementary in frequency and phase to the photon exchange that binds hydrogen. In fact, this complementary photon pair is the biphoton that we call gravity force.
There are many semiclassical approximations for single photon resonators including the hydrogen atom and these approximations often result in semiclassical confusion. This confusion is due to the underlying quantum phase correlation, interference, and entanglement that have no classical meanings. A single photon, electron, or proton can actually interfere or entangle with itself while in relativistic gravity, there is no such self-energy of quantum phase coherence. A very common semiclassical approximation is to completely neglect of the role of quantum phase and in particular, to completely neglect the roles of source and detector phase entanglement.

Thus, just as there is no way to really explain the bonding of a hydrogen atom without quantum phase or to locate the photon being exchanged, there is likewise really no way to precisely locate a single photon in a quantum resonator, either. Hydrogen is made up of two opposite semiclassical charged particles, but what bonds the electron and proton of hydrogen is photon exchange, which makes no classical sense at all. The semiclassical observer can then imagine the photon as a free particle independent of its source and detector traveling independently in space and time. While this is often a very useful semiclassical approximation, the neglect of source and detector quantum phase entanglement can lead the observer to many absurd semiclassical conclusions.

One absurd conclusion is that a semiclassical electron falling into a proton eventually exceeds the speed of light. Another absurd conclusion is that since a semiclassical electron moves through space and time in its orbit around a proton, there is instantaneous communication across the diameter of the orbit. In fact, these same absurd semiclassical conclusions result from any single photon resonator given semiclassical approximations.

A second very common semiclassical approximation that a single photon behaves in a similar manner to a large collection of photons. However, while a large number of uncorrelated photons give a classical statistical average classical behavior, a single photon will necessarily show only a quantum outcome just as a large number of highly correlated photons become a laser. Therefore, a single photon does not have a single classical determinate outcome because even a single photon represents a quantum superposition of many possible outcomes and not just a single classical outcome like a classical cannonball.

Unlike a classical cannonball, which only has a semiclassical mass, a photon and indeed all quantum matter, even cannonballs, have both masses and a spectrum of frequencies and phases and so no two photons or particles are ever exactly alike. Even though two photons may come from the same source and end up at the same detector, they never have exactly the same spectrum. Therefore, ignoring quantum phase entanglement for any single photon resonator like a double slit or a beam splitter can lead to absurd semiclassical determinate answers instead of uncertain quantum answers.

Including quantum phase entanglement and decay in a single photon resonator resolves all of these semiclassical paradoxes with probabilistic quantum answers. Quantum nonlocality and action at a distance are both the direct outcomes of semiclassical and determinate assumptions that completely ignore quantum phase entanglement and decay. Classically, there is no limit to the precision of the simultaneous knowledge of the mass and action of a particle or body like a cannonball. However, there is a discrete quantum limit to the precision of the simultaneous knowledge of matter and action, the uncertainty principle, because quantum matter and action have quantum phase and entanglement.

A classical cannonball has a classical mass measurable to an arbitrary classical and relativistic precision as long as the cannonball is at rest. However, the electrons, protons, and neutrons of the quantum cannonball are never at rest since they are all in perpetual motion, even at absolute zero temperature. Therefore, the cannonball mass actually depends on its temperature as well as on the atmosphere it is in contact with and so on. Thus, there are a large number of semiclassical approximations that we make when we measure a classical cannonball rest mass. When we measure the quantum mass of a cannonball, its action is always a part of that quantum measurement and the relativistic rest mass is then just a semiclassical approximation that has no quantum meaning. And there is a semiclassical assumption that the universe does not change during the course of the measurement, but the universe does in fact change all the time and those changes do actually affect the measurement, if only very slightly.

Quantum phase entanglement and decay can lead to very complex analyses called two-dimensional photon spectroscopy. The more complex the photon resonator, the more complex the spectral analysis and even very smart people can end up with absurd semiclassical answers given semiclassical approximations. There are really two outcomes for source and detector phases and pure decay to heat is just one outcome while pure dephasing is a second outcome that results in no heat. Semiclassical approximations usually assume pure decay and completely neglect the pure dephasing of quantum phase, but many of the absurd semiclassical conclusions of the double slit and beamsplitter resonators result from the neglect of pure dephasing and entanglement.

Classically, atom excitation energy decays only to heat and results in a classical emission spectrum after quantum phase decay. However, it is possible for quantum phase to diffuse to other matter and couple source and detector even though the excitation energy does not decay to heat. Rather, quantum phase entanglement persists and the emission spectrum evolves and can result in photon echoes and other pure phase entanglements that have no classical meaning at all.

Thus there is no Wittgenstein sense to the many absurd questions about semiclassical single photon resonators. Single photons as well as large numbers of highly phase correlated photons in resonators have only quantum and not really classical answers. Thus, the determinism of gravity relativity is a very misleading semiclassical approximation for the biphoton phase correlation of quantum gravity. It is the biphoton phase entanglement and correlation of the emitted and exchanged photons of hydrogen and all matter in the universe that is gravity force. In other words, gravity force is due to a persistent biphoton quantum phase correlation and so gravity relativity is a very good approximation that neglects the fundamental role of phase for the biphoton of quantum gravity.

The penultimate photon resonator is a black hole where only photon phase exchange binds matter into a pure phase gravity photon resonator while the ultimate photon resonator is the universe itself. A black hole outcome represents a pure quantum phase matter action that really has no meaning in classical space and time. A black hole quantum phase or spin outcome preserves all of its precursor matter action information as both matter and pure phase and there is no meaning for black hole space and time. Our notions of space and time as well as black holes then all emerge from things that happen and really space and time and black holes do not therefore have meaning without things that happen. Space, time, and black holes all emerge from the causal set of the precursors and outcomes of discrete matter action.