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Sunday, February 19, 2017

Entanglement of Quantum Feeling

A quantum theory of feeling needs to define the nature of superposition and entanglement for people's feelings for each other. Any choice that you make in life involves the superposition of two possible outcomes; one to excite action and the other to inhibit action. Therefore quantum feeling necessarily means that choice involves the superposition or entanglement of two precursor quantum states of feeling and the subsequent decay of that precursor superposition into one outcome or the other.

Since emotion is the basic mechanism that drives feeling and therefore determines choice in the primitive brain, we need a simple model of emotion to describe quantum feeling. The integration of five emotion dimensions represents human feeling reasonably well with the notion that feeling is how we choose to excite or inhibit action and therefore feeling is singular even while emotion has five dimensions. While rational thought occupies much of consciousness, the primitive thought of emotion and memory are how people really choose with quantum free will.

The further machine of consciousness is why we are aware and why we can make choices and why consciousness fundamentally entangles quantum emotions and feelings. The emotions of pleasure and anxiety are the most important emotions that determine survival. People get pleasure in discovering the world, pleasure in breathing, pleasure in drinking, pleasure in eating, and pleasure in being with other people. However, people are also anxious about the dangers of the world, anxious about breathing foul air, anxious about bad water, anxious about toxic food, and anxious about unfriendly people. Without anxiety, people would take risks that might lead to injury or death even though people do not desire excessive anxiety.

People make choices about family and community by the bonding emotions of compassion pride and conflicting emotions of selfishness and shame. Compassion is how people bond and selfishness is how people conflict. All people must have compassion for bonding to others and yet all people must also be selfish just to survive and even more selfish to accumulate and share their wealth with even more compassion.

The further emotions of anger and serenity are very important emotions that help people set limits for other's behaviors. People get angry when they feel injustice or unfairness and people experience serenity when they are satisfied and happy with life. Jealousy and envy are different manifestations of anger as opposed to separate emotions.

We maintain a social order with the emotions of pride and shame for accepting group authority and setting standards and ethics that help people bond to those groups. Civilization's laws and norms are a kind of contract that we believe in and pride and shame are the emotions that drive choices to keep that contract.

Finally, joy and misery are sort of the kind of residual primitive emotions that help people be satisfied or dissatisfied with actions in their lives. Misery can drive people to make changes in their lives just as joy can show that life is desirable. Laughter is an expression of joy even while crying is an expression of misery. Surprise is a combination of joy and the pleasure of discovery as opposed to a separate emotion.

The emotion spectrum below shows how this set of five emotion dimensions reduces to a singular feeling and by that singular feeling, we choose to excite or inhibit an outcome action.

The primitive brain makes our decisions for us with a set of very specialized brain organs that all come together into the amygdala, which is the decision point where quantum superposition drives quantum free will. The caudate and thalmus are both important for emotion and of course, the hypocampus entangles choice with the long term memories of experience that also contribute to feeling.

While people often believe that choice emerges from the rational cerebral brain that forms the aware matter of moments of thought, science tells us that people actually choose to excite or inhibit action before they become conscious of their choice. Feeling is the way that the primitive brain makes choices and the rational brain then comes up with a story about why the primitive brain made the choice that it did.

Friday, February 17, 2017


There are really two very different approaches for predicting how things happen in the universe; classical determinism with its knowable chaos and quantum probability with its unknowable phase noise. Classical predictions are very familiar and are the typical ways that we experience the universe and every classical effect has a knowable classical cause. Quantum predictions can be quite different from classical predictions since quantum actions happen with only likely and not certain causes and therefore not absolutely knowable. The challenge for this new quantavangelism is to promote the belief that some things happen for unknowable causes. 

In a classical determinate prediction, observers and sources are completely interchangeable and all things happen with fundamentally knowable, albeit sometimes very complex and chaotic, causes. Although the chaos of classical noise does limit even what a classical observer can know, in a determinate classical universe, everything happens because of a knowable cause and even noise is ultimately knowable. Gravity action is largely classical and so how we perceive the world is also largely classical and so it is quite natural to suppose that is the way the universe must be as well. However, quantum logic tells us otherwise...

An electron always exists in a superposition of up and down spin states in an orbit around a nucleus as shown is an example of the duality of classical and quantum predictions. Classically, the electron has a knowable path as an orbit around a nucleus, but the quantum path of the electron has both wave and particle properties. The quantum electron exists in symmetric sphere around the nucleus in an S orbit is a superposition spin state, but the spin state exists in one side of a charge plane in a P orbit as up and the other side as down. 

Excitation of the electron into each successive orbit reduces the classical electron velocity by a factor of two and therefore its kinetic energy by four until eventual ionization. The complementary capture of an electron into the S ground state occurred with the emission of a photon and that photon phase entangles the spin phase of the electron. Since the universe is actually not classical, quantum observers and sources are not interchangeable for quantum probabilistic predictions.

In other words, a quantum observer of an electron path or spin cannot predict a precise but only a likely quantum future for that spin. Quantum observer and source are inextricably entangled in the surreal quantum world. Although the chaos of classical noise also limits what a quantum observer can know about a source, in addition, there is quantum phase noise. Unlike the chaos of classical noise, quantum phase noise entangles an observer with a source in ways that the observer cannot ever know. Fundamentally this means that there are quantum effects for an action that do not have knowable causes.

Things happen in the universe because of the actions of both classical gravity biphotons and quantum charge photons. Since gravity biphotons and charge photons are very different magnitudes of force, mainstream science treats them as two very different forces and this also means that there are two very different kinds of observers; one for classical gravity and another for quantum charge. Without a unified photon exchange force that explains both gravity and charge, a classical observer will not see a source the same way as a quantum observer sees the same source.

Saturday, January 28, 2017

CSL Quantum Phase Noise versus the Classical Noise of Chaos

Quantum phase noise is what drives all action in the discrete aether universe and one of the consequences of the decay of quantum phase noise is that both a source and observer mass wavefunctions collapse even while their charge and gravity forces expand. In a related description decay of quantum phase noise, continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) arbitrarily creates a phase noise decay time and characteristic distance in order to collapse quantum wavefunctions for macroscopic objects and reality even without an observer. The CSL assumptions vary, but one proposed decay time is 1e-17 s-1 at a length of 1e-5 cm, which compares very well to the quantum aether values of 0.81e-17 s-1 and 0.7e-5 cm as the figure below shows. In fact, the inverse universe age is 0.23e-17 s-1 and so is also very close to the discrete aether decay time for good reason.

What is really amazing is that a combination of the fundamental distance of 70 nm and time of 3.9 Byrs actually explains wavefunction collapse without any additional parameters. These values come from existing universe constants and so require no further justification. However, the further assumption that this wavefuction collapse also occurs for the wavefunction that represents the universe as a kind of self energy correction. This means that the universe collapse rate is what drives both gravity and the universe scale and charge at the atomic scale.

Unlike CSL, though, the discrete aether decay and length simply arise from the assumptions of a fundamental aether decay from the ratio of gravity and charge forces at the hydrogen atom radius. That time constant can also define the universe age and so there are no new constants in discrete quantum aether...just reinterpretations of some "constants" of mainstream science. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft helped further bound the universe collapse rate and size along with the gravity wave detectors as the figure shows.

The aether decay constant comes from the ratio of gravity to charge forces between two hydrogen atoms and is
𝛼dot = mH² G / (q²  1e-7) c / rB = 0.81e-17 s-1
and is the frequency of the Bohr atom fluctuations, c/rB, scaled by the ratio of gravity to charge forces. The characteristic time, tC = 3.91 Byr, is like a time for the universe to change.

When two atoms are far apart, gravity noise dominates over charge noise and where gravity noise equals charge noise represents a characteristic distance, rC. At the radius where gravity force equals dispersion or van der Waals force between two hydrogen atoms, gravity noise then equals charge noise. The dispersion radius of two hydrogens is where dispersion and gravity energies are equal and is at
rd = (3/4 EH ap2 / G / mH2)1/5 = 0.7e-5 cm = 70 nm
where ap = 3peorB3 is the hydrogen atom polarizability.

Thus, the very nature of discrete quantum aether shows the inherent property of phase decay and phase decay drives both gravity and charge forces just at very different scales. The Hubble constant in aethertime is just simply H = 𝛼dotc, the product of the aether decay and the speed of light in this epoch.

Here is a graph that shows the decay of the international standard for mass, the IPK, over the last century or so relative to a series of sister standards that are used for calibration. Primary and secondary standards are carefully cleaned before each use in a rigorous procedure that does alter the standard's mass. Therefore specialists have carefully designed a cleaning procedure that does not change the mass of these secondary relics and as a result, the secondary standards on average do not change mass. However, adjusting the cleaning procedure can therefore hide the intrinsic decay of matter.

In contrast to the fixed mass of the sister standards due to cleaning, the IPK has only been cleaned and measured the three times as shown and so the IPK shows the decay of mass predicted by the universal mass decay constant, mdot, as shown. The mdot equation depends on the fundamental constants of charge, q, speed of light, c, fine structure constant, α, and charge cross section, Aq. The mdot constant represents a fundamental aether decay of the universe that drives both charge and gravity forces. Ironically, while mass decays, charge and gravity forces grow in contrast to the prevailing notions of mainstream science.

Classically, there is no way for matter to decay by decoherence although mass is equivalent to the energy of light and so mass can transform into light and light back into mass as well. The transient species called positronium is a bound state of an electron with its antimatter positron decays by quantum phase noise into two photons of light after less than a microsecond. By the principles of microscopic reversibility, two photons can collide and produce postronium or indeed many different kinds of matter.

However, classical matter cannot decay by quantum phase decoherence into nothing since there is no classical meaning for quantum phase noise. Thus the classical universe is in some sense ultimately driven by noise and not by purpose. The butterfly effect is a an example of classical noise from the flapping butterfly wing and that even that slight noise can effect the course of a hurricane. Noise is what limits the precision of any measurement of a source property and when the fluctuations of noise dominate purpose, the noise of classical chaos drives purpose, not choice.

A person's success in life is obviously due to a superposition of past choices and actions. However, a focus only on the past suggests that any success in life would be due to blind luck of birth and that even further back, it is the blind luck of creation that would determine a destiny of any success in life. This classical and determinate notion of fate or karma presumes free will is an illusion because it is only the superposition of the past that determines all choice for any action. Of course, the chaos of noise does still limit the precision of measuring action and so even a determinate future can still be difficult to predict with certainty.

A person's success in life, though, is not just due to a superposition of past choices and action, but that success is also due to choices from a large number of possible futures as well. What makes up a person's success or any action is then a superposition of both the past and the future possibilities and so any particular future is not then determined only by blind luck or birth or creation. We choose a future by the action of free will and the entanglement of free will is not an illusion of the chaos of classical noise. Instead the action of free will emerges from the noise of quantum phase entanglement.

Quantum phase noise entangles the futures of a source and observer in ways that an observer cannot know. Therefore, quantum phase noise has no classical or determinate meaning since entanglement means that there are quantum actions that have no knowable cause. The entanglement of source and observer phase does decay over time and that decay or decoherence changes both source and observer in ways that are not knowable to the observer.

Another example of the decay of quantum phase noise is for thousands of rotating neutron stars known as millisecond pulsars. This figure shows that the average decays of several thousand millisecond pulsars decay the same as the IPK.

Yet another example is the average decay of earth's spin as shown below. Although there are many classical and chaotic actions that effect earth's spin, it is interesting that the earth's spin decay seems to be at least in part consistent with the decay of the IPK as well as the decay of the millisecond pulsars. From 1971 to 2015, there have been 25 leap seconds over these 44 years, which is 0.18 ppb/yr, which is very close to the quantum phase decay of 0.255 ppb/yr as the figure shows.

Although ocean tidal friction is often assigned to this value, tidal energy seems to be only 1.7% of the earth spin energy decay. Given an ocean surface area of 3.6e14 m2 and a mean tide height of 0.6 m, the tidal energy is 2.5e15 J/day for two tides.

In fact, there seem to be any number of measurements consistent with the quantum phase decay, which also comes with a complementary universal force growth. In fact, in order to be consistent with the Hubble galaxy red shift, force must increase with decreasing mass in this epoch of the universe.

Friday, December 16, 2016

Lunar Solation Time

Since ancient times, peoples have used the winter solstice to begin each new year but really both the sun and the moon tell time, just very differently. While Sol tells the very precise time of the atomic clock, Luna tells a much fuzzier time with her full moons due to the entanglement of moon and sun orbital motions.  The precise time of Sol is contrasts with the fuzzy Luna time and we must somehow integrate both ways of telling time.

The solstice of 2018dec21 at 2:23 pm pst happens to be within a day of the full moon of 2018dec22 9:49 am pst. Such an alignment of the winter solstice and full moon only happens once every nine years and reflects the nine year lunar solation Sar cycle. Correspondingly, the Easter moon 2019mar 21 also coincides with the vernal equinox 2019mar20. The nine-year Sar cycle is the period that relates alternating lunar and 18-year Saros solar eclipses. The Chaldeans discovered the Sar cycle 2600 years ago by careful observation and recording in the ancient city of Babylon in Iraq.

Science declares that there are exactly 86,400 seconds in each day and science declares the length of the second is exactly 9,192,631,770 cycles of the Cs-133 atomic clock hyperfine resonance at 9.2 Ghz. But the number of days in each lunar cycle varies and the length of a lunar month varies by half a day from 29.3 to 29.8 days. Over an eight solar year cycle of 99 moons, there are 7 lunar years of 14 moons each plus one leap moon to make 99 moons. There are 14 full moons for each lunar year but the lunar and solar years only approximately rephase about once every 8 solar years of 365.25 days each and 7 lunar years of 14 full moons each as the figure shows. this is not the most important issue facing civilization right now...that I give you. It just seems such a crying shame that the simple relationship of 99 moons to 8 solar years does not get much press.

The decay of the Kronos atomic time of the solar day is well known and seems to contrast with the equally well known chaos of the Kairos time of the lunar month. But really, these two time dimensions simply reflect the confusion that comes from the duality of matter and action and the duality of discrete quantum versus continuous classical action.

The 2019 solstice is within one day of a full moon at the minimum of lunation period starts the 99 moon period of 2019-26. The Easter moon on 31mar2018 is moon#91 of the previous 99 moon cycle and celebrates the birth of Spring as the first full moon following the 2018mar20 vernal equinox. The Easter moon 2019mar21 coincides with 2019mar20 vernal equinox just like the solstice aligned with a full moon. The lunations around the moon#99 start always involve more solar and lunar eclipses since the sun and moon spend more time at near angles.

The Pleasure of Discovery Means Living Better and Not Just Living Longer

Living longer is not always the same as living better and there is a 2016dec report that shows life expectancy in the U. S. has decreased for the first time since the aids epidemic of mere 0.1 year. According to an NPR report, 28,000 more people died in 2015 as compared to 2014 and a CNS report suggests that the introduction of the U.S. affordable health care act may be at least partly responsible for killing these people.

However, living longer is not necessarily desirable if living longer means living in some chronic misery like the fog of dementia and so living longer is just one aspect of a desirable future. Feeling better as psychological well being, for example, increases 5 year survival rates from 65% to 78% for a sample of 6,030 older adults, for example.

<Maintaining Healthy Behavior: a Prospective Study of Psychological Well-Being and Physical Activity, Kim, E.S., Kubzansky, L.D., Soo, J. et al. ann. behav. med. (2016). doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9856-y>

A desirable future should include at least two other measures besides just living longer. Another important measure is, for example, the pleasure of discovery and compassion for others and yet another measure is earning the means and the resources for that discovery and compassion as well as to pay for sufficient health care when needed.  Both discovery and means are just as important for a desirable future as simply living longer. The human development index, HDI, includes the trimal of living longer, discovery, and per capita GDP among a number of other factors. In fact, any measure of a desirable future in a civilization should include at least these three metrics since living well is much more than just living longer.

So before going off on some singular tangent and putting more money into a healthcare system that is already very expensive, the U.S. should also consider how to increase the overall desirability of life and not just its length. People begin more rounding up along with the inexorable demographic percentages and so olders are especially sensitive to the message of not just living longer, but living better as well.

Without the selfish pleasure of discovery, a compassion for others, and some minimum skills and means, simply living longer is less desirable The friends and family that we have and the pleasure of further discovery and the ability to afford all of that is what determines purpose, not just living longer.

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Math Laws and Observer Wandering

The observer holds a very important role for science since observation is key to the successful predictions of science. Yet there exists a dichotomy in science between the reality for two different observers; reality for a classical observer versus reality for a quantum observer. This conundrum is very deeply embedded into science today and is the reason that there is no common basis for gravity and charge, which is called the hierarchy problem in science.

A fundamental difference between gravity and charge is that while there is always an exactly knowable cause for every effect of classical gravity, there are not always exactly knowable causes for any quantum effects. Quantum states can exist as superpositions of amplitude and phase while amplitude and phase have no meaning for classical states. As a result, a classical observer sees a different reality from a quantum observer. Below is an example of the two different observers who intend to wander through one of two doors and bond to a source on the other side. The classical observer’s goal is never really precise because footsteps are not precise but the classical observer does end up bonded to a source in one place or the other and also remembers which door they came through.

The quantum observer has many more possible futures and yet may still not be able to remember the actions of exactly which door they actually took or even why they chose the door they chose.
An observer wanders toward the goal of bonding to a source by using two fundamentally different math laws to predict the future of that source. A classical observer predicts a determinate albeit somewhat chaotic path for a goal with the science of general relativity. In contrast, a quantum observer predicts many possible entangled paths and goals for quantum bonding to the same source. Each footstep involves quantum and gravity bonding and debonding until the final step bonds to the goal. The noise of classical chaos for macroscopic action usually masks the decoherence of quantum phase noise and so a classical observer can argue endlessly with a quantum observer about the uncertainty of determinate macroscopic action like a footstep. However, microscopic action can often show very little classical noise and therefore it is in the microscopic domain that quantum observers wander toward the mysteries of many possible quantum goals.

For any macroscopic person, quantum phase noise is a very small fraction of classical chaos noise and so a person’s quantum interference pattern given two possible futures is very short range. This just means that the quantum observer’s goal is nearly as imprecise as the classical observer even though a quantum observer still includes many more possible futures due to the coherence of quantum phase noise. For a pure quantum observer, phase noise dominates over classical chaos and as a result, a quantum observer may not remember which door exactly, just which door was most likely. In fact, quantum phase noise is still what makes the nature of neural choice a mystery.

It is very ironic that given classical cause and effect, it is the classic observer that points the arrow of time with the determinate paths of GR geodesics sources where choice is no mystery. The quantum observer wanders toward many more possible quantum goals along indeterminate paths and some quantum paths actually go back in classical time and exactly reverse the classical action of a source. This confuses a quantum observer about the arrow of time while a classical observer is never confused about cause and effect and the arrow of time.

Entropy is a measure of randomness and points a classical arrow of time since a classical observer calculates just one entropy as the straightforward logarithm of all possible future states, S = ln w. There is only one classical entropy and classical entropy always increases and therefore reliably points the arrow of time. Classical entropy is the same for both matter and action and since there are always more possible futures in the constant mass of an expanding universe, the increasing entropy of an expanding universe action points the arrow of time.

Classical entropy does still confuse classical observers, though, since the universe actually seems to evolve into more organized and lower entropy states despite an overall increase in entropy with the arrow of time. Stars by a large form from the chaos of hydrogen gas, galaxies form from the chaos of stars, and life forms from the chaos of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water.

A broken egg never reassembles itself into a whole egg and that is a statement of the inexorable increase of classical entropy. The chicken that produced the egg, though, continues to evolve as a species and so the futures of chickens and eggs are all affected by any one egg that has broken. Since the broken egg did not result in a new chicken, it is the eggs that hatch into chickens that drive a decrease in classical entropy that we call life's evolution.

In contrast to a classical egg, which is always either whole or broken, a quantum egg also exists for some very short time as a superposition of unbroken and broken states. A classical observer really calculates two different and opposite entropies since there is an increasing entropy for a breaking egg along with a decreasing entropy for evolving chicken species and their eggs. This means that the increasing entropy of shrinking mass complements the decreasing entropy of increasing action and so the classical entropy Suniverse = ln waction + ln wmass= ln (waction / wmass), ~ 0.

Since classical mass is constant and does not show quantum phase decoherence, there is no classical meaning for a mass entropy different from an action entropy. For quantum gravity, though, the entropy of discrete aether flows from action to mass and that entropy and aether flow are what drive the universe into more organized states with lower entropy and so the classical universe entropy is as expected near zero. Just like the flow of classical entropy, it is the flow of quantum information that determines the arrow of time in a collapsing mass and expanding action universe.

This means that the universe mass actually collapses even while the universe action grows and it is the increasing entropy of growing action that drives the decrease of entropy for the universe of collapsing matter into ever more organized states. Despite the chaos of classical noise and the breaking of an egg, it is actually the ever present decoherence of quantum phase noise that actually keeps clocks ticking in the right direction and keeps eggs breaking and not unbreaking themselves.

Unlike the reversibility of classical time, it is the time of quantum phase decoherence that is what keeps the quantum ∆Suniverse > 0 and so classical entropy does not actually point the arrow of time after all. Two quantum clocks that begin ticking in phase will eventually dephase even without the chaos of classical noise and it is the quantum decoherence of past matter that is then what makes for more coherent future action of increased order.

The mindless noise of classical chaos contrasts with mindful coherence of quantum phase noise. Ironically, quantum phase noise leads both to indeterminate futures as well as to the flow of decreasing matter entropy into the increasing entropy of action. Although both thermodynamic and quantum laws both depend on increasing classical action entropy driven by chaos, quantum laws also show a fundamental coherence between matter and action that is the quantum phase noise of decreasing entropy.

While there is always a classical cause for the chaos of classical noise, there is no classical cause for any quantum phase noise. Quantum phase noise means that an observer phase in one part of the universe is coherent with a source phase located across the universe, which is a decrease in entropy. The action of decoherence means that these two events will eventually dephase due to quantum phase noise even in the absence of any classical noise of chaos. This means that while classical actions all have knowable causes because the classical noise of chaos is in principle knowable, there are only just mostly knowable causes for quantum action and never a completely knowable cause due to quantum phase noise.

Chemical crystallization is a very common process that occurs when a seed of matter nucleates from solution and a crystal grows from that nucleated seed by progressive bonding as a crystal replicates itself from the dissolved species. This happens in many different solutions in many different ways but it is from the aqueous solutions of a primordial goo that life has crystallized. A recursive cycle of chemical concentration as a result of evaporation of water, seeding, crystallization, and redissolution by rehydration, occurs for example, in ancient seas whose memories are now in the layers of rather pure salt deeply buried on land.

Given the free energy of evaporation and recondensation, crystals naturally and recursively seed, grow, and redissolve just as life recursively seeds, grows, and dies. In the cosmos, stars likewise recursively seed hydrogen, grow by fusing some hydrogen into heavy elements, and then redissolve back into the cosmic dust of future stars. Galaxies also seed matter, grow by fusing that matter into the spin of black holes, and then decohere or redissolve back into the actions of a future universe.

Thus chemical replication is a natural process driven by free energy that occurs with the actions of nucleation or seeding along with replication or growth followed by redissolution in recursive cycles of dissolution, seeding, growth, and redissolution. This recursion moves matter from the chaos of quantum solutions into the order of quantum bonds. The emergence of life is then simply a consequence of just such a recursion that involves the seeding, growth, and dissolution of the phosphate esters of a natural chemical called adenosine. Adenosine is a natural molecule with a five carbon sugar (ribose is made from five CO2's and five waters) bonded to a nitro-aromatic ring (adenine is made from five hydrogen cyanides) and all these species exist in the primordial goo of creations ocean. Science often sees these precursors of life in the spectra of starlight and so these species exist in the condensed oceans of planets as well.

Given free energy, adenosine with plenty of phosphate around is then the seed that replicates itself and forms naturally occurring phosphate polymers of ATP to ADP to AMP (adenosine triphosphate, diphosphate, and monophosphate) that harvest and store large amounts of chemical energy from available free energy of phosphate food and water evaporation. The chemical energy of the phosphate bond is sufficient to not only replicate itself, but also to fix CO2 and nitrate by deoxygenating water into polymers from other goo that replicates with repeated cycles of reoxidation into the highly organized goo that we call life. The chemical energy of ATP is also sufficient to evaporate and condense its own water as well.

The sun drives much of life on earth’s surface and life converts the solar energy of photons into ATP and then uses ATP to fix CO2 and nitrates into the polymers of life by deoxygenation of water. However, hydrogen sulfide, H2S, from the primordial thermal energy of earth also drives life in deep sea vents and thermal ponds where ATP forms from the chemical energy of H2S as well. In the deep sea just as on the surface, life uses ATP from H2S to fix and distill carbonate and nitrate polymers with the same deoxygenation of water that distills life on earth’s surface.

Thus science has found that certain mindless mathematical laws and chemical reactions of the inanimate universe have distilled and continue to distill life from the primordial goo of creation...all by quite natural processes. Another product of that distillation is the neural actions that allow life’s observers to wander toward a goal with the aim and intent of the mindful choices of quantum bonding and replication.

Since gravity is so very weak compared to charge, there are a very large number of quantum gravity action states that represent a huge source of information or entropy. Quantum gravity results in a complementary huge decrease in entropy by matter flowing to matter’s action. As the order of sources increase and the entropy of matter decreases, information or entropy flows as mindful quantum aether distills or fractionates matter order from the increasing entropy of the growing aether action that science calls the mindless universe. The mindful action of decreasing matter entropy and increasing source order ironically emerges from the increasing entropy of mindless action.

The neural action of memory is an inevitable consequence of the carbon-nitrogen-water replicates that we call life. A very large number of gravity quantum states provides the increasing quantum entropy of action that drives the decreasing quantum entropy of matter. The large number of neural states of life likewise provides a tremendous reservoir of information and entropy of action for the organization with decreasing entropy that we call cooperative civilization.

We call the intent and aim of neural action mindful while we call the intent and aim of classical action mindless because classical action lacks neural choice and therefore mindful consciousness. The mystery of consciousness is still too hard for science because the free choice of quantum consciousness makes no classical sense. A determinate classical universe drives all classical choice from the knowable chaos of classical noise and so it is classical chaos that provides the classical illusion of free will and free choice. An indeterminate quantum universe with both knowable classical chaos as well as unknowable quantum phase noise has no completely determinate future and there is quantum free will and free choice even without chaos.

Whether you believe in the determinate illusion of free will or in the actual mystery of quantum free will, you still have a personal responsibility for any choice that you make. Determinate intention is just the belief that there are no unknowable mysteries in the universe and all knowledge that exists is in principle knowable, just some knowledge is not yet known. Knowledge is a neural memory of events and classical knowledge therefore has no limits. However, quantum knowledge has limits and quantum intention is the belief that even though we can know much about the universe, there are inexplicable mysteries that are beyond knowing. A certain quantum knowledge does exist but science can never fundamentally know without uncertainty which means that no one can have a neural memory of such quantum knowledge.

In other words, there are some things in which we must simply believe since some knowledge is beyond measurement.

For example, we can ask the three whys; why we are here, why we are here right now, and why it is us who are here right now and not someone else. However, there are no answers for the three why’s because that is knowledge that is unknowable. We simply have to believe that we are here, that we are here right now, and that it is us and not someone else who is here right now. We also must simply believe in the duality of matter and action (or some other conjugate pair) and from believing this simple duality, we can then understand what is possible to know.

In conclusion, matter and action represent a fundamental duality of the universe and a neural mind makes up of both the matter of neuron memories as well as the action of neural potentials. Instead of the overly simplistic duality of just mind and body or spirit and material, the universal duality of matter and action is true for all observers and sources and even for the mindless mathematical laws of neural memory and action. There is no sense in separating the universe into mindless mathematical laws for the actions of sources versus mindful observer aims and intentions. We can only know that the decreasing entropy of increasing source order flows to the increasing entropy of decreasing observer action, but we must simply believe in the mystery of that action.

<essay entered into FQXi contest...but has since evolved into a lower entropy state>

Sunday, November 20, 2016

Quantum Phase Noise

In the aether universe, there are still no absolute locations like a single center of the universe and that center was one of the original ideas about aether. However, the CMB velocity does provide a universal frame of reference for motion or action since anyone in the universe can measure their velocity, vae, with respect to the CMB, which is the velocity of creation. The CMB creation velocity defines the speed of light in the current epoch of aethertime and that velocity vae increases with decoherence time. There is a quantum phase noise, d,  due to the universal decay of quantum aether at aether velocity along with growing force due to increasing speed of light.

The absolute determinate goedesic paths of general relativity remain determinate with the biphoton quantum gravity of aethertime. However, action and matter along the gravity geodesic are uncertain just as the paths of quantum charge are never completely certain even though quantum aether paths are mostly knowable. In fact, the paths of all sources in the universe are perturbed by both the chaos of classical noise as well as quantum phase noise. The classical noise of the chaos of intensity fluctuation is usually many orders of magnitude greater than the coherence of quantum phase noise.

While classical noise is largely responsible for the entropy that is the arrow of classical time, it is the decoherence of quantum phase noise that sets the arrow of decoherence time for microscopic matter and therefore of all matter as well.

Reference: Original figure from Blumschein.

Sunday, November 13, 2016

Getting from Here to There

A quantum event occurs when an excited source photon is in resonance with and therefore goes on to excite an observer with that same photon. While science approximates such quantum transitions or jumps as instantaneous, that approximation is not really true even though it is often quite useful. In other words, getting a photon from here to there does take time and there are no instantaneous photon transfers.

One very common classical approximation of a quantum event is to have a excited source photon excite a classical observer in a completely separate second event long after the photon travels for a period through space following a first and separate source emission event. This is only an approximation and for a quantum observer, the same photon excites a quantum observer during the same event as the source emission.

A second classical approximation occurs when both source and observer are excited with very long wavelength photons. For the very special case of very long wavelength gravity biphotons, the two complementary gravity excited states remain in phase coherence because gravity phase coherence decays very, very slowly.

For single photons, an excited quantum source and observer are coupled by both phase as well as amplitude as the figure shows. Quantum photon travel is then simply a matter of phase between source and observer and a photon event creates a transient resonant bond between the observer and source. It is not really the photon that journeys through space and time, it is the action of the photon event that exchanges mass between source and observer during the same event just with different phases.

Quantum gravity between the two hydrogen atoms shown involves the complementary exchange of the biphoton excitations that exist in each atom. Unlike the relatively short wavelength of the Rydberg photon at 13.6 eV, the very long wavelengths of complementary gravity biphoton excitations mean that phase decay is very slow. Thus the very slow phase decay of quantum gravity means that classical gravity does not need to include phase for precise predictions of quantum action.
A photon event can be over in a few nanoseconds and nanometers or a photon event can last the age and radius of the universe. Now to be sure, a source can dephase from a photon event long before the photon excites an observer. However, phase decay is simply a part of how the universe points the direction of time and does not change the fact that there is some period of phase coherence between source and observer. For the very slow phase decay of quantum gravity means that until very large scale, classical gravity works very well.

Thus a classical photon excites an observer but does not retain any of the phase coherence of the excited source emission or never loses phase coherence while phase coherence between excited source and observer quantum photons necessarily decays. Indeed a quantum resonance can actually end up with the excitation largely back at the source and not lost to the observer at all. Even such a failed photon transmission has still generated phase coherence between the source and observer and therefore has changed source and observer entropy. In this realm, entropy alone drives quantum information transfer instead of total free energy transfer. Only a very small fraction of the photon free energy is in its entropy.

In a classical approximation for a quantum state-to-state transition, there must be a series of vacuum states that span the gap between two states. In aethertime, the density of states of quantum gravity biphotons in space is very large and more than provides the needed laddering for filling the gap. Similar to phonon decay in the solid state, gravity vacuum modes provide the mechanism to bridge the gap. These high order quantum gravity states are then what carry photon amplitude and phase and replace the vacuum oscillator modes of QED.

In quantum gravity, both source and observer exchange complementary biphoton excitations with each other. So a quantum gravity resonance always involves the exchange of complementary phase coherence between observer and source. This means that quantum gravity phase coherence between a source and observer always decays very, very slowly.

Saturday, November 5, 2016

Hydrogens' Gravity and Dispersion Spectra

Although the spectrum of the hydrogen atom has been known for over a century, atomic hydrogen's dispersion spectrum is not as well known and hydrogen's gravity spectrum has not yet been measured at all. This is because unlike the single photon exchanges of charge force, dispersion and gravity forces involve two photon exchanges and are much smaller and so their quantum energies and cross sections are therefore much more difficult to measure.

Dispersive or dielectric forces are the dipole-induced-dipole attraction of neutral matter and scale as the product of ionization energy, polarizabilty2, and 1/r6. Thus dispersion is the result of the complementary exchanges of two photons and not just one photon as in charge force and so dispersion is always attractive, just like gravity. The dispersion observer is just as excited as the dispersion source with dispersion photons. Similar to dispersion, gravity also represents the exchange of two photons, but now with the CMB creation wrapped photons, not local photons. As a result, gravity is then just the ultimate dipole-induced-dipole variant of dispersion.
Thus a gravity bond energy is GmH2/r, which of course in aethertime is just scaled charge energy as q2 c2 1e-7 tB / Tu / r, which is charge force scaled by the dimensionless size of the universe, tB / Tu , the ratio of the Bohr orbit period to the orbit period of the universe. Note that the hydrogen atom mass no longer appears in the gravity energy of two hydrogens and instead, the gravity of two hydrogens is just the square of the product of charge and the speed of light. In other words, the amplitude of the dipole energy qc is what determines both charge and gravity forces as well as the in between dispersion force.

The dispersion radius of two hydrogens is where dispersion and gravity energies are equal and is at rd = (3/4 EH a2 / G / mH2)1/5 = 70 nm, where a = 3peorB3 is the hydrogen atom polarizability. Two hydrogens in circular orbits do not radiate quadrupole gravity waves and so there needs to be other particle exchanges to further cool and condense atomic into solid molecular hydrogen. The gravity biphoton condensation of atomic hydrogen into stars is of course the basis of the single photon emission that lights the universe.

The dispersion limit is then where the dispersion radius exceeds the product of body radii as rd > 1.44e5 (r1r2)3/5 which is roughly 144,000 times the body radius product to the 3/5th power. The moon Io of Jupiter has just 3e-5 of its gravity energy as dispersion while earth's moon has just 1.6e-4 of its gravity as dispersion energy. Dispersion energy is a small but significant part of most gravity orbits and the heat generated by dispersion energy is part of the radiant flux from each orbiting body as well.

Sunday, October 23, 2016

Being and Doing in the Two Dimensions of Time

Although classical science and philosophy differentiates being and doing, quantum phase entangles being and doing and therefore quantum science and philosophy cannot completely separate existence from the actions of that existence. Quantum phase entangles simple existence with action with existence.

Breaking the matter of an egg represents a classical action where quantum phase has no apparent meaning. In one moment, the egg is intact while in the next moment, it has broken and there is no classical meaning to quantum phase entangling the two moments of an unbroken and broken egg. A classical egg exists completely independently from any of its outcomes even though those outcomes represent the entropy increase that determines the classical arrow of time.

However, possible outcomes do affect a quantum egg and there is a very short time superposition of unbroken and broken states. Measurements of the superposition state of the egg do not point the classical arrow of time and rather mainstream science views this quantum superposition as fundamentally reversible.

The aethertime irony is that it is not really the classical broken egg that determines time's arrow, rather it is a universal quantum dephasing that determines time's arrow. The reason that the unbroken-broken egg superposition state has such a short time is largely due to classical noise. However, there quantum phase noise also contributes to short coherence times and it is the universal decoherence of quantum phase that determines time's arrow, not really entropy as such.

Classical thought does not entangle the being of unbroken and broken eggs and the doing of breaking an egg and classically, they are two separate aspects of the world. However, quantum phase entangles being and doing as two representations for the same reality. Quantum phase means that for some short time, the egg exists in a superposition of both unbroken and broken states connected by the action of breaking. Discrete quantum phase entangles the universe of matter amplitude with the universe of action amplitude. The entanglement of the phases of matter and action represents an orthogonality and that means the phase noise of quantum aether has no classical analog.

Time and space are two notions of reality that actually emerge from matter and action. While space has two dimensions of forward and backward, time in mainstream science has just one dimension, but in the quantum world of amplitude and phase, there are no objects without phase as well as amplitude. The single dimension of atomic clock time represents that single time dimension, but with discrete quantum aether, there is second time dimension as phase decay. The second time dimension is in the very slow decoherence of two atomic clocks from each other.

Just as the ancient Greeks differentiated Kronos versus Kairos time, these two dimensions of time for discrete quantum aether mean that a decoherence time is different from atomic time. Kronos time is the steady atomic time of earth's spin, earth's orbit around the sun, and of the 37 year orbit of Saturn, who was Kronos. Kairos time is the time of the decaying moment and is more like our feeling about time. While Kronos time ticks with a very regular clock, Kairos time varies according to the decay of feeling.

The universe decays very slowly and that slow decay shows up in many different measurements and in particular, universe decay is a second time dimension. The figure below shows the variation of the length of the day in milliseconds since 1963 as well as the variation in the year in seconds and it is clear that the earth's spin is slowing down at the rate of 25 s over 53 years, or 0.47 s/yr and 1.3 ms/day. Two atomic clocks ticking side by side begin in perfect phase coherence, but eventually their phase coherence decays and they no longer tick together. Although that phase decoherence rate is due to a number of factors that are mainly classical noise, there is also an intrinsic phase decay that also shows up in the decay of pulsars. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars show extremely regular spins that decay with correspondingly regular rates. There are many factors that affect the length of the day but that same decoherence rate is consistent with the slowing of earth's spin as the figure shows.

The being and doing of classical matter and action are separable and this means that classical matter and action commute; the outcome of a classical action does not change with the order of time and momentum for that action. A classical egg breaks the same way whether science measures the time or the momentum for breaking. The observation of an action involves at least two measurements since, for example, an photon observation must measure both the photon time of arrival and the photon spectrum or color.

Likewise a classical action for a single particle measures just the arrival of a particle along with the particle momentum or matter spectrum in order to measure that action. But for each gravity action, there are two bodies and therefore a gravity action involves four measurements; an arrival time and matter spectrum for each of the two bodies. Since gravity dominates our notions of classical action and gravity happens to be due to the entangled action of two complementary photons, these four measurements are complementary.

Each atom created at the CMB by emission of a photon is bound today with the exchange of that complementary photon between the electron and nucleus of that atom. A dropped egg breaks by gravity and the classical gravity of the earth largely determines both the matter spectrum and breaking time for the egg. However, the earth also moves to meet the egg drawn by the gravity of the egg and so there are two complementary measurements needed to complete the breaking of an egg with quantum gravity.

The biphoton symmetry of gravity action means that the being and doing of macroscopic observers and sources do commute and are therefore subject to classical causal action. Classically the order of measurement of time and momentum does not affect the observation of action. However, the quantum entanglement of the present matter with the light of the CMB creation is the reason that gravity is classical. The order of measurement does not affect classical gravity since when order changes, the biphoton symmetry of quantum gravity undergoes complementary changes.

When the classical gravity of momentum and space fails at the limits of very small scale called the Planck limit and at very large scale called event horizons, discrete quantum aether of matter and spin period as time delay still works. Discrete quantum aether limits action at very small scale as well as limiting action at very large scale with event horizon spin period. At the Planck scale, the mass of discrete aether limits action to the gaekron mass mae of 8.7e-69 kg along with h/c2 and an event horizon limits action to the spin state periods of large aether accretions, Sae.

Monday, September 19, 2016

The EEG Mind

A theory of the mind must be consistent with certain properties and it is also necessary to measure the properties of the mind and therefore validate or falsify that theory of the mind. It is important not to get too bogged down in the complexification of behavior before there is a decent framework for a theory of the mind and ways to test that theory.

A decent theory of the mind must be consistent with a set of standard observations and must be further testable by other measurements as well. An electroencelphalogram (EEG) is an electrical spectrum of the frequencies, intensities, and phases of neural resonances. There are many key properties of conscious and unconscious thought that an EEG spectrum measures and so it makes sense to form theory around the EEG mind. However, the EEG spectrum is most often measured at the scalp and so EEG best represents the cerebral or rational mind and its outer electrical currents.

Here are a set of assumptions that form the basis for an EEG mind.

1) We are all born with free choice and learn inhibitions in stages over time from infancy through childhood and finally as adults. Without this development of inhibitions, a different free choice emerges that may not resonate with other minds. Just like we learn different languages as were grow up with people, we also learn different inhibitions from as well depending on the people that we grow up with.

2) There are two main parts to the brain; the connectome or primitive subconscious brain made up of the cerebellum, amygdala, hypocampus, caudate, putamen, and thalamus, and the rational conscious brain of of the cerebrum, where thought largely resides as aware matter.

3) Emotion, feeling, free choice, autonomic functions, instinct, and long-term memory are all largely functions of the connectome of the primitive mind. The excitation or inhibition of action comes from the primitive mind and the amygdala, but free choice is influenced by memory and rational thought. Long-term memory is a function of the primitive mind along with morality and the feeling of right a wrong. The connectome is the basic neural framework that sets the resonances of the EEG and is what keeps us breathing and our heart beating and digestion working.

4) There is a set of complementary emotions that define a singular feeling and it is that feeling that either excites or inhibits action of the amygdala. One such set of emotions is; pleasure versus anxiety, compassion versus free choice, joy versus misery, serenity versus anger, and pride versus shame. Although emotion and feeling are really more complex than this simple set of five complements, this simple set of five is consistent with many neural measurements and therefore a convenient simplification of the emotion complexity.

5) The moments of thought that end up as free choice are largely part of the rational mind along with short-term memory. There are about 50,000 moments of thought in each waking day of experience and each moment of thought may be as much as 15 MB of digital equivalent as Hopfield neural network packets. The mind stores these neural packets of information in a phased array of resonant aware matter that make up the amplitudes and phases of EEG spectra for the experience of a day. Our conscious mind is the music that we play every day on the keyboard that is the connectome of the primitive mind.

6) Sleep has an essential role in the mind; imprinting experience into long-term memory and resetting the rational mind for another day of experience. Sleep evolves the connectome of the primitive mind by selectively imprinting the day's aware matter resonances into long term memory. Sleep also clears or resets the cerebrum of the rational mind for the next day of experience. There are other roles for sleep, but these two are most important.

7) Each person develops a set of personality traits as they interact with other people as either social bonds or social conflicts. The five-factor model shows people as creative vs. conformist, social vs. individual, conscientious vs. impulsive, agreeable vs. assertive, and confident versus anxious. Typically people respond to a series of questions that then ranks them on each personality trait complement.

The rational EEG mind resides mainly in the outer two cerebral hemispheres that surround the structures of the primitive brain and so are what the typical EEG spectrum measures. The EEG neural resonances are electrical and mainly measure the outer layers of the cerebrum and not the inner primitive mind of deeper layers. However, the various features of the EEG spectrum do reflect the basic resonances of the connectome of the primitive mind.

The outer rational mind of the cerebral hemispheres surrounds the structure of the inner primitive mind as shown below. The conscious mind resonates with the EEG spectral features that reflect both structures and the special region of the cerebral homunculus is what gives us a sense of ourselves.

Above shows the primitive mind shown as grey and the primitive mind all of the autonomic functions of the brain including long-term memory, choice, motor, hormones and emotion. The figure below shows the parts of the primitive brain that integrate with both the cerebellum of the primitive mind and the cerebrum of the rational mind. There are three cerebellar hormunculi and not just one and so the primitive brain has three different selves. The connectome of the primitive brain then determines the resonances of the rational brain, but the amplitudes and phases of the moments of thought can be quite complex.

With this set of assumptions in place, the EEG mind theory associates well known resonances with various spectral features and structures of the primitive mind. The delta mode at 1.6 Hz is the resonance from which all aware matter forms moments of thought and the delta mode connects the rational and primitive brains. The basic molecule or mode of aware matter is the first octave at 11 Hz, which are alpha modes as 7 times the delta frequency. The second octaves of alpha are beta at 22 Hz and are the basic modes excitation and inhibition of free choice. Free choice depends on the phase of the alpha dimer and there are even higher order resonances called gamma modes up to the cut off frequency of the neural action potential at 350 Hz.

Here is one result from the NIH connectome project that has used a combination of dMRI and MEG, derivative MRI and magnetoencelphalgraphy. The MEG technique shows the same resonances as EEG but MEG probes the entire brain while EEG measures mostly the axon currents in the folds of the outer cerebrum. The connectome shows mainly the result of neural action and the neural packets of thought and so the organs of the primitive mind are not prominent.
Neural packets of thought exist as aware matter resonances with the basic moment of thought made up of alpha modes. A moment of thought is what defines the dephasing rate or width of each spectral feature and that width is about 2 Hz which corresponds to about 0.5 second of dephasing time.

Each moment of thought is then about 0.5 s long, like a delta mode, and the mind encodes these moments of thought in time with theta modes. Theta modes show up between the delta and alpha features and many experiments associate theta modes with counting and telling time and ordering  moments of thought. The four theta modes between delta and alpha allows the brain to encode 16^4 = 65,000 moments of thought in a single day. This assumes that there are 16 levels or bits for the intensity of each delta mode.

Obviously, this theory of the mind is subject to test and therefore validation or falsification. But another function of the mind is the need for sleep. There are basically two main stages for sleep; deep or delta sleep and dream or REM sleep. The delta mode dominates the mind during deep sleep and there are recurring neural impulses called K-complexes and sleep spindles. A K complex is essentially an ~0.5 s delta mode pulse while a sleep spindle is a ~0.5 s delta mode pulse with an 11 Hz alpha mode carrier. Although the roles of K-complexes and sleep spindles are not well understood, research has shown that these neural modes are necessary for healthy sleep and long-term memory.

Dream or REM sleep dominates the mind with alpha mode activity at 11 Hz during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but the body's muscle response is normally paralyzed during REM sleep. It is during REM sleep that most dreams occur and research has long known that REM sleep is just as essential as deep sleep for a healthy mind.

The delta sleep stage tends to be the first stage of sleep, which is consistent with the notion that the brain imprints long-term memory during delta sleep. The REM sleep stage, which tends to occur later in sleep, is then consistent with the brain resetting the cerebrum's aware matter machine for the next day of experience.

During controlled experiments, people deprived of deep sleep have more trouble remembering experience of the previous day while people deprived of REM sleep are more lethargic and less able to make sense out of new experiences in the following day and of making decisions.

Thanks to the Allen brain map project for the wonderful views of a human brain as well as to the NIH funded connectome project. A video about the neuroscience of consciousness is also very useful.

Here is a nice Aeon article What is the purpose of the unconscious mind? and here is a video of Sadhguru video that repeatedly states that life has no purpose and no meaning Sadhguru's purpose is exploration... and then of course, Sadhguru ends up the video stating very clearly that the purpose of life is exploration. It is ironic that many people find a great purpose in a discourse about life's lack of purpose, which of course is self-contradictory. However, somehow many people hear some kind of useful message in these oxymoronic discourses. Life's purpose is largely in the pleasure of discovery tempered by an anxiety about the unknown...