Search This Blog

Saturday, February 25, 2023

Update on discrete aether sunspot number prediction... beating NOAA like a rug...


The reported cycle 25 sunspot number agrees very well with the discrete aether prediction. The 11.4 lyr distances of Procyon and 61Cygni from the sun are responsible for the 11.4 yr convection cycle of sunspot activity that has been tracked since 1600.

The well-known dearth of sunspots at the Maunder Minimum in 1680 coincided with a very cold period known as the little ice age. The discrete aether model shows that the Maunder Minimum was due to a particular alignment of the 61Cygni double star orbit.

Saturday, February 18, 2023

Variation of Fine-Structure Constant over Cosmic Time

In a collapsing universe, cosmic time is different from an atom time since atom time is never at rest given the evolution of collapse rate from zero at the cmb creation to the speed of light at the final blackhole destiny. The red shifts of galaxy look-back spectra in the collapsing universe, unlike an expanding universe, are then due to both galaxy cosmic age as well as the velocity of universe collapse. Blackhole horizons in the collapsing universe are no longer singularities even though they still stop atom time and still exist in the flow of cosmic time of collapse.

In the expanding universe of contemporary Science, cosmic time is the same as atom time at rest with a constant expansion, but atom time does depend on relative velocity and acceleration. According to Science, the red shifts of galaxy spectra are then due to increasing galaxy velocities with look-back time in the expanding universe. Blackhole singularity horizons, though, do stop atom time and yet still exist in the flow of cosmic time expansion.

While some constants of Science are constants in the collapsing universe, the fine-structure constant as well as the speed of light do vary with universe collapse, but the fine-structure splittings of distant galaxies still remain proportional to contemporary splittings. Many argue against universe collapse since the fine-structure splittings of distant galaxies are proportional to contemporary fine-structure splittings. However, the fine-structure splittings are proportional to ratio of transition energy and relativistic electron energy, En/(mec2), and this ratio is constant in the collapsing universe [see Griffiths and Schroeter, Introduction to QM, 2018, 7.3.2]. This is because while Eand c both increase in the collapsing universe, mdecreases over cosmic time.

The collapsing universe is Lorentz invariant and maintains the equivalence of mass and energy just as does the expanding universe relativity. But the speed of light varies in the collapsing universe since the speed of light reflects the universe collapse rate for each epoch and not for all epochs as in the expanding universe. The classical electron spin rate, c/α, in the collapsing universe is constant and so α the fine-structure constant varies in the same way as does c.

Tuesday, December 20, 2022

Radiant Quantum Gravity of the Milky Way

The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy made up of a supermassive black hole center, a central bar or bulge, and an outer spiral disk that is about three times the long axis of the inner bar. The Figure shows the bar and disk both simplified as rotating body pairs that radiate both scalar and vector gravity waves. The scalar gravity waves radiate outward from both bar and disk while the vector gravity waves couple disk to bar stars. The radiant vector gravity waves of the inner bar accelerate the outer disk stars and the radiant vector gravity wave of the disk decelerates the inner bar star rotations. The coupling of vector gravity then transfers angular momentum from slowing bar star rotations by accelerating disk star rotations. 

Thus, radiant quantum gravity satisfies the virial theorem without dark matter by transferring momentum from the bar to the disk stars. So no cold dark matter halo is needed around the galaxy to satisfy the virial theorem and instead, it is the coupling of vector gravity waves from bar to disk that satisfies the virial theorem without dark matter.

Unlike the very short range quantum forces of dipole radiation and single photon exchange, quantum gravity is a very long range force at the cosmic scale with quadrupole radiation and biphoton exchange. Quantum gravity includes not only scalar forces of mass between stars, but quantum gravity also includes vector forces that couple the motions of radiating stars.

The virial theorem is a simple statement that the potential energy bonding a set of bodies together must be equal to the kinetic energy of those bonded bodies. There are many cosmic examples like galaxies where the kinetic energies of stars of a galaxy do exceed the potential energy of Keplerian gravity, but do not exceed quantum gravity. Science has thus concluded that dark matter halos must make up over 95% of the mass of a galaxy even though there is no measurement for dark matter.

The relative motions of star matter gradients in the Milky Way result in gravity wave emission limited by the speed of light. It is the quadrupole wave emission of a moving mass gradient for Keplerian gravity that is also quantum vector gravity. Vector gravity couples the relative motions of Milky Way stars due to the matter gradient of star emissions and motion.

The Table shows matter gradient gravity waves from both static matter gradients as well as dynamic matter gradients from star emission. With just Keplerian gravity, the mass of the bar is 15% greater while its dipole emission is 21% lower than for quantum gravity. This results in a 10% increase in disk rotation velocity and an -8% decrease in bar rotation velocity.

The universe mass shell in effect maps all matter in the universe onto a two dimensional shell or hologram. As per the holographic principle, all of the information of the universe 3D volume encodes onto the 2D shell that is the universe boundary. Quantum gravity follows from this holographic principle.

Friday, November 11, 2022

Discrete Aether Quantum Gravity Radiation


Discrete aether quantum gravity between two bodies involves the photon exchange bonding of each body to the universe mass shell as the figure shows. Instead of gravity being a primary gravity field between bodies, aether quantum gravity is instead a residual force that emerges from the electromagnetic dispersive dipole-induced-dipole bonding of each body to the universe mass shell. When the two bodies orbit, like two blackholes or any two bodies, the rotation of their complementary binding photons results in emission of quadrupole radiation. The equation for discrete aether quantum gravity radiation is then the same as for quadrupole emission of gravity relativity. This shows that gravity relativity is completely consistent with the the quantum gravity of discrete aether.

The quadrupole radiation of a gravity orbit is inherently electromagnetic photon exchange in discrete aether and so there is no need for gravitons different from photons in discrete aether. Relativistic gravity radiation is then a dark radiation from discrete aether quadrupoles that have their dipole fields spread over the whole universe. This is because the complementary dipole photon separation for the quadrupole is on the order of the radius of the universe, 7.4e25 m.

The quadrupole radiation of a gravity orbit depends on its mass gradient, (m/a)5, as well as, to a lesser extent, the eccentricity of its orbit, ϵ. Spherical orbits have ϵ = 0 and so a rotating binary of equal masses has a simple expression where gravity radiation goes as the fifth power of its mass gradient.

For two orbiting bodies of very different masses like the Sun and Mercury or the stars of a galaxy, the expression becomes

For two radiating and orbiting bodies like a binary star of equal masses, there is an additional vector gravity term that is the ratio of radiation and relative velocity.

Table 1 shows characteristic dipole and quadruple emissions of the orbits of Sun-Mercury, Milky Way stars, blackhole merger, and the Sun in the Milky Way.

Mercury has the largest eccentricity of any planet in its orbit with the Sun and the perihelion advance of Mercury has long validated Einstein’s relativity. Mercury’s perihelion advance is a result of gravity quadrupole radiation as Table 1 shows that decays its orbit and increases its velocity. 

The emission of 5.2e-15 kg/s gravity quadrupole results in the Mercury orbit decay that is the perihelion advance. Since the same quadrupole emission occurs for discrete aether, the Mercury perihelion advance also validates discrete aether.

The Milky Way galaxy has a dipole luminosity of 4.3e19 kg/s, which is 1e10 x the Sun luminosity and due to its 2.5e11 stars. The gravity quadrupole Milky Way luminosity is much smaller at 1.3e15 kg/s than the dipole luminosity, but the much larger dipole luminosity also results in a quadrupole luminosity of 1.4e14 kg/s. This 13% increase in gravity wave emission decays all star orbits and therefore increases their orbital velocities just like the perihelion advance of Mercury.

The merger of two 6.0e31kg blackholes over 0.25 s results in quadrupole emissions of 3.0e29 kg/s at 1% of the total mass loss of the event. The onset of the inspiral occurs at r = 7.6e12 m, which is the point when the quadrupole radiation is just 1% of the total. There is also dipole emission from gravitation, but that emission is spread all over the universe.

Monday, October 10, 2022

Quantum Gravity of Discrete Aether

Quantum gravity is just a residual force of the quantum causal set, which exists outside of space and time. Instead of matter and action in space and time, space and time emerge from matter action of a causal set. Space as distance and time as relative quantum phases of the quantum photon exchange bonds emerge from neutral bodies like hydrogen atoms. Beyond a certain distance, about 70 nm for two hydrogens, quantum gravity is greater than the dispersion of quantum photon exchange. Quantum gravity between two hydrogen atoms is just the dispersion of quantum photon exchange of each atom with the rest of the universe.

Gravity relativity emerges from the fundamental equivalence of mass and energy for particles that exist in relativistic spacetime. To first order, the Lorentz invariance of the speed of light to velocity of a particle distorts space and time by the classic sqrt(1/(1 - v^2/c^2)). There are higher order terms that converge to the Einstein tensor as proportional to the energy-momentum tensor,

All of the complexity of general relativity reduces to this tensor equation and yet there is no accepted quantum gravity in spacetime. This is because each particle of matter introduces a singularity at r = 0 in spacetime that precludes a quantum electrodynamics exchange particle for gravity. 

One consequence of GR is the black hole singularity that are widely accepted in general relativity but have no quantum meaning in QED.  A black hole has mass and spin just like any other particle in the quantum causal set universe and black holes bond to the universe with photon exchange just like all matter particles. Thus, black holes are just another matter particle in a quantum causal set, which is about each matter body bonding to the rest of the universe with quantum photon exchange.

The space between two hydrogens emerges from the strength of the quantum photon exchange interaction between two hydrogen atoms. The time for the two hydrogens emerges from the relative quantum phases between the two hydrogen atoms. Ironically, space and time emerge from quantum photon exchange and at large separations, the quantum gravity photon exchange of each atom with the universe then dominates over just quantum photon exchange between the two atoms.

Thursday, July 21, 2022

Large Scale Structures in the Cosmic Microwave Background

 The cosmic microwave background (CMB) multipole analysis shows an angular scale consistent with a combination of 4.9% ordinary matter, 27% dark matter, and 68% dark energy expanding at 68 km/s. 

However, this cosmology does not include quantum gravity at all and so there is no way to measure the absolute expansion rate of the universe. Although the small scale CMB structures are consistent with the cosmology without quantum gravity, there is an inconsistency in the large scale CMB structures of the universe as the figure shows.

A collapsing universe cosmology shows quantum gravity and a universe of ordinary matter that is only 1.1e-7 kg/kgAether, 8.7e-69 kg/aether, and 8.4e-61 kg.kgAether action collapsing at the rate of 77 km/s. The universe collapse quantum cosmology shows both a static gravity as well as a radiant vector gravity  and the large scale CMB structures are consistent with radiant vector gravity.

Since the collapsing universe quantum gravity bonds with quadrupole biphoton exchange, there is now a vector component to gravity along with the Newtonian scalar gravity. Vector gravity couples the relative motions of stars much like magnetism couples the relative motions of charge. Since universe collapse is a matter decay that is the source of gravity, the matter decay of star radiation couples star motions as well as star convection.

Sunday, June 12, 2022

Scalar Static Matter and Vector Radiant Matter Gravity

Since matter-action gravitons are biphotons, which are entangled photons, there is not only scalar gravity due to static matter graviton shadows, but also a radiant vector gravity due to radiant matter. In other words, the radiation of stars entangles their motions with other stars and this entanglement results in radiant vector gravity.

Here is a diagram that shows scalar gravity shadows that results from the matter body bonds to the universe along with the radiant vector gravity that transfers momentum from inner to outer stars. Radiant vector gravity transfers momentum from stars inside the CofM to stars outside the CofM. This radiant momentum transfer is what keeps spiral galaxies rotating at constant velocity instead of at their Keplerian velocities.

The plot below shows the velocity profile of the Milky Way along with the observed Sun as opposed to the Keplerian Sun. The actual Sun velocity is about 29% greater than the Keplerian Sun velocity reported by Sofue et al, 251 vs. 194 km/s. The Keplerian gravity force at the Sun at 8.0 kpc is 8.4e14 kg m/s^2, which is consistent with a Sun velocity of 194 km/s as opposed to the actual Earth velocity of 251 km/s. 

However, there is a radiant vector gravity force in matter action that couples star motions and transfers momentum from inner to outer stars. The Sun radiance is 4.2e9 kg/s and results in a radiant vector force of 4.2e9 kg/s x 2.51e5 m/s / 2 = 5.5e14 kg m/s^2. Thus the scalar plus vector gravity of the Sun is actually 1.4e15 kg m/s^2, which is now consistent with the 29% increase in Sun velocity as sqrt(1.4e15/8.4e14) = 1.29. Radiant vector gravity now completes the virial energy theorem for galaxies without any need for dark matter.

Thus, radiant vector gravity is completely consistent with the momentum transfer that occurs from stars inside to outside the CofM for constant galaxy rotation. Radiant vector gravity completely explains galaxy rotation without any dark matter at all.

The figure above shows the biphoton shadows of scalar gravity along with the radiant vector gravity momentum transfers from inner to outer stars. Since the Sun is quite a bit more luminous than the average MW star, the Sun rotates faster than the galaxy average. The MW average rotation velocity is 204 km/s at r = 8 kpc while the Sun rotation is 251 km/s, which suggests that the Sun is 251 / 204 = 23% greater than the average stellar MW luminosity. 

Since the average stellar luminosity is 2.1e10 Lsun / Nstars, this result further suggests that the number of MW stars is 91 billion as Nstars = 2.1e10 / 0.23, which assumes that MW stars at r = 8.0 kpc are representative of the whole MW. This MW 91 billion star estimate is at the lower end of the typical 100-400 billion star number estimate often cited.

Radiant vector gravity is also consistent with the Bullet Cluster 1E 0657-56 galaxy collision that displaced large gas clouds that were 10-15% of galaxy matter from the two galaxies shown. Despite the matter displacement of 10-15%, the weak-lensing contours of each of the two galaxies still align to the galaxy's radiant stars. These results show clearly that vector radiant gravity as well as static scalar gravity are both lensing the Bullet cluster.

Wednesday, June 1, 2022

Graviton Noise of Quantum Gravity

We live in an ocean of graviton noise and so it is graviton noise that is what makes things happen in our quantum reality. Entangled photons, biphotons, make up gravitons and are what bind each body to the universe of black holes. Black holes are the penultimate heat sink for all of our reality and what we see as gravity attraction is actually just the collapse of the universe matter and the interaction of photon geodesics.

The destiny of all black holes is then a single black hole that is the destiny of this cycle of the universe collapse. In other words, bodies do not really bond to each other with gravity. Instead each body bonds to the universe and we see gravity attraction as the universe collapse of photon geodesics.

The graviton noise of the universe photon geodesics is what makes all wavefunctions collapse and so graviton noise is also what makes reality real...

Blackholes eventually anchor all CMB photons and it is biphoton eternal exchange that results in the apparent gravity between blackholes. What we call gravity photon deflection is actually the deflection of photon geodesics and so gravity lenses are really photon geodesic lenses...

Wednesday, February 23, 2022

Discrete Aether Time Pulse

The discrete aether pulsed universe has a nice symmetry between its time pulse and the hydrogen time pulse defined by the Bohr time. The universe pulse is a 13.9 Byr sinc function of cosmic time with a Fourier transform that is dominated by the aether particle spectrum. The hydrogen pulse is a sinc function of cosmic time with a Fourier transform mass spectrum of the total universe mass that is 90% hydrogen mass.

While the aether particle mass determines the universe pulse in cosmic time, it is the total universe mass that determines the hydrogen pulse also in cosmic time.

Sunday, February 20, 2022

Discrete Aether Predictions


1) In contrast to the dependence on radius for Newton's gravity orbit velocities, galaxy rotation velocities are constant do not depend on distance from the galaxy center. Science explains this discrepancy by adding a cold, dark halo of invisible dark matter around each galaxy disk.

In the matter-action pulsed universe, universe matter decay determines gravity and so the extra matter decay as star radiation results in a star matter waves. These star matter waves couple star motions as a vector gravitization that is consistent with radial independent galaxy rotation as the plot shows.

2) Star matter waves couple into galaxy spiral density waves that periodically decelerate and accelerate the orbit velocity of the Sun in its orbit around the galaxy.

3) Moreover, the galaxy spiral matter waves correlate with known matter extinctions as the plot below shows.

4) The discrete aether pulse universe is in mass decay and therefore also in force growth, which means that measuring mass with an action will not show either matter decay or force growth. However, certain kinds of measurements of mass do show the decay and the international kilogram standard, IPK, has decayed over the last 100 years relative to its many secondary standards as the plot shows.

The secondary standards are routinely cleaned with use and the cleaning process results in adding mass so as to keep the secondary standards constant mass. The IPK primary is not subject to the same periodic cleaning and is only been used three times as the plot shows. The matter decay of the IPK matches that of the pulsed universe, which is the collapse of aether equivalent to charge force.

5) Earth’s spin as the length of the day varies over the course of the year because of a variety of reasons. There is also an average long term decay in earth’s spin as the plot shows. Science attributes all of this decay to tidal friction of the oceans, but the pulse universe predicts about one half of this decay is intrinsic to the universe pulse decay.

6) There is a universe pulse decay line that is consistent with many measurements of decay at the slope of 0.255 ppb/yr. In particular, the msec pulsar decays, earth spin decay, earth moon orbit growth, and Andromeda galaxy to Milky Way galaxy separation decay.

7) The sunspot cycle has been measured for 400 years as a 11.6 year variation in sunspot number per month as the plots below show. There is currently no explanation for the sunspot cycle, but with the universe pulse decay, there are matter waves associated with the star decay.

Star decay produces star matter waves that couple the motions of stars with a vector gravitization much like charge motions are coupled with vector magnetization. The two stars, Procyon and Cygni-61, are both 11.6 lyrs away from our sun, which couples their motions and affects the Sun’s convection with an 11.6 year period.

Sunspot activity went into a hiatus around 1680 as the plot shows, which is consistent with the Cygni-61A/Cygni-61B periapsis or closest approach at that time. Cygni-61 is a double star and so its double star orbit plays a role in the sunspot activity of our Sun. Thus, the 678 yr orbit of the Cygni-61A/B double star will reach apeosis again in the year 2358. The Procyon A/B double star has a 40.8 yr orbit and shows up as a 40.8 year shift in sunspot peak and intensity.

8) The spectrum of muonic hydrogen in the plot does not agree with predictions from quantum theory and H spectroscopy shown shifted in the plot. However, the muon lifetime is only 2.2 micros and in the discrete aether pulsed universe, the short muon lifetime is an increased matter decay rate that shifts its spectrum as shown. With the muon decay rate included, the muon and hydrogen spectra now agree as the plot shows.

9) Since matter decay is equivalent to a force, discrete aether predicts that a matter decay of 83 MW/kg is equivalent to the 1.0 G force of earth’s gravity. The sun radiance is just 1.9e-4 W/kg and it would take a 1 kg U reactor pile 12,000 K to achieve 83 MW/kg. This is equivalent to a 1 kg U shell 22 m diameter radiating at 1,000 K, which is below the U melting point.

10) Matter decay couples the Sun radiance to the galaxy spiral density waves to accelerate the Sun to its present 251 km/s from the 204 km/s spiral wave velocity, and increase of 47 km/s over 49 Myrs. This is an average force of 4.1e-7 G that acts over 49 Myrs and predicts that a radiant source can surf on galaxy spiral waves as well.

Tuesday, January 18, 2022

Single Photon Resonance as Fundamental Action

We only really see things that change and then we deduce how things are from how they change. It then seems reasonable that the universe is made up of not only things that change, but also things that are. Single photon resonances are the things that are and make up all change and single photon resonances occur between emitter precursors and absorber outcomes. Single photon spectra make up the fundamentally discrete nature of the universe with emitter and absorber chromophores.

A single photon resonance between emitter and absorber chromophores exists as a cosmic time packet that grows and then decays, which defines its time packet. Atomic time and space emerge from the quantum oscillations of that photon burst from the speed of light and its wavelength. The growth and decay of the photon packet define its location and direction and result in the Lorentzian spectrum that this example shows. The arrow of time emerges as the direction from primordial emitters to black hole absorber destiny outcomes.

The universe itself is then a spectrum of aether whose exponential decay defines not only a cosmic time, but also defines charge, gravity, and all forces along with the quantum oscillations from which atomic time and space emerge.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the first light of creation as a result of a small fraction of aether condensing into hydrogen and other primordial elements. The primordial elements, along with their electrons, protons, neutrons, and neutrinos are what begin the action of the single photon resonances from which the universe evolves.

Sunday, November 21, 2021

Gravity Lens and Blueshift from Photon Convergence


The quantum gravity of matter action first bonds all matter to the universe with photon exchange and so the apparent attraction of gravity is really due to the gravity shadows between bodies that show gravity attraction as universe collapse. Thus, quantum gravity is just an apparently attractive force that is actually a result of the bonding of each body to a shrinking universe full of blackholes. Gravity attraction between two bodies along their line of action is then a result of the quantum gravity shadows of each body on the other's universe bonds. 

Gravity deflection of light near bodies like the sun is one of the fundamental hallmarks of general relativity. Another fundamental hallmark of general relativity is the blue shift of light near bodies like the sun. In matter action, though, it is actually photon convergence near any body that both blue shifts and deflects light as the figure shows photon brane convergence means that gravity action is really quantum action due to quantum bonds and gravity is not due to a field after all. The convergence of photon brane resonances near a gravity body causes both the blue shift and deflection of light that occurs near any body. 

In fact, both matter and photon blue shifts and deflections make up blackholes because of the eternal nature of blackhole light absorption. A blackhole never really absorbs light like ordinary matter and instead, a blackhole traps light along along with light's space and atomic time in an eternal collapse in cosmic or universe time. This is in contrast to ordinary matter's absorption and emission of light by matter dipoles instead of a blackhole eternal collapse trapping light.

The eternal collapse of blackhole light is then the glue that binds the universe together and represents the destiny of all light, matter, and neutrinos.

Friday, October 22, 2021

Gravity Binds Black Holes to the Universe

Gravity is an apparently attractive force that is actually a result of the bonding of each body to a shrinking universe full of black holes. Gravity attraction between two bodies along their line of action is a result of the universe bond gravity shadows of each body on the other. In the idealized gravity between two hydrogen atoms, each atom bonds to the shrinking universe by the emission of its Rydberg photon into the resonance brane between each hydrogen and a black hole. It is then the pulse decay of the shrinking universe that results in the action-centered gravity that accretes all matter, light, and neutrinos into black holes and eventually into the final single black-hole destiny of the universe.

The figure shows that the gravity bond between two hydrogens idealized as two photon exchange bonds between each hydrogen and a black hole. Of course, once the hydrogen atoms get closer than about 70 nm, single photon exchange bonding between hydrogens overwhelms this gravity attraction. It is only for substantial bodies that gravity then overwhelms photon exchange bonding.

The gravity bond is then not due to exchange of a single particle like a biphoton, rather gravity is due to two photon exchanges as a quantum biphoton and so there is really no knew science needed for the quantum gravity. Instead of very complex new graviton math that resists renormalization, matter-action biphoton gravity uses the same photon exchange of quantum electrodynamics. Note that matter-action gravity is now action centered and not body centered, which means that gravity does not have the pesky singularity that precludes gravity renormalization under QED. Therefore, biphoton gravity uses the same renormalization of QED and quantum charge.

Black holes still represent the destinies of all matter, light, and neutrinos, but are simply a different kind of quantum matter action without space or time. Space and time do not exist for black holes, but quantum phase, matter, action, and cosmic time all still exist for black holes. Matter, light, and neutrinos are all matter-action precursors for black-hole outcomes and black holes are the precursors of ever larger black holes. Eventually, a single large black hole is the precursor of the antiverse expansion of aether and the antiverse is then the precursor to yet another universe decay cycle. 

An enduring mystery in Science has been the seeming 1/r2 similarity between gravity relativity and quantum charge scaling and yet the very large 1e41 differences in their strengths. The difference in strengths is a result of the difference between the size of an atom and the size of the universe. So bonding black holes to the cosmic microwave background with biphotons is a quantum gravity that scales correctly and finally completes the quantum nature of reality. 

Wednesday, September 29, 2021

Qubit Atoms, Molecules, and Quantum Computing

The next generation of quantum computers will read and write idealized quantum oscillators called qubits. These idealized qubits do not decay, are perfectly isolated from their environment, have an unlimited coherence lifetime, and can selectively entangle with any number of other oscillating quantum qubits. Of course, there are no such qubit ideals and there are all kinds of practical limits to qubits not unlike the practical limits of 0's and 1's in the early days of semiconductor logic bits.

In fact, a real qubit decays and that decay limits the qubits. A real qubit is never perfectly isolated from thermal and phase noise environment and also has a limited phase coherence lifetime on the order of 10 microseconds. There are therefore many hurdles to overcome before any practical qubits of quantum computing become a reality. Much like the early days of the practical 0 and 1 bits of semiconductor logic, Science has a long ways to go in order to realize a useful practical qubit that includes not only 0 and 1, but also quantum phase, theta.

The superconducting Josephson junction is a fundamental quantum oscillator that involves electron (Cooper) pairs tunneling through an insulator layer between two superconductors at very low temperature. Instead of the electrons and holes that determine semiconductor 0 and 1 bits, a Cooper pair is inherently a qubit. For a current of 40 nA, about 1e9 electron pairs result and from a 13 microV, a frequency of 6.6 GHz at 0.015 K. The Cooper pair current results from the specific geometry and materials of the junction as well as the applied voltage but the frequency is always just proportional to the applied voltage. In fact, this junction is a quantum oscillator at that frequency where each excited state includes one additional Cooper pair of electrons at a slightly lower frequency due to anharmonicity.

The basic qubit of a quantum computer incorporates not only the 0 and 1 of a classical bit, but also a quantum oscillation between 0 and 1 of the Cooper pair across a junction. A very common qubit is a particular Josephson junction called a transmon that incorporates a shunt capacitor to make the quantum oscillator more stable. The transmon that oscillates at around 6.6 GHz and so its qubits undergo this same quantum oscillation. 

Another common qubit is the squid, which involves a loop with two Josephson junction. In any case, a qubit is the excitation of just one Cooper pair, 0 -> 1, across a junction at about 200 MHz lower frequency due to anharmonicity. The quantum anharmonicity also means that the 1 -> 2 transition is 200 MHz less that then 0 -> 1 transition. In fact, useable qubits need to have such isolated transitions and so the anharmonicity is what makes the transmon and the squid useful qubits as the figure shows.

However, there is an additional splitting of each level due to the phase or direction of the electron pair across the junction and that splitting reflects the spin or rotation of the qubit as the figure below shows. Much like electron spin emerges from the complementary rotations of electron charge loop oscillation, the complementary rotations of superconducting loop oscillations in the transmon and squid are then a kind of qubit spin.

The charge dispersion of the even(+) and odd(-) states depends on many different factors including biasing the gate ng. Gate bias increases charge dispersion up to 60 MHz as the figure shows.
There are literally dozens of other qubit schemes based on Josephson junctions because there are all kinds of practical considerations for reading, writing, and error checking qubits and, of course, adjusting their couplings. For example, it is desirable to have qubit lifetime long enough to allow for useful computation, but short enough to also be quickly reset. So superposition states result from rotating quantum phase by pi/2 or 90d.

The Google Sycamore chip incorporates 27 squid qubit pairs with 88 transmon couplers in a 6x9 zig-zag grid. There is a stability associated with such complementary qubits that is not unlike the bond between two hydrogen atoms. For example, there are many undesirable couplings among qubits simply due to their proximities. Coupling adjacent qubits with complementary spins forms the basis of a swap gate.

The qubit lifetime, T1, is therefore usually about 10 microsec, which is long enough for reading and still short enough for resetting, which all involve 10 nsec switches. The dephasing time, T2, is due to the entanglement among other qubit states that is necessary for effective computation. This dephasing time is important for quantum entanglement outcomes and is therefore limited by T1. However, it is then difficult to differentiate dephasing from pure decay.

Arrays of coupled qubits then become the molecules of the quantum computer and excitations of those molecules are the qubits. It is the evolution of those qubit excitations from an initial to a final state that is the nature of quantum computation. Eventually, the excitation decays completely into incoherent heat and the whole key is to get a useful result before the inevitable decay to incoherence.

The quantum Fourier transform is perhaps the most fundamental quantum computation that shows quantum supremacy over the discrete Fourier transform of a classical digital computer. Although both quantum and classical FT's decompose a bit sequence into a bit spectrum, the quantum time needed is drastically less than the classical time. While the classical time needed is exponential, the quantum time needed is polynomial.

Below are three qubit sequences along with their FT qubit spectra for a qubit sequence at the Nyquist limit, a sinc pulse, and at the low frequency limit. Unlike a digital FT that evolves in exponential time, a quantum FT evolves from a series of operations in polynomial time to factor odd bit sequences by that evolution. Of course, the larger the number, the greater the number of operations needed to factor the number. Currently, 15 is the largest number that quantum computers have factored because of the current limits of coherence and error.

Saturday, September 4, 2021

Spin as a Loop or 0-Brane String

Unlike a photon resonance between particles, which is a one dimensional D-brane string with Dirichlet boundary conditions, the photon resonance of particle spin has cyclic boundary conditions and so is a 0-brane loop string and not a D-brane string. Since particle spin dimensions do not map directly into 3D space and time, for quantum energy calculations, typically two dimensional Dirac spinors represent spin dimensions distinct from 3D space and time. Since spin resonance energies tend to be much smaller than quantum orbit resonances, this Dirac-spinor separation of variables works very well for many energy calculations that include average spin.

However when instantaneous quantum phase matching is important, describing spin as a 0-brane loop string is then useful since 0-brane loops also show both mass and charge oscillation along with the three D-brane magnetic fibers that take a 4𝜋 rotation to return spin magnetic identity. The figure below shows how the orthogonal grey and cyan spin D-brane fibers do not cross each other when they rotate and therefore maintain their orthogonality.

Closed orbits are also 0-brane spin resonances then represent the many D-brane string resonances of the electron and proton for both electric and magnetic fields. There are many different short-lived D-brane resonances that make up the hydrogen atom states and it is only an average 0-brane resonance that gives a well-defined energy and radius for each state.

Since quantum phase matching is still an issue with the resonance of spin-orbit coupling, the 0-brane spin phase is useful for matching the D-brane orbital phase. In the first excited state of hydrogen, the coupling of the electron spin magnetism to the electron orbit magnetism results in the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. The figure shows three of the many different short-lived electron P-type orbital resonances. There is only a well-defined average electron energy and radius for the hydrogen fine structure.

The brane formalism is therefore a very convenient way to show spin 0-brane spin resonance phase coupling with the very different D-branes of orbital resonances. In contrast, Dirac spinors show only the average spin-orbit coupling and do not show the instantaneous quantum phase matching of each QED brane resonance. The 0-brane to D-brane formalism shows the instantaneous phase matching of resonances that even wavefunctions do not represent very well.

Saturday, August 21, 2021

Photon Geodesics as D-Brane Strings

Photon resonance geodesics are the basic quantum exchange bonds responsible for both quantum charge and quantum gravity. While quantum charge photon exchange is a resonance along the geodesic between two bodies, this photon exchange also bonds all bodies to the universe with quantum photon exchange and so is quantum gravity. The attraction of quantum gravity is then the residual attraction due to geodesic shadows of the universe that the two bodies cast on each other along their line of action.

Gravity waves in space and time represent matter action radiation that can then eventually lead to matter action acceleration as well for very massive objects like black holes and neutron stars. Black hole mergers result in large amounts of matter action acceleration and radiation but very little or no dipole radiation because black holes are charge neutral.

Classical relativistic gravity is a scalar force, since it does not depend on direction and so classical gravity attracts bodies together just like charge is also a scalar force that attracts opposite charges together. Nevertheless, both gravity and charge do act along their lines of action between bodies. In contrast to classical gravity motion, charge motion further results in vector force call magnetization that then couples charges together with a force perpendicular to each of their lines of action. 

Since matter-action gravity is really just a version of quantum photon exchange, there is also a quantum gravity vector force also exists. However, gravity motion always couples complementary photon pairs as a quadrupole and so vector gravity couples the motions of stars and would also be perpendicular to their lines of action. In fact, vector gravitization is then the precursor to the dark matter force that couples galaxy stars into a constant rotation.

String theory is a very flexible theory of everything and uses branes as either loop branes or D branes with any number of hidden new dimensions. The "D" stands for Dirichlet boundary conditions as two brane endpoints and not a string loop. String theory can then explain any measurement by adding as many new dimensions or parameters as needed to fit measurements of physical reality.

However, a quantum D-brane string in just one dimension has all of the properties of an electron charge and matter oscillation and so a trivial D-brane with just one dimension is consistent with physical reality without any extra added dimensions. A D-brane electron would actually span the universe and not really be microscopic or hidden either. In fact, a photon and any quantum particle is then also equivalent to a trivial D-brane.

Therefore, such trivial D-branes already make up the causal set universe. Such quantum D-branes have the quantum property of oscillation along their lengths and so a D-brane also represents a photon resonance geodesic between two emitters, say Alice and Bob. Thus, D-branes without any new hidden microscopic dimensions form the basis of a quantum causal set universe and so there is no need for any new but hidden microscopic dimensions.

Alice and Bob in a resonant photon exchange represent a D-brane, but now as the resonance or connection between two Dirichlet endpoints or vertices. Of course, such D-branes can and do span the universe as the CMB, but such D branes actually represent the bonds of quantum photon charge exchange as well. Since all bodies have a very large number of D-branes that bond them to the universe, attractive gravity between two bodies is actually a result of the universe collapse and so the universe is not expanding.

After CMB excitation, the Alice-Bob D-brane resonance does not reveal any cause or effect and so this universe is not yet real. A black hole absorption occurs at Bob is what reveals Alice as the emitter precursor and Bob as the outcome absorber. The black hole absorption sets the arrow of time and is what makes the universe real.

There are many things about the universe that D-branes reveal. For example, bodies shadow each other’s D-brane bonds with the universe along their lines of action and so gravity is simply a result of these shadows of the universe collapse as the diagram below shows. String theory is just as fun as causal set theory... however, loop quantum foams do not have branes and so are no as much fun... Tejinder Singh, though, has a great TOE that does use path integrals and cosmic time along with octonions... but we need to get spin involved somehow as well...

Social bonds are also D-brane resonances that couple expressions and between people that result in attraction as shown below. Once again, CMB precursors drive all D-brane excitations and black hole outcomes drive all D-brane decays, providing the arrow of time. It is the arrow of time that makes reality real...

Wednesday, July 7, 2021

Single Photon Double Slit Diffraction

There are many different ways to show that a single photon is actually a superposition of both slits in the double slit experiment and this was a particular good one.

Double slit single photon with microscope

The author has done a really good job with his double-slit microscope with a HeNe laser and a CCD to image the diffraction pattern. He only missed a few details in his experiment, which also showed excellent single-slit as well as double slit-diffraction. It was very clever to simply lower the beam intensity in order to show single photon behavior and so this is an experiment that I could do with my microscope and laser as well.

In his explanation, he described a dipole source as spherical source in all directions, but of course a dipole is a planar and not a spherical source. This does not really change any of his conclusions.

He did not talk about the fact that the emitter and detector were in resonance for the lifetime of the emitter, which was about 1 ns or so for a 632.8 nm HeNe at 0.3 mW with a 1 GHz bandwidth. Each single photon has a 1/e coherence length of 300 mm and so the emitter and detector are close enough for quantum phase correlation. His diagrams incorrectly show very short photons while the actual HeNe photon is in fact much longer, especially as an amplitude, which is sqrt of the intensity length.

The single photon width corresponds to the 1.5 mm HeNe beam width and so a single photon always goes through both slits as long as the beam diameter covers both slits. Therefore, this is not a mystery at all and the true mystery is why does anything ever behave like a classical particle at all. The simple answer is that it is the decay of the quantum photon resonance that makes a photon classical. That is, it is the decay of this source-detector quantum resonance at the detector that makes the quantum photon a classical particle.

Finally, he mentions that the single slit diffraction also means that the single photon interferes with itself and this is true. He suggests that the single slit acts like a resonant chamber and this is exactly correct. In fact, there is a short and quite measurable delay in the photon transit through a slit because a photon lives longer in the slit.

All in all, a very nice demo!